Skip to main content

Full text of "The Mammoth Encyclopedia Of Extraterrestrial Encounters"

See other formats



° l{ "p * 11 n • i •. 11' i~ l 

OOt * *- ° 





Featuring expert speculations, theories and contributions by top thinkers in the field of UFO/SETI research, including: 


The Mammoth Encyclopedia 


Extraterrestrial Encounters 

Recent Mammoth titles 

The Mammoth Book of Great British Humour 
The Mammoth Book of Women’s Erotic Fantasies 
The Mammoth Book of Drug Barons 
The Mammoth Book of Scottish Romance 
The Mammoth Book of Fun Brain-Training 
The Mammoth Book of Hard Bastards 
The Mammoth Book of Dracula 
The Mammoth Book of Best New Erotica 10 
The Mammoth Book of Best British Crime 8 
The Mammoth Book of Tattoo Art 
The Mammoth Book of Bob Dylan 
The Mammoth Book of Mixed Martial Arts 
The Mammoth Book of Codeword Puzzles 
The Mammoth Book of Hot Romance 
The Mammoth Book of New Sherlock Holmes Adventures 
The Mammoth Book of Historical Crime Fiction 
The Mammoth Book of Best New SF 24 
The Mammoth Book of Gorgeous Guys 
The Mammoth Book of Really Silly Jokes 
The Mammoth Book of Best New Horror 22 
The Mammoth Book of Undercover Cops 
The Mammoth Book of Weird News 
The Mammoth Book of the Best of Best New Erotica 
The Mammoth Book of Antarctic Journeys 
The Mammoth Book of Muhammad Ali 
The Mammoth Book of Best British Crime 9 
The Mammoth Book of Lost Symbols 
The Mammoth Book of Body Horror 
The Mammoth Book of New CSI 
The Mammoth Book of Steampunk 

The Mammoth Encyclopedia of 
Extraterrestrial Encounters 

Compiled and Edited by 
Ronald D. Story 


Constable & Robinson Ltd 
55-56 Russell Square 
London WC1B4HP 
www. constablerobinson. com 

First published online by Ronald D. Story as The Encyclopedia of Extraterrestrial Encounters on, 2001 

First published in the UK by Robinson, an imprint of Constable & Robinson Ltd, 2012 

Copyright © Ronald D. Story, 2001 

The right of Ronald D. Story to be identified as the author of this work has been asserted by him in 
accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 

All rights reserved. This book is sold subject to the condition that it shall not, by way of trade or otherwise, 
be lent, resold, hired out or otherwise circulated in any form of binding or cover other than that in which it 
is published and without a similar condition including this condition being imposed on the subsequent 


A copy of the British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data is available from the British Library 

ISBN: 978-1-78033-703-6 (ebook) 

Printed and bound in the UK 

13579 10 8642 

In Memoriam 

This book is dedicated to one of the great pioneers in the search for intelligent 
life elsewhere—my early mentor and advisor—who inspired millions of us 
earthlings to continue the search for truth wherever it might lead. His inspiration 
will live on. 


“We make our world significant by the courage of our questions and by the 
depth of our answers. ” 

Carl Sagan 



Gloria Alderson 
Arlan K. Andrews 
Walter Andrus 
Robert Baker 
Gray Barker 
Charles Bowen 
Arthur Bray 
Thomas Eddie Bullard 
David Chace 
William Chalker 
Jerome Clark 
Daniel Cohen 
Filip Coppens 
Scott Corrales 
Hal Crawford 
Wes Crum 
Peter Davenport 
Steven Dick 
Barry Downing 
Frank Drake 
W. Raymond Drake 
Ann Druffel 
Robert S. Ell wood 
Hilary Evans 
Robert Fairfax 
Lucius Farish 
George D. Fawcett 
Randall Fitzgerald 
Paris Flammonde 
Raymond E. Fowler 
Kendrick Frazier 

Stanton T. Friedman 
Daniel Fry 
Peter Geremia 
Timothy Good 
Stan Gordon 
J. Richard Greenwell 
Loren Gross 
Richard Haines 
Richard Hall 
Michael Hesemann 
Budd Hopkins 
Michael Horn 
Patrick Huyghe 
J. Allen Hynek 
Philip Imbrogno 
David M. Jacobs 
Brian James 
Debra Jordan Kauble 
John Keel 
Donald Keyhoe 
Philip J. Klass 
Martin S. Kottmeyer 
Alvin H. Lawson 
Roger Leir 
Greg Little 
Coral Lorenzen 
L. J. Lorenzen 
Betty Andreasson Luca 
Bruce Maccabee 
John Mack 
Scott Mandelker 
David Marler 
Tim Matthews 
James E. McDonald 
William Louis McDonald 
Howard Menger 
Monarca Lynn Merrifield 

Aime Michel 
Charles Moody 
James W. Moseley 
Joe Nickell 
James E. Oberg 
Thornton Page 
Karl Pflock 
Nick Pope 
Gary Posner 
Diane Prentice 
Billy J. Rachels 
Kevin D. Randle 
Jenny Randles 
Scott Rogo 
Carl Sagan 
John Schuessler 
Berthold Schwarz 
Robert Sheaffer 
Seth Shostak 
Zecharia Sitchin 
R. Leo Sprinkle 
Brad Steiger 
Sherry Hansen Steiger 
Dennis Stillings 
Ronald Story 
Frank Stranges 
Whitley Strieber 
Robert Swiatek 
Susan Swiatek 
John Timmerman 
Jacques Vallee 
Wim Van Utrecht 
Erich Von Daniken 
Donald Ware 
Walter Webb 
Dan Wright 
Jennie Zeidman 


The following acknowledgments and credits are considered an extension of the copyright page: 

Abducted: Confrontations with Beings from Outer Space and all other mini-book-review entries 
by Randall Fitzgerald were revised and adapted by the author from his book Cosmic Test Tube: 
Extraterrestrial Contact, Theories & Evidence. Copyright © 1998. Reprinted by permission of Randall 
Fitzgerald, the author, and Donald Altman, publisher, Moon Lake Media, Los Angeles, CA 

Abduction and all other glossary-style entries by Scott Mandelker were revised and adapted by the 
author from his book Universal Vision: Soul Evolution and the Cosmic Plan. Copyright © 2000. Reprinted 
by permission of Scott Mandelker, the author, and Universal Vision, publisher, San Francisco, CA 

Abduction Transcription Project. Copyright © 2001 by Dan R. Wright. Postscript Copyright © 
1999, 2001 by Philip J. Klass. Adapted and reprinted by permission from The Skeptics UFO Newsletter 

Adamski, George. Copyright © 1980, 2001 by Ronald D. Story. Revised and adapted from The 
Encyclopedia of UFOs (Doubleday/New English Library, 1980). 

Aetherius Society. Copyright © 1980, 2001 by Ronald D. Story. Revised and adapted from The 
Encyclopedia of UFOs (Doubleday/New English Library, 1980). 

Airship wave of 1896. Copyright © Loren E. Gross 1980, 2001. Revised and adapted from Story, 
Ronald D. ed., The Encyclopedia of UFOs (Doubleday/New English Library, 1980). 

Airship wave of 1897. Copyright © Lucius Farish 1980, 2001. Revised and adapted from Story, Ronald 
D. ed., The Encyclopedia of UFOs (Doubleday/New English Library, 1980). 

ALIEN AUTOPSY FILM. Copyright © Joe Nickell 1995, 2001. Reprinted from the Skeptical Inquirer 
(November 1995) by permission of the author. 

Alien Gallery (text and illustrations). Copyright © 2001 by David W. Chace. 

ALIEN ICONOGRAPHY. Copyright © Joe Nickell 1997, 2001. Reprinted from the Skeptical Inquirer 
(September/October 1997) by permission of the author. 

ALIEN MOTIVES. Copyright © 2001 by Stanton T. Friedman. 

ALIEN ROOTS. Copyright © 1979, 2001 by Alvin H. Lawson. Revised and adapted from “Alien Roots: 
Six Entity Types and Some Possible Earthly Ancestors” by Alvin H. Lawson. First published in the 1979 
MUFON UFO Symposium Proceedings, (Mutual UFO Network, 1979). Illustrations have either been 
redrawn or are in public domain. Reprinted by permission of the author and MUFON. 

ALIEN TYPES. Copyright © 2001 by Patrick Huyghe. 

Allagash ABDUCTION. Copyright © 2001 by Raymond E. Fowler. 

Allende Letters. Copyright © by Kevin D. Randle 1980, 2001. Revised and adapted from Story, 
Ronald D. ed., The Encyclopedia of UFOs (Doubleday/New English Library, 1980). 

America West Airlines sighting. Copyright © 2001 by Robert Swiatek. 

ANCIENT ASTRONAUT THEORY. Copyright © 1980, 2001 by Ronald D. Story. Revised and adapted from 
The Encyclopedia of UFOs (Doubleday/New English Library, 1980). 

ANCIENT UFOs. Copyright © 1980, 2001 by Ronald D. Story. Revised and adapted from The 
Encyclopedia of UFOs (Doubleday/New English Library, 1980). 

Andreasson ABDUCTIONS. Copyright © 2001 by Raymond E. Fowler and Betty Andreasson Luca. 

Angels and UFOs. Copyright © 1980, 2001 by Barry H. Downing. Revised and adapted from Story, 
Ronald D. ed., The Encyclopedia of UFOs (Doubleday/New English Library, 1980). 

ANGELUCCI, Orfeo. Copyright © Robert S. Ellwood 1980, 2001. Revised and adapted from Story, 
Ronald D., ed. The Encyclopedia of UFOs (Doubleday/New English Library, 1980). 

Animal mutilations and all other entries by Coral & Jim Lorenzen and those credited to APRO are 
reprinted by prior arrangement with the Lorenzens, APRO, and by permission of Lawrence E. Lorenzen, 
executor of the Lorenzen estate. Copyright to all entries reprinted from The Encyclopedia of UFOs 
(Doubleday/New English Library, 1980) are held in trust by Ronald D. Story. 

ANTHROPIC PRINCIPLE. Copyright © 2001 by Ronald D. Story. 

APOCALYPTIC THOUGHT. Copyright © 1991, 2001 by Martin S. Kottmeyer. Revised and adapted from 
UFO Brigantia (January 1991). Original title: “Dying Worlds, Dying Selves.” Reprinted by permission of 
the author. 

ARCHETYPES. Copyright © 2001 by Gregory L. Little. 

Area 51. Copyright © 2001 by Arlan K. Andrews. 

Arnold sighting. Copyright © 1980, 2001 by Ronald D. Story. Revised and adapted from The 
Encyclopedia of UFOs (Doubleday/New English Library, 1980). 

ASTRONAUTS, UFO SIGHTINGS BY. Copyright © 1978, 1980, 2001 by James E. Oberg. Revised and 
adapted from The Encyclopedia of UFOs (Doubleday/New English Library, 1980). published separately in 
The Skeptical Inquirer, fall 1978. 

ATOMIC BOMB AND UFOS. Copyright © 2001 by Daniel Cohen. 

aveley (England) abduction. Copyright © 1980, 2001 by Jenny Randles. Revised and adapted from 
Story, Ronald D., ed. The Encyclopedia of UFOs (Doubleday/New English Library, 1980). 

B-57 BOMBER PHOTO. Copyright © 1980, 2001 by Ronald D. Story. Revised and adapted from The 
Encyclopedia of UFOs (Doubleday/New English Library, 1980). 

Belgian UFO wave of 1989-90. Copyright © 2001 by Wim Van Utrecht. 

Bender mystery. Copyright © 1980, 2001 by Jerome Clark. Revised and adapted from Story, Ronald 
D., ed. The Encyclopedia of UFOs (Doubleday/New English Library, 1980). 

Bermuda Triangle -UFO link. Copyright © 1980, 2001 by Ronald D. Story. Revised and adapted 
from The Encyclopedia of UFOs (Doubleday/New English Library, 1980). 

Bethurum, Truman. Copyright © 1980, 2001 by David M. Jacobs. Revised and adapted from The 
Encyclopedia of UFOs (Doubleday/New English Library, 1980). 

Biblical miracles as supertechnology Copyright © 2001 by Barry H. Downing. 

Biblical UFOS. Copyright © 1980, 2001 by Barry H. Downing. Revised and adapted from Story, 
Ronald D. ed., The Encyclopedia of UFOs (Doubleday/New English Library, 1980). 

Birth memories hypothesis. Copyright © 2001 by Alvin H. Lawson. 

Boundary deficit hypothesis. Copyright © 1989, 1994, 2001 by Martin S. Kottmeyer. Revised and 
adapted from Magonia (March 1989) and from the Bulletin of Anomalous Experience (August 1994) . 
Original titles: “Abduction: The Boundary-Deficit Hypothesis” and “Testing the Boundaries” respectively. 
Reprinted by permission of the author. 

Buff Ledge (Vermont) abduction. Copyright © 2001 by Walter N. Webb. 

Cash-Landrum encounter. Copyright © 2001 by John Schuessler. 

Categories of UFO reports. Copyright © 1980, 2001 by J. Allen Hynek and Ronald D. Story. 
Revised and adapted from The Encyclopedia of UFOs (Doubleday/New English Library, 1980). 

Chupacabras. Copyright © 2001 by Scott Corrales. 

Close Encounters of the Third Kind. Copyright © 2001 by Martin S. Kottmeyer and Ronald D. 

Communion Foundation. Copyright © 2001 by Whitley Strieber. 

Contactees. Copyright © 1980, 2001 by Ronald D. Story. Revised and adapted from The Encyclopedia 
of UFOs (Doubleday/New English Library, 1980). 

Cosmic Consciousness. Copyright © 2001 by R. Leo Sprinkle. 

Cosmonaut UFO sightings. Copyright © 2001 by Michael Hesemann. 

Coyne helicopter encounter. Copyright © 1980, 2001 by Jennie Zeidman. Revised and adapted 
from The Encyclopedia of UFOs (Doubleday/New English Library, 1980). 

DAWSON ENCOUNTER. Copyright © 2001 by Billy J. Rachels. 

Day the Earth Stood Still, The. Copyright © 2001 by Martin S. Kottmeyer and Ronald D. Story. 

Delphos (Kansas) landing. Copyright © 1981, 2001 by Ronald D. Story. Revised and adapted from 
UFOs and the Limits of Science (William Morrow, 1981). 

Demonic theory of UFOS. Copyright © 1980, 2001 by Barry H. Downing. Revised and adapted from 
Story, Ronald D. ed., The Encyclopedia of UFOs (Doubleday/New English Library, 1980). 

Drake Equation. Copyright © 1998, 2001 by the SETI Institute. 

Earth Chronicles. Copyright © 2001 by Zecharia Sitchin. 

Elk abduction. Copyright © 2001 by Peter B. Davenport. 

Elohim. Copyright © 2001 by Ronald D. Story. 

Exeter (New Hampshire) sightings. Copyright © 2001 by Peter B. Davenport and Peter Geremia. 

Extraterrestrial hypothesis. Copyright © 1980, 2001 by J. Richard Greenwell. Revised and adapted 
from Story, Ronald D. ed., The Encyclopedia of UFOs (Doubleday/New English Library, 1980). 

Extraterrestrial life, history of. Copyright © 2001 by Steven Dick. 

Ezekiel'S wheel. Copyright © 1980, 2001 by Walter N. Webb. Revised and adapted from Story, Ronald 
D. ed., The Encyclopedia of UFOs (Doubleday/New English Library, 1980). 

Face on Mars. Copyright © 2001 by Gary Posner. 

Fairy lore and UFO encounters. . Copyright © 2001 by Thomas Eddie Bullard. 

Fatima (Portugal), miracle at. Copyright © 1980, 2001 by Ann Druffel. Revised and adapted from 
The Encyclopedia of UFOs (Doubleday/New English Library, 1980). 

Fawcett’S “Repetitions.” Copyright © 1991, 2001 by George D. Fawcett. Originally published by the 
International UFO Library magazine (1991). Reprinted by permission of the author. 

Flatwoods (W. Va.) “monster.” Copyright © Joe Nickell 2000, 2001. Reprinted from the Skeptical 
Inquirer (November/December 2000) by permission of the author. 

“Flying Saucer.” Copyright © 1980, 2001 by Loren E. Gross. Revised and adapted from Story, Ronald 
D. ed., The Encyclopedia of UFOs (Doubleday/New English Library, 1980). 

Fort, Charles. Copyright © 1980, 2001 by Loren E. Gross. Revised and adapted from Story, Ronald 
D. ed., The Encyclopedia of UFOs (Doubleday/New English Library, 1980). 

Fry, Daniel W. Copyright © 1980, 2001 by Ronald D. Story. Revised and adapted from Story, Ronald 
D. ed., The Encyclopedia of UFOs (Doubleday/New English Library, 1980). 

Galicia UFO wave of 1995. Copyright © 2001 by Scott Corrales. 

Garden Grove (California) Hoax. Copyright © 2001 by Alvin H. Lawson. 

Geomagnetic explanations of UFOS. Copyright © 2001 by Gregory L. Little. 

Geomagnetic intelligent energy theory of UFOs. Copyright © 2001 by Gregory L. Little. 

Ghost ROCKETS of 1946. Copyright © 1980, 2001 by Loren E. Gross. Revised and adapted from Story, 
Ronald D. ed., The Encyclopedia of UFOs (Doubleday/New English Library, 1980). 

Gill SIGHTING. Copyright © 1980, 2001 by Richard Hall. Revised and adapted from Story, Ronald D. 
ed., The Encyclopedia of UFOs (Doubleday/New English Library, 1980). 

Grays. Copyright © 1994, 1998, 2001 by Martin S. Kottmeyer. Revised and adapted from The MUFON 
UFO Journal (November 1994) and Magonia (February 1998). Original titles: “Why Are the Grays Gray?” 
and “Varicose Brains: Entering a Gray Area” respectively. Reprinted by permission of the author. 

Great Falls (Montana) movie. Copyright © 2001 by Kevin D. Randle and Ronald D. Story. 

Gull Breeze (Florida) incidents. Copyright © 2001 by Bruce Maccabee. 

Hill Abduction. Copyright © 2001 by Walter N. Webb. 

Hudson Valley (New York) UFO sightings. Copyright © 2001 by Philip J. Imbrogno. 

Hypnosis, use of, in UFO Investigations. Copyright © 2001 by R. Leo Sprinkle. Postscript 
Copyright © 2001 by Robert A. Baker. 

Iatrogenesis. Copyright © 2001 by Robert A. Baker. 

Imaginary Abductee Study. Copyright © 2001 by Alvin H. Lawson. 

Implants, alien. Copyright © 2001 by Roger K. Leir. 

Insectoids. Copyright © 1997, 2001 by Martin S. Kottmeyer. Revised and adapted from UFO 
Magazine (July/August 1997). Original title: “Bugs Baroque.” 

Interstellar travel. Copyright © 2001 by Stanton T. Friedman. 

Invaders from Mars. Copyright © 2001 by Martin S. Kottmeyer and Ronald D. Story. 

Invasion of the Body Snatchers. Copyright © 2001 by Martin S. Kottmeyer and Ronald D. Story. 

JESSUP, Morris K. Copyright © 1980, 2001 by James E. Oberg. Revised and adapted from Story, 
Ronald D., ed. The Encyclopedia of UFOs (Doubleday/New English Library, 1980). 

JESUS as an ET. Copyright © 2001 by Ronald D. Story. 

Jordan-Kauble, Debra. Copyright © 2001 by Debra Jordan Kauble. 

Jung. Carl Gustav. Copyright © 1980, 2001 by Ronald D. Story. Revised and adapted from The 
Encyclopedia of UFOs (Doubleday/New English Library, 1980). 

Kecksberg (Pennsylvania) Incident. Copyright © 2001 by Stan Gordon. 

Kelly Cahill abduction. Copyright © 2001 by William C. Chalker. 

Kelly-Hopkinsville (Kentucky) goblins. Copyright © 1976 by Coral & Jim Lorenzen. Adapted 
from Encounters with UFO Occupants (Berkley, 1976). Reprinted by permission of Lawrence E. Lorenzen 
and prior arrangement with APRO. 

Kentucky abduction. Copyright © 1976, 1980, 2001 by Coral & Jim Lorenzen and R. Leo Sprinkle. 
Revised and adapted from Story, Ronald D., ed. The Encyclopedia of UFOs (Doubleday/New English 
Library, 1980). 

Kinross (Michigan) jet chase. Copyright © 1980, 2001 by Richard Hall. Revised and adapted from 
Story, Ronald D. ed., The Encyclopedia of UFOs (Doubleday/New English Library, 1980). 

Klass, Philip J. Biography Copyright © 2001 by Gary Posner and Philip J. Klass. 

KlasS’S UFOlogical Principles. Copyright © 1974, 2001 by Philip J. Klass 

Lakenheath-Bentwaters Radar-visual UFOs. Copyright © 1981, 2001 Ronald D. Story. Revised 
and adapted from UFOs and the Limits of Science (William Morrow, 1981). 

Levelland (Texas) landings. Copyright © 1981, 2001 Ronald D. Story. Revised and adapted from 
UFOs and the Limits of Science (William Morrow, 1981). 

Lubbock (Texas) lights. Copyright © 1980, 2001 by Kevin D. Randle. Revised and adapted from 
Story, Ronald D., ed. The Encyclopedia of UFOs (Doubleday/New English Library, 1980). 

MACK’S abductees. Copyright © 1995, 2001 by Joe Nickell. Reprinted from the Skeptical Inquirer 
(November 1995) by permission of the author. 

Majestic 12 (MJ-12) documents. Copyright © 2001 by Joe Nickell. 

Man-made UFOs. Copyright © 2001 by Tim Matthews. 

Mars and Martians. Copyright © 2001 by Thomas Eddie Bullard. 

Mars Rock. Copyright © 2001 by Ronald D. Story. 

McDonald, James E. Copyright © 1980, 2001 by J. Richard Greenwell. Revised and adapted from 
Story, Ronald D., ed. The Encyclopedia of UFOs (Doubleday/New English Library, 1980). 

McMinnville (Oregon) UFO photos. Copyright © 1980, 2001 by Bruce Maccabee. Revised and 
adapted from Story, Ronald D., ed. The Encyclopedia of UFOs (Doubleday/New English Library, 1980). 

Meier contacts. Copyright © 2001 by Michael Horn. 

Menger, Howard. Copyright © 1980, 2001 by Ronald D. Story. Revised and adapted from Story, 

Ronald D., ed. The Encyclopedia of UFOs (Doubleday/New English Library, 1980). 

MetAn (Argentina) UFO Crash-retrieval. Copyright © 2001 by Scott Corrales. 

Metaphysical aspects of UFOs and ETs. Copyright © 2001 by Scott Mandelker. 

Mexican wave of 1990S. Copyright © 2001 by Scott Corrales. 

Michilak ENCOUNTER. Copyright © 1981, 2001 by Ronald D. Story. Revised and adapted from UFOs 
and the Limits of Science (William Morrow, 1981). 

Mind control by aliens. Copyright © 1994, 2001 by Martin S. Kottmeyer. Revised and adapted from 
Magonia (June 1994 and September 1994). Original titles: “Alienating Fancies” Parts One and Two. 
Reprinted by permission of the author. 

Missing time? Copyright © 2001 by Robert A. Baker and Ronald D. Story. 

Mothman. Copyright © 1980, 2001 by Gray Barker. Revised and adapted from Story, Ronald D., ed. 
The Encyclopedia of UFOs (Doubleday/New English Library, 1980). 

Nazca “spaceport.” Copyright © 2001 by James W. Moseley, Joe Nickell, and Ronald Story. 

Occult connection with UFOs. Copyright © 2001 by Paris Flammonde. 

Operation Mainbrace sightings. Copyright © 1980, 2001 by Richard Hall. Revised and adapted 
from Story, Ronald D., ed. The Encyclopedia of UFOs (Doubleday/New English Library, 1980). 

Palenque “astronaut.” Copyright © 1976, 2001 by Ronald D. Story. Revised and adapted from The 
Space-Gods Revealed (Harper & Row, 1976). 

Palmer, Raymond A. Copyright © 1980, 2001 by Daniel Cohen. Revised and adapted from Story, 
Ronald D., ed. The Encyclopedia of UFOs (Doubleday/New English Library, 1980). 

Parallel Time Line. Copyright © 2001 by Martin S. Kottmeyer and Ronald D. Story. 

Paranoia and UFOs. Copyright © 1989, 1992, 2001 by Martin S. Kottmeyer. Revised and adapted 
from “UFOlogy Considered as an Evolving System of Paranoia” in Stillings, Dennis, ed. Cvberbiological 
Studies of the Imaginal Component in the UFO Contact Experience (Archaeus Project, 1989) and UFO 
Magazine (May/June 1992). Reprinted by permission of the author and Dennis Stillings of the Archaeus 

Pascagoula (Mississippi) abduction. Copyright © 1980, 2001 by Kevin D. Randle. Revised and 
adapted from Story, Ronald D., ed. The Encyclopedia of UFOs (Doubleday/New English Library, 1980). 

Phoenix (Arizona) lights. Copyright © 2001 by Peter B. Davenport. 

Photographs of UFOs. Copyright © 2001 by Ronald D. Story. 

Portage County police (Ohio) police chase. Copyright © 1980, 2001 by Richard Hall. Revised and 
adapted from Story, Ronald D., ed. The Encyclopedia of UFOs (Doubleday/New English Library, 1980). 

Powerlessness. Copyright © 2001 by Martin S. Kottmeyer. 

Principle of Mediocrity. Copyright © 2001 by Ronald D. Story. 

Prison-Earth theory. Copyright © 2001 by Martin S. Kottmeyer. 

Problem of Noncontact. Copyright © 2001 by Martin S. Kottmeyer. 

Projection/Warning theory of UFOs and ETs. Copyright © 2001 by Ronald D. Story. 

Psychiatric aspects of UFOs. Copyright © 1980, 2001 by Berthold E. Schwarz. Revised and adapted 
from Story, Ronald D., ed. The Encyclopedia of UFOs (Doubleday/New English Library, 1980). 

Psychosocial aspects of UFOs. Copyright © 2001 by Hilary Evans. 

Reconnaissance theory of UFOs. Copyright © 1991, 2001 by Martin S. Kottmeyer. Revised and 
adapted from Magonia. Original titles: “A Universe of Spies” (April 1991), “Eye in the Sky” (August 
1991), and “Eye-yi-yi” (November 1991). Reprinted by permission of the author. 

Religion and UFOs. Copyright © 1980, 2001 by Barry H. Downing. Revised and adapted from Story, 
Ronald D., ed. The Encyclopedia of UFOs (Doubleday/New English Library, 1980). 

Religious movements and UFOs. Copyright © 1980, 2001 by Robert S. Ellwood, Jr. Revised and 
adapted from Story, Ronald D., ed. The Encyclopedia of UFOs (Doubleday/New English Library, 1980). 

Rendlesham Forest incident. Copyright © 2001 by Michael Hesemann. 

Reptoids. Copyright © 2001 by Martin S. Kottmeyer. 

Resistance to abductions. Copyright © 2001 by Ann Druffel. 

Roach ABDUCTION. Copyright © 1980, 2001 by Kevin D. Randle. Revised and adapted from Story, 
Ronald D., ed. The Encyclopedia of UFOs (Doubleday/New English Library, 1980). 

ROGO HYPOTHESIS. Copyright © 1983, 2001 by D. Scott Rogo. 

Rosed ale (Victoria, Australia) Close encounter. Copyright © 2001 by William C. Chalker. 

Roswell (New Mexico) incident. Copyright © 2001 by Kevin D. Randle. Postscript “Project 
Mogul and MORE” Copyright © 1998, 2001 by Randall Fitzgerald. Revised and adapted by the author 
from his book Cosmic Test Tube: Extraterrestrial Contact, Theories & Evidence. Copyright © 1998. 
Reprinted by permission of Randall Fitzgerald, the author, and Donald Altman, publisher, Moon Lake 
Media, Los Angeles, CA ( 

Ruwa (Africa) landing. Copyright © 2001 by Michael Hesemann. 

St. Clair (Illinois) police sightings. Copyright © 2001 by Peter B. Davenport and David Marler. 

Science fiction and UFOs. Copyright © 2001 by Thomas Eddie Bullard. 

Schirmer ABDUCTION. Copyright © 2001 by Ronald D. Story. 

Scully hoax. Copyright © 1980, 2001 by Ronald D. Story. Revised and adapted from The 
Encyclopedia of UFOs (Doubleday/New English Library, 1980). 

Shapes OF UFOs. Copyright © 1980, 2001 by Richard F. Haines. Revised and adapted from Story, 
Ronald D., ed. The Encyclopedia of UFOs (Doubleday/New English Library, 1980). 

Shaver mystery. Copyright © 1983, 2001 by John A. Keel. Originally published as “The Man Who 
Invented Flying Saucers” in the Fortean Times (1983). Reprinted by permission of the author. 

Sirius Mystery, The. Copyright © 2001 by Filip Coppens. 

Sleep paralysis. Copyright © 2001 by Kevin D. Randle. 

Socorro (New Mexico) landing. Copyright © 1981, 2001 by Ronald D. Story. Revised and adapted 
from UFOs and the Limits of Science (William Morrow, 1981). 

Star People, The. Copyright © 2001 by Brad Steiger. 

STORY’S UFO “OBSERVATIONS.” Copyright © 2001 by Ronald D. Story. 

Tehran (Iran) jet chase. Copyright © 1981, 2001 by Ronald D. Story. Revised and adapted from 
UFOs and the Limits of Science (William Morrow, 1981). 

Threat, UFO-ET. Copyright © 1992, 1993, 2001 by Martin S. Kottmeyer. Revised and adapted from 
Magonia. Original titles: “What’s Up, Doc?” (October 1992), “Swinging Thru the Sixties” (March 1993), 
and “Sham and Shepherds: The Seventies and So Forth” (June 1993). Reprinted by permission of the 

Transformation required to join the Galactic Society. Copyright © 2001 by Donald M. Ware. 

Tremonton (Utah) movie. Copyright © 1980, 2001 by Kevin D. Randle. Revised and adapted from 
Story, Ronald D., ed. The Encyclopedia of UFOs (Doubleday/New English Library, 1980). 

Tujunga Canyon (California) contacts. Copyright © 2001 by Ann Druffel. 

2001: A Space Odyssey. Copyright © 1976, 2001 by Ronald D. Story. Revised and adapted from The 
Space-Gods Revealed (Harper & Row, 1976). 

UFO DEFINED. Copyright © 2001 by Ronald D. Story. 

UFO Incident, The. Copyright © 2001 by Ronald D. Story. 

UFOLOGY. Copyright © 2001 by Ronald D. Story. 

UMMO AFFAIR. Copyright © 2001 by Scott Corrales. 

Valensole (France) landing. Copyright © 1980, 2001 by Charles Bowen and Aime Michel. Revised 
and adapted from Story, Ronald D., ed. The Encyclopedia of UFOs (Doubleday/New English Library, 

Valentich disappearance. Copyright © 1980, 2001 by William C. Chalker. Revised and adapted from 
Story, Ronald D., ed. The Encyclopedia of UFOs (Doubleday/New English Library, 1980). 

Van Tassel, George. Copyright © 1980, 2001 by Robert S. Ellwood, Jr. Revised and adapted from 
Story, Ronald D., ed. The Encyclopedia of UFOs (Doubleday/New English Library, 1980). 

Varginha (Brazil) encounters of 1996. Copyright © 2001 by Scott Corrales. 

Villas Boas abduction. Copyright © 2001 by Scott Corrales. 

War of the Worlds. Copyright © 2001 by Martin S. Kottmeyer and Ronald D. Story. 

Washington National jet chase. Copyright © 1981, 2001 by Ronald D. Story. Revised and adapted 
from UFOs and the Limits of Science (William Morrow, 1981). 

Waves and flaps, UFO. Copyright © 1995, 1996, 2001 by Martin S. Kottmeyer. Revised and adapted 
from The Anomalist. Original title: “UFO Flaps: An Analysis” (Winter 1995/96). Reprinted by permission 
of the author and Patrick Huyghe of The Anomalist. 

Wellington-Kaikoura (New Zealand) radar-visual UFO sightings. Copyright © 1981, 2001 by 
Ronald D. Story. Revised and adapted from UFOs and the Limits of Science (William Morrow, 1981). 

X-Files, The. Copyright © 2001 by Ronald D. Story. 

Yorba Linda (California) UFO photo. Copyright © 1980, 2001 by An n Druffel. Revised and 
adapted from Story, Ronald D., ed. The Encyclopedia of UFOs (Doubleday/New English Library, 1980). 

Zwischenbergen (Switzerland) PHOTO CASE. Copyright © 2001 by Wim Van Utrecht. 

Unless otherwise noted, all material in this book is copyrighted (© 2001) by the 
author whose name appears at the end of the individual entry. Compilation 
copyright is held by Ronald D. Story. 


Editor’s Preface 

List of Entries 

Abducted: Confrontations with Beings from Outer Space 

Abduction: Human Encounters with Aliens 

Abduction Transcription Project 


Above Top Secret 

Adamski, George 

Aerial Phenomena Research Organization (APRO) 

Aetherius Society 


Airship wave of 1896 
Airship wave of 1897 
Alien autopsy film 
Alien gallery 
Alien iconography 
Alien Identities 
Alien Impact 
Alien motives 

Alien roots 
Alien types 
Allagash abduction 
Allende letters 

America West Airlines sighting 
Anatomy of a Phenomenon 
Ancient Astronaut and SET1 Society 
Ancient astronaut theory 
Ancient UFOs 
Andreasson abductions 
Andreasson Affair 
Andrews, Arlan K. 

Andrus, Walter H. 

Angelic kingdom 
Angels and Aliens 
Angels and UFOs 
Angels: Gods Secret Agents 
Angelucci, Orfeo 
Animal mutilations 
Anomalist, The 
Anthropic Principle 

Apocalyptic thought connected with UFOs and ETs 


Are We Alone? 

Area 51 

Arnold sighting 
Ashtar Command 

Astronauts, UFO sightings by 
Atomic bomb and UFOs 
Aveley (England) abduction 
Avensa Airline hoax 


B-57 bomber photo 
Baker, Robert 
Balwyn (Australia) photo 

Behind the Flying Saucers 

Belgian UFO wave of 1989-90 

Bender mystery 

Bermuda Triangle-UFO link 

Bethurum, Truman 

Bible and Flying Saucers, The 

Biblical miracles as supertechnology 

Biblical UFOs 

Birth memories hypothesis 

Book of the Damned 

Boundary deficit hypothesis 


British UFO Research Association (BUFORA) 
Buff Ledge (Vermont) abduction 
Bullard, Thomas Eddie 


Case for the UFO, The 
Cash-Landrum encounter 
Categories of UFO reports 
Chalker, William C. 

Chariots of the Gods? 

Clark, Jerome 
Clear Intent 

Close Encounters of the Third Kind 

Colony: Earth 

Coming of the Saucers, The 

Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal 

Communication with Extraterrestrial Intelligence 

Communion Foundation 

Confederation of Planets in Service to the Infinite Creator 


Corrales, Scott 

Cosmic Consciousness 
Cosmonaut UFO sightings 
Cowichan (Canada) encounter 
Coyne helicopter encounter 
Crash at Corona 
Crop circles 


Davenport, Peter B. 

Dawson encounter 
Day After Roswell, The 
Day the Earth Stood Still, The 
Delphos (Kansas) landing 
Demon-Haunted World, The 
Demonic theory of UFOs 
Dick, Steven J. 

Did Spacemen Colonise the Earth? 

Downing, Barry 

Drake equation 

Drake, Frank 

Drake, W. Raymond 

Druffel, Ann 


Earth Chronicles 
Edge of Reality, The 
Eighth Tower, The 
Elk abduction 
Ellwood, Robert S. 


Elohim of Peace 
Encyclopedia of UFOs, The 
Ether Ship and Its Solution, The 
Evans, Hilary 

Exeter (New Hampshire) sightings 

Extra-sensory perception (ESP) 

Extraterrestrial (ET) 

Extraterrestrial Civilizations 
Extraterrestrial Encounter 
Extraterrestrial hypothesis 
Extraterrestrial life, history of 

Extraterrestrial Visitations from Prehistoric Times to the Present 
Extraterrestrials... Where are They? 

Eyes of the Sphinx, The 
Ezekiel’s wheel 


Face on Mars 

Fads and Fallacies in the Name of Science 

Fairy lore and UFO encounters 

FATE magazine 

Fatima (Portugal), miracle at 

Fawcett, George D. 

Fawcett’s “Repetitions” 

Fire Came By, The 
Fitzgerald, Randall 
Flatwoods (W. Va.) “monster” 

“Flying Saucer” 

Flying Saucer Occupants 
Flying Saucers 

Flying Saucers: A Modern Myth of Things Seen in the Skies 

Flying Saucers and the Straight-Line Mystery 

Flying Saucers are Real, The 

Flying Saucers from Outer Space 

Flying Saucers Have Landed 

Flying Saucers-Serious Business 

Flying Saucers Uncensored 

Foo fighters 

Fort, Charles 

Fowler, Raymond E. 

Friedman, Stanton T. 

Fry, Daniel W. 

Fund for UFO Research 


Galactic Club, The 

Galicia UFO wave of 1995 

Garden Grove (California) Hoax 

Geomagnetic explanations of UFOs 

Geomagnetic intelligent energy theory of UFOs 

Ghost rockets of 1946 

Gill sighting 

God Drives a Flying Saucer 
Gods of Eden, The 
Gods or Spacemen? 


Great Falls (Montana) movie 
Guardians of the Universe? 

Gulf Breeze (Florida) incidents 


Haines, Richard F. 

Hall, Richard H. 

Harmonic 33 

Hesemann, Michael 
Higdon experience 
Higher self 
Hill abduction 
Hollow Earth, The 
Home of the Gods, The 
Hopkins, Budd 

Hudson Valley (New York) UFO sightings 

Humanoids, The 

Hynek, J. Allen 

Hynek UFO Report, The 

Hypnosis, use of, in UFO Investigations 



Imaginary Abductee Study 
Implants, alien 
Incident at Exeter 

Intelligent Life in the Universe 
Interstellar travel 
Interrupted Journey, The 

Into the Fringe: A True Story of Alien Abduction 

Invaders from Mars 
Invasion of the Body Snatchers 
Invisible College, The 
Invisible Residents 
Is Another World Watching? 

Is Anyone Out There? 


J. Allen Hynek Center for UFO Studies (CUFOS) 
Jacobs, David M. 

JAL Flight #1628 
Jessup, Morris K. 

Jesus as an ET 

Jesus Christ: Heir to the Astronauts 
Jordan-Kauble, Debra 
Jung, Carl Gustav 


Kecksberg (Pennsylvania) Incident 
Keel, John A. 

Kelly Cahill abduction 
Kelly-Hopkinsville (Kentucky) goblins 
Kentucky abduction 
Keyhoe, Donald E. 

Kinross (Michigan) jet chase 
Klass, Philip J. 

Klass’s UFOlogical Principles 

Kottmeyer, Martin S. 


Lakenheath-Bentwaters Radar-visual UFOs 
Lawson, Alvin H. 

Levelland (Texas) landings 
Light Years 
Lorenzen, Coral E. 

Lorenzen, L. J. 

Lost Tribes from Outer Space, The 
Lubbock (Texas) lights 
Lucid dreams 


Maccabee, Bruce 
Mack, John E. 

Mack’s abductees 

Majestic 12 (MJ-12) documents 

Mandelker, Scott 

Manna Machine, The 

Man-made UFOs 

Mars and Martians 

Mars Rock 

Matthews, Tim 

McDonald, James E. 

McMinnville (Oregon) photos 
Meier contacts 
Menger, Howard 
Menzel, Donald H. 

Messages from the Stars 
Messengers of Deception 
Metan (Argentina) UFO Crash-retrieval 
Metaphysical aspects of UFOs and ETs 
Mexican wave of 1990s 
Michel, Aime 

Michilak encounter 
Mind control by aliens 
Missing Time 
Missing time? 

Monuments of Mars, The 

Moody abduction 

Morel encounter 

Morning of the Magicians, The 

Moseley, James W. 


Mutual UFO Network (MUFON) 
Mysteries of Time and Space 


NASA Fact Sheet on UFOs 

National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena (NICAP) 
Nazca “spaceport” 

Near-death experience (NDE) 

Nickell, Joe 
No Earthly Explanation 


Oberg, James E. 

Occult connection with UFOs 
Omega Project, The 

One Hundred Thousand Years of Unknown History 
Operation Mainbrace sightings 
Out-of-body experience (OBE) 


Palenque “astronaut” 

Palmer, Raymond A. 

Paradox: The Case for the Extraterrestrial Origin of Man 
Parallel Time Line 
Paranoia and UFOs 
Parra incident 

Pascagoula (Mississippi) abduction 
Passport to Magonia 

Pflock, Karl T. 

Phoenix (Arizona) lights 
Photographs of UFOs (gallery) 

Piata Beach (Brazil) photos 
Pope, Nick 

Portage County police (Ohio) police chase 


Principle of Mediocrity 

Prison Earth theory 

Problem of Noncontact 

Program for Extraordinary Experience Research, The (PEER) 
Project Blue Book 
Project Magnet 

Projection/warning theory of UFOs and ETs 
Psychiatric aspects of UFOs 
Psychosocial aspects of UFOs 


Quaroble (France) landing 


Randle, Kevin 
Randles, Jenny 

Reconnaissance theory of UFOs 

Religion and UFOs 

Religious movements and UFOs 

Rendlesham Forest incident 

Report on Communion 

Report on Unidentified Flying Objects, The 


Resistance to abductions 
Roach abduction 
Robertson Panel 
Rogo hypothesis 

Rosedale (Victoria, Australia) Close encounter 

Roswell Incident, The 

Roswell (New Mexico) incident 
Roswell UFO Crash, The 
Ruwa (Africa) landing 


Sagan, Carl 

St. Clair (Illinois) police sightings 
San Carlos Venezuela) incident 
Schwarz, Berthold E. 

Science fiction and UFOs 

Scientific Study of Unidentified Flying Objects, The 

The Scientist: A Novel Autobiography 

Schirmer abduction 

Schuessler, John 

Scully hoax 

Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) 

SETI Institute 
Secret Life 
Shapes of UFOs 
Shaver mystery 
Sheaffer, Robert M. 

Shostak, Seth 
Sirius Mystery, The 
Sitchin, Zecharia 
Situation Red: The UFO Siege 
Sky People, The 
Sleep paralysis 

Socorro (New Mexico) landing 
Sorell (Australia) saucers 
Soul exchange 
Soul transfer 
Space Brothers 
Space-Gods Revealed, The 
Spaceships of Ezekiel, The 
Spaceships of the Pleiades 
Space-Time Transients 
Sprinkle, R. Leo 

Star People 
Star People, The 
Steiger, Brad 
Steiger, Sherry Hansen 
Stillings, Dennis 
Story, Ronald D. 

Story’s UFO “observations” 
Stranger at the Pentagon 
Stranges, Frank E. 

Strauch photo 
Strieber, Whitley 
Swiatek, Robert P. 


Takeda (Japan) photo 
Tehran (Iran) jet chase 
Temple of the Stars 
Theories, UFO 

They Knew Too Much About Flying Saucers 
They Live in the Sky 

Those Gods Who Made Heaven and Earth 

Threat, The 

Threat, UFO-ET 

Timmerman, John 

Top Secret/Majic 

Transformation required to join the Galactic Society 

Tremonton (Utah) movie 

Truth About Flying Saucers, The 

Truth About the UFO Crash at Roswell, The 

Tujunga Canyon (California) Abductions 

Tujunga Canyon Contacts, The 

12 th Planet, The 

2001: A Space Odyssey 


UFO Abductions: A Dangerous Game 
UFO and the Bible 

UFO defined 
UFO Enigma, The 
UFO Exist! 

UFO Incident, The 

UFO Missionaries Extraordinary 

UFO Retrievals 

UFO Verdict, The 



UFOnauts, The 

UFOs: Explained 


UFO’s: Nazi Secret Weapon? 

UFOs: Operation Trojan Horse 

UFOs Over the Americas 

UFOs: What on Earth is Happening? 

Ultimate Encounter 

UMMO affair 

Unidentified, The 

Uninvited Visitors 

University of Colorado UFO Project 


Valensole (France) landing 

Vallee, Jacques 

Valentich disappearance 

Van Tassel, George 

Varginha (Brazil) encounters of 1996 

Villas Boas abduction 

Von Daniken, Erich 


Walton abduction 


War of the Worlds 


Ware, Donald M. 

Washington National jet chase 
Waves and flaps, UFO 
Watch the Skies! 

Watchers, The 
We Are Not Alone 
We Are Not the First 
We Met the Space People 
Web sites, UFO/ET-related 
Webb, Walter 

Wellington-Kaikoura (New Zealand) radar/visual UFO sightings 

When Time Began 

Whispers from Space 

Window areas 


X-Files, The 



Yorba Linda (California) UFO photo 
Yungay (Peru) photos 


Zeidman, Jennie 

Zwischenbergen (Switzerland) photo case 

Editor’s Preface 

If our wisdom fails to match our science, we will have no second chance. 

Voices from the Sky, (1965) 

During the compilation of this encyclopedia, I experienced something of a 
revelation. If recent world events have proved anything, it is that we need a 
wake-up call - which is how I read the “voices from the sky” that constitute the 
modern UFO myth. 

The first point I would like to clarify is the use of the term “myth”. In my 
view, myth is a thought pattern or paradigm, very much like a scientific theory. 
Even scientific theories should not be taken too literally, and myths and not 
literal at all. That is not to say, however, that myths are false. Quite the 
contrary: myths contain truths that require symbolic interpretation; and if myths 
are viewed as analogies, the truths do ring out. 

My 25-year study has revealed a constant parallel between UFOlogy and the 
human condition, somewhat like science fiction, except that the UFO myth 
develops naturally as a component of human perception. It is not a matter of 
“special creation” (as in the case of science fiction), but rather it evolves over 
time, just as we evolve as a joint-product of genetics and our environment. 

Curiously, the space-aliens’ concerns have likewise tracked human social 
evolution. Not only do the aliens usually appear humanoid; their primary 
concerns (even to the point of fetishes) always match the primary concerns of 
humanity at various social milieus. In the 1940s and 50s, warnings of atomic 
radiation and nuclear holocaust were in vogue, later to be replaced by concern 
for the Earth’s environment. Then the aliens got involved in genetic 
engineering - at precisely the same moment is history when we earthlings 
began to crack the genetic code. 

Our visitors now seem to have drawn battle lines between two camps: (1) 
the “evil ones” who seem to be laying plans for our enslavement and/or 

destruction, and (2) the “wise ones” - a kinder, gentler race of celestial gods or 
saviour types - who are concerned for our welfare. These “technological 
angels”, as the eminent psychologist Carl Jung called them, are here apparently 
to save our souls and lead us into a higher realm of cosmic consciousness. In 
between lies a “gray area”, as UFO theorist Martin Kottmeyer calls it, 
populated by a race of emotionless clones who have come to be known 
collectively as the “Grays”. Theories vary as to what exactly they’re up to - the 
very fact of which seems to mirror the uncertainty we humans feel about our 
own future. 

Lest the reader misunderstand, please hear me out. Though I have serious 
doubts about the aliens as literal space visitors (while not denying the 
possibility), their psychological reality as barometers and analogues to the 
human condition is, I believe, a matter of extreme importance. That is why I 
feel it is vital that we hear what they have to tell us. 

Especially on issues such as the nuclear threat, ecology, genetic engineering, 
lack of spirituality and continuing dehumanization, the aliens have wisely 
spoken. Our global lack of wisdom and lack of foresight may be something 
only a superior extraterrestrial (or ultraterrestrial) intelligence is qualified to 
speak about. Could that be why our modern mythology takes that form? 

In a nutshell, the aliens whom I call the “wise ones” seem to be telling us (at 
least those of us in the industrialized world) that we have succumbed to a 
soulless materialism that will ultimately do us all in. This may explain why the 
aliens do not pass on to us any of their technological secrets. Why should they, 
if we cannot manage properly the technology we already have? On this point, I 
am haunted by Albert Schweitzer’s statement that “Man has lost the capacity to 
foresee and to forestall. He will end by destroying the earth” (Quoted by Rachel 
Carson in Silent Spring, 1962). 

I have tried to explain my own views in two entries: ‘Projection/Warning 
Theory of UFOs and ETs’ and ‘Story’s UFO “Observations”.’ Like never 
before, we seem to have come to a crossroads in our evolution that will 
determine whether we enter heaven or hell for real. We must learn to read the 
sense within the nonsense and begin to implement the wisdom of the ages 
(whether it comes from angels or aliens): the wisdom we all know, but do not 
practice. According to my interpretation, the bottom line is that we are always 
engaged in a war of good and evil forces - at all times and in all places. 

While it is easy to poke fun at the “contactees” and “abductees”, I believe it 
is wiser to examine the meaning behind it all. I think that most things happen 

for a reason, and that includes the UFO phenomenon and the experiences that 
are part of it. Of course it is easy to debunk so many of the stories as complete 
nonsense. But 1 think it behooves us to interpret the phenomenon - as one 
would interpret a dream - and seek to understand its underlying message. 

—Ronald D. Story 

( 2002 ) 


Abducted: Confrontations with Beings from Outer Space (Berkley, 
1977). Coral and Jim Lorenzen examine eight alien abduction cases and find a 
pattern of aliens seeking cultural knowledge about humans. They seem 
particularly interested in learning more about human emotions. The Lorenzen’s 
warn that every human on the planet is a potential kidnap victim. 

—Randall Fitzgerald 

abduction The phenomenon of forcible, involuntary capture of a human being 
by an apparently self-serving alien, generally of the “Gray” morphology, but 
also including “Nordic” and reptilian types. Those who have experienced this 
may be termed “abductees” or “experiences,” and often report strong feelings 
of violation, trauma, and terror. Abduction scenarios commonly include 
missing time, transfer to a new locale, physical examination and implantation, 
and human-alien hybridization. It is a global phenomenon, but appears more 
commonly in American ET contact cases. 

—Scott Mandelker 

Abduction: Human Encounters with Aliens (Charles Scribner s Sons, 
1994). With this book Harvard University professor of psychiatry John E. Mack 
became the most reputable figure in science or medicine to profess a belief in 
the reality of the alien abduction phenomenon. He put seventy-six abductees 
through hypnosis, including thirteen persons whose cases are used in this book, 
and found consistent patterns in their accounts down to tiny details. The 
purpose of these abductions and the collection of eggs and sperm from 
abductees seems to be “genetic engineering for the purpose of creating 
human/alien hybrid offspring.” Another goal of this alien program is the 
alteration of human consciousness to change our perceptions of ourselves as a 

—Randall Fitzgerald 

Abduction Transcription Project In 1992, Dan Wright (Deputy Director for 
the Mutual UFO Network) devised the Abduction Transcription Project on 
MUFON’s behalf. Project participants over the next six years included twenty 
psychiatrists, psychologists, and others who recorded regressive hypnosis 
sessions to elicit memories of alien abduction. A corps of MUFON volunteers 
ultimately transcribed 930 audio cassettes, involving 265 separate cases, to 
promote advanced research. 

Wright created a 300-page index of key words and phrases from those 
sessions—some 2000-plus separate elements. The entries described entity 
appearances, actions and communications; details of the interior and exterior of 
alien ships viewed during abduction experiences; medical equipment, 
instruments and procedures employed; resulting physical effects on the 
subjects’ anatomies; and particular psychic abilities and other paranormal 
events seemingly related to the abduction episodes. 

At the 1997 MUFON International UFO Symposium, Wright offered an 
overview of his findings to that point regarding 254 abduction cases. His 
conclusions addressed five themes present in human-alien interactions: 

Sex and Reproduction 

1) Various entity types have a keen interest in human sexuality and reproduction. 
This is evidenced by a preponderance of instances involving the harvesting of 
human male sperm; removal of ova and/or uterine tissue from human females as 
well as the implantation of embryos and later removal of partially gestated 
fetuses; forced intercourse between the subjects and entities or other human 
captives; maintenance of “nurseries” onboard with gestation receptacles and/or 
newborns; and forced breast feeding of “hybrid” and other newborns. 

Dual Identity 

2) A substantial share of abductees sense an “alien connection” from a realm 
ostensibly outside this conscious life. Attendant to this conviction is a certainty 
of protection against untimely death, an entity’s conveyance that the subject is 
“special” or “chosen,” or an episode in which the individual seemingly realizes 
she or he is in a nonhuman form in the company of entities with similar 

Sense of Mission 

3) Many abductees relate being told by aliens of a “mission” to perform at some 
unspecified future time and/or having received technical instruction. They relate 
episodes of memorizing ambiguous computer graphics, learning specifics of an 
alien ship’s technical operations, and/or being told that they will intuitively know 
where to be at a point in time to begin an unexplained assignment. 

World Catastrophes 

4) A substantial share of the abduction subjects describe an impending 
geophysical disaster to befall the Earth, as shown or told to them aboard a ship. 
Predominant among that cataclysmic imagery are a tilting of Earth’s axis and/or 
earthquakes and volcanoes unprecedented in scope within recorded history, vast 
regions of the landscape on fire, and massive tidal waves inundating coastlines. 

Military Involvement 

5) A disturbing number of subjects in the project claim the U.S. military- 
intelligence apparatus is directly involved in, or has acquiesced in, an alien 
program of human abductions. They report (a) underground alien or shared 
government-alien facilities; (b) military personnel acting in concert with alien 
beings; and/or (c) military personnel abducting them, or aerial harassment by 
unmarked helicopters of their homes, in the aftermath of alien abductions. 

Based on the repetition of unpublicized details arising in the transcripts he 
has reviewed, Wright concludes that human abductions by alien life forms are a 
reality. He is confidant that the various entity types described arise from 
multiple places and are not necessarily all working in concert. Short of a 
startling admission by one or more governments on our planet, he doubts that 
the full truth of alien intrusion can ever be known. 

—ETEP Staff 

POSTSCRIPT: While “abductionists” such as Budd Hopkins, David Jacobs, and 
Harvard University’s Dr. John Mack have achieved fame (and fortune) as experts 
on the UFO-abduction phenomenon, the efforts of little-known researcher Dan 
Wright have provided more scientifically useful insights into the true nature of 
the phenomenon than all other abductionists combined. Wright heads a MUFON 
(Mutual UFO Network) committee which painstakingly transcribes the tales told 
by abductees—typically under hypnosis—which Wright then analyzes in a 
search for patterns. The results of Wright’s latest analysis were reported at 

MUFON’s recent conference in Grand Rapids, Michigan. 

Wright’s latest analysis is based on 906 taped transcripts of 254 alleged 
abductions obtained from 20 abduction researchers. These included David 
Jacobs, but Budd Hopkins and John Mack did not participate. Wright’s recent 
report reveals a significant gender pattern. Of the 254 subjects, 64 percent were 
female, 30 percent were male and 6 percent involved couples. 

During the supposed abductions, 54 percent of the female subjects reported 
being subjected to some gynecological procedure. Of these, 19 percent reported 
having a fetus aborted, while 7 percent reported having an embryo implanted in 
their womb. Nearly a third reported having ova or tissue removed. (But 46 
percent reported no ET interest in such matters.) 

The transcripts also revealed that 32 percent of the male subjects reported 
having sperm extracted, or implied that such had occurred. (Seemingly, more 
than two-thirds of the male abductees failed to meet ET standards to “father” a 

4 percent of the female subjects reported being forced to engage in sexual 
intercourse with ETs, one by a “short greenish-brown reptilian” who was trying 
to arouse her with its “metal claws.” One male subject reported being forced to 
engage in sex with another male abductee. 

11 percent of the female subjects reported they had breast-fed a hybrid baby, 
even though none of them had been pregnant or lactating at the time. 

17 percent reported one or more of the following: underground government, 
alien, or shared government-alien facilities; government personnel acting in 
concert with alien beings; government intrusion or harassment during an alien 

Wright’s Conclusions 

Although Wright acknowledges his belief in the reality of UFO abductions, 
he offers a wise caveat. “Regressive hypnosis, the cornerstone of the Abduction 
Transcription Project, offers only evidence—not proof—of alien abductions. 
Some of the people in the study might have a penchant for fantasies or a need 
to be part of an exclusive ‘club.’ Moreover, many were less than carte blanche 
subjects, having read one or more abduction-related books prior to undergoing 
hypnosis sessions.” 

What convinces Wright of the reality of UFO abductions are the “details, 
sequences, cause and effect. These to the author are the proofs of an alien 

abduction reality.” 

He cites the following as an example: “Dozens of subjects said they were 
shown one or more infants or a room full of incubating fetuses. But, if these 
were only copycat images, how is it that each person placed the ‘baby’ 
presentation sequentially after—never before—procedures on an examining 
table. No book or TV documentary has emphasized that.” However, this author 
suggests the contrary: that overall, most contemporary books and TV shows 
essentially do follow the traditional scenario with the examination first. 

Possibly Wright’s most significant commentary appears early in his 
MUFON paper: “Regressive hypnosis cannot irrefutably uncover truth 
stemming from significant events in one’s life. Whether such episodes entail 
emotional or sexual abuse, a fanciful personality, or some other prosaic 
explanation, the subjects in this project nonetheless have concluded that 
unearthly beings are responsible for their recovered memories. Further, in that 
there are no conclusive means to discern fact from fiction in their recorded 
accounts, no greater weight is given to a particular case over any other.” 

Thus, it is impossible to determine from the content of the tales whether all 
254 abduction accounts are literally true, or if some are true and some are 
fantasy—or if all are fantasy. No “abductee” claim is so wild as to prompt 
Wright to label it as fantasy. 

—Philip J. Klass 

abductions Also known as Close Encounters of the Fourth Kind (CE-IV 
events), these experiences typically include: (1) capture by alien beings, (2) 
time spent aboard a spaceship, and (3) bizarre, sometimes gruesome medical 

Abduction reports are relative newcomers to UFO lore. John G. Fuller 
introduced the story of Barney and Betty Hill in his book, The Interrupted 
Journey, in 1966, making the Hill case the prototypical and most familiar 
abduction—though not the first on record. 

Brazilian farmer, Antonio Villas Boas, described an abduction to UFOlogists 
in early 1958, but they suppressed his report because of the sensationalistic 
claim that an alien woman seduced him. The Villas Boas and Hill cases share 
significant points in common even though neither case could have influenced 
the other. Subsequent witnesses have claimed abduction dates in the 1950s and 
earlier, but the Villas Boas and Hill reports were the first documented accounts. 

Despite the popularity of Fuller’s book, abduction accounts remained scarce 

for many years. Herbert Schirmer received some media attention in 1967; and 
in 1973, a report from Pascagoula, Mississippi, made the national news when 
two shipyard workers, Charles Hickson and Calvin Parker, reported they had 
been captured by three mummy-like beings. 

Then in November of 1975, Travis Walton of Snowflake, Arizona, 
disappeared for five days and returned with an abduction story destined for 
national notoriety. 

After the mid-1970s a growing trickle of people stepped forward to describe 
fragmentary, half-hidden memories of troubling UFO encounters. Coral and 
Jim Lorenzen, Dr. Leo Sprinkle, Dr. James Harder, Raymond Fowler, Walter 
Webb, Ann Druffel, Jenny Randles, D. Scott Rogo and other investigators 
began to specialize in these reports. With the help of hypnotists they sometimes 
recovered abduction accounts from an hour or two when the witness’s memory 

A breakthrough came late in the decade when Budd Hopkins teamed with 
professional hypnotists to explore periods of memory lapse connected not just 
with sightings of mysterious lights but with less specific experiences, such as a 
stretch of roadway or a childhood recollection that provoked unaccountable 
anxieties. Where he found a memory gap, he often discovered an abduction, 
and this new realization that the phenomenon spread further than anyone 
suspected became the central message of his first book, Missing Time (1981). 

Throughout the 1980s, the abduction phenomenon continued to rise to the 
forefront of UFOlogy. Investigation of Betty Andreasson uncovered not just 
one event but a lifelong series of alien encounters extending back into her 

Another account, from the Tujunga Canyon area of California, led to the 
discovery of a series of abductions among five female acquaintances. In his 
second book, Intruders (1987), Hopkins told of a young Indianapolis woman 
being impregnated by aliens who removed the fetus, then later during another 
abduction introduced her to the child—a human-alien hybrid. 

Author Whitley Strieber proved the famous were vulnerable as well and 
spread awareness of abductions further than ever before with his bestselling 
book, Communion (1987). 

Trademark © Walker & Collier, Inc. 

Strieber’s “visitor” became an icon 
after its appearance in 1987 
on the cover of Communion. 

Some 300 cases had entered the literature by 1985, followed by another 500 
over the next six years. An OMNI magazine survey in December 1987 drew 
some 1,200 responses from people describing abductions or abduction-like 
symptoms, while a Roper Poll carried out in 1992 found abduction-related 
experiences so common that a conservative extrapolation implicated some 2 
percent of the U.S. population as likely abductees. 

The subject attracted an increasingly distinguished scholarly following— 
both for and against—during the 1990s. Historian Dr. David M. Jacobs turned 
investigator and described the recurrent order he found among abductee 
accounts in Secret Life (1992); he then proposed hybridization and eventual 
alien domination of the earth to be the purpose behind these encounters in The 
Threat (1998). 

Harvard psychiatrist, Dr. John E. Mack, also became an investigator 
convinced that the phenomenon is literally true, but found it benign: an 

interaction working to change human consciousness from materialism to a 
more spiritual orientation. He published his findings in Abduction (1994) and 
underwent a university-sponsored investigation by colleagues who suspected 
him of unscientific procedures. 

Abductees, investigators, and researchers gathered for the Abduction Study 
Conference Held at MIT in 1992: an attempt to synthesize accumulated 
knowledge and plot future research summarized in the proceedings, Alien 
Discussions (1994). Noted writer, C. D. B. Bryan, observed the conference and 
presented his sympathetic impressions in Close Encounters of the Fourth Kind 

Another trend of the decade has been a willingness of abductees to follow in 
the footsteps of Whitley Strieber and tell their own stories in print. The list 
includes Karla Turner, Katharina Wilson, Debbie Jordan, Travis Walton, Beth 
Codings and Anna Jamerson. Abduction research has become an organized 
subdiscipline of UFOlogy, with Budd Hopkins’s Intruders Foundation, John 
Mack’s Program for Extraordinary Experience Research (PEER), and the Fund 
for UFO Research sponsoring programs to explore physical and psychological 
clues to the nature of the phenomenon. 

Most abduction reports originate in North America, but the phenomenon is 
worldwide with South America, Britain, and Australia producing numerous 
reports. A growing number of cases have emerged from continental Europe and 
the former Soviet Union, while Africa and Asia have begun to contribute 
reports as well. 

Though most abductions involve a single witness, perhaps one fourth are 
multiplewitness cases, with three or more individuals sometimes taken at once. 
Abductees come from all walks of life, all levels of education, and all lines of 
work. Males and females seem about equally prone to the experience. 
Psychological tests of abductees have failed to uncover any overt mental illness 
—though their profdes indicate some of the insecurities characteristic of crime 
victims. Perhaps the most remarkable characteristic of abductees is their age 
distribution. Anyone from children to the elderly may be abducted, but by far 
the most abductees are less than 35 years of age when first taken. 

Hypnosis became standard operating procedure to probe a period of missing 
time with Barney and Betty Hill, and this technique remains the most 
successful way to lift amnesia or remove an apparent mental block and release 
memories of an abduction experience. Some two-thirds to three-fourths of the 
known cases have included this controversial procedure, though some 

witnesses, such as Charles Hickson, recall everything clearly from the start. 

In other instances lost memories return spontaneously within days, weeks, or 
months; or emerge in dreams or nightmares. Many witnesses retain some 
memories with hypnosis serving only to fill in minor details. 

However the story emerges, the accounts seem remarkably alike. Reports 
contain a maximum of eight episodes: 

1) Capture. Alien beings capture a human to take aboard a spaceship. 

2) Examination. The beings subject their captive to a medical examination. 

3) Conference. A meeting, lecture, or schooling session follows. 

4) Tour. The witness is treated to a sightseeing tour of the ship. 

5) Otherworldly Journey. The beings fly the witness to an otherworldly 

6) Theophany. The witness meets a divine being or has a religious experience. 

7) Return. The witness returns to Earth and resumes normal activities. 

8) Aftermath. Aftereffects of the abduction influence the witness for weeks 
or years to come. 

Complex order extends to the capture and examination episodes as well. The 
capture scenario begins with some abductees taken while driving, usually in a 
remote area; others while at home or in bed; still others while outdoors in the 

Aliens or their UFO first appear, then silence and stillness settle over the 
physical world while abductees lose the will to resist and paralysis creeps over 
their bodies. The beings float their captives to the ship or a beam of light draws 
them up and they enter suddenly, with a momentary lapse of memory. 

Once the examination begins, it also follows a set course as the witness 
undresses and lies on a table, then the beings perform a manual examination 
and an eye-like device scans the witness’s body. Instrumental procedures 
follow, then the beings take samples of bodily materials and procedures 
concerned with the reproductive organs, neurological system, and emotions or 
behavior follow in sequence. 

The neurological examination may include placing an implant within the 
body, often the head region of the witness. One being stares into the eyes of the 
witness at close range and for a prolonged period during the examination. 

The beings usually communicate by telepathy and limit the conversation to 

instructions until the examination is completed. A conference allowing for 
some degree of talk may follow. This conference may simply extend the 
behavioral examination and explore human reactions to projected images or 
dramatic scenes. 

In other cases a formal and distinct conference episode brings the witness 
face-to-face with an alien for questions and answers or to a lecture hall to hear 
some sort of lesson. The beings often warn of a time of tribulation ahead and 
prophesy disasters to come, and may school the witness for an obscure mission 
to be performed “when the time is right.” 

In recent years some abductees have reported visits to a room filled with 
fetuses floating in tanks, or being presented with a hybrid infant or child and 
encouraged to hold, play with, or “nurture” it. If the witness travels with the 
beings, the destination is otherworldly—but not necessarily another planet. A 
short trip brings the ship to an underground or undersea location: a 
subterranean world of great beauty but no sunlight, only a uniformly lighted 
sky. If the other-world is another planet, it is often dark and desolate, showing 
signs of ruin and destruction. 

Three stages of aftereffects make up the aftermath episode. (1) Immediate 
aftereffects last a week or so and include physical conditions such as reddened 
eyes, sunburned skin, puncture wounds, dehydration, and nausea. (2) 
Intermediate aftereffects follow in a week or so and are mostly psychological, 
with nightmares and anxiety attacks being the most common. (3) Long-term 
consequences may span years and include a major restructuring of the 
abductee’s personality, for better or worse. Abductees may develop psychic 
powers and experience paranormal events; in time they develop new interests 
and habits leading to a change of careers and lifestyles. Further abductions are 
common sequels. 

Few reports contain every possible episode or every possible event within an 
episode. Out of 300 reports, capture and examination were by far the most 
common, while theophanies occurred in only six cases. A remarkable 
consistency characterizes one report after another. Whenever an episode or 
event occurs, it follows the prescribed order in most cases, despite the absence 
of any logical obligation for a conference to always follow an examination or a 
scan to precede sample-taking. The reasonable expectation that a fantasized 
story would reflect the creative imagination and personal needs of the 
storyteller is not realized in abduction accounts. Their fidelity to a fixed order 
seems an integral part of the phenomenon. 

The descriptive content also persists from report to report. The craft is 
usually a thick disk with an examination room inside. This room has rounded 
walls and a domed roof, a uniform fluorescence, and misty or heavy air 
accompanied by a chilly temperature. 

Doors often open out of nowhere and disappear when they close, leaving no 
seam. Humanoids, humans, and monsters occupy the craft. Monsters are quite 
rare and human-like entities appear in no more than a fourth of the crews. Most 
occupants are humanoids, some tall and some short, but by far the majority 
represents a single type: the “standard” humanoid. 

This being is three to five feet tall and has a fetal appearance, with a large 
rounded cranium tapering to a pointed chin and a face dominated by enormous 
eyes that extend around the side of the head in a “wraparound” effect. The other 
facial features are vestigial—the mouth is a mere hole or slit, the nose only air¬ 
holes, the ears nonexistent or holes at most. The skin is usually gray and 
fungus-like, as if never exposed to sunlight, and completely hairless. 

Sexual distinctions are seldom reported and most of these beings seem 
neuter. Some humanoids are robust but most appear frail, sometimes with 
unusually thin necks and long arms. They walk with stiff or clumsy steps but 
more often glide or float, and use telepathy to communicate with captives. One 
being is usually a little taller than the rest and serves as a leader or liaison, and 
may become familiar to the abductee. 

Though polite, the outward courtesy of the beings hides an innate coldness. 
They show little concern or understanding for human feelings and care only for 
accomplishing their mission. 

A surrealistic atmosphere surrounds abduction, from the vacuum-like 
cessation of sound and traffic at the beginning to the apparitions and Men in 
Black that sometimes haunt abductees long after the encounter. The most 
celebrated effect is time lapse, a loss of memory covering the period from the 
early stages of capture until the abductee returns to a normal environment. 

Another striking effect is the flotation many abductees report. They also 
experience some sort of mental impairment while in captivity, an inappropriate 
docility or peacefulness alternating with a sense of terror. The beings usually 
exert something like a hypnotic influence to restore this unnatural tranquility 
when it weakens, or accomplish an instant relief of pain with a touch on the 

Proponents of a physical phenomenon sometimes explain abduction as the 
result of alien visitors satisfying their scientific curiosity. Another solution that 

accepts alien visitors also takes into account the apparent large number of 
abductions, the focus on reproduction, and the deceitfulness of the aliens to 
conclude that they come from a planet in trouble. They face extinction and need 
us or our planet to forestall their fate. By collecting eggs and sperm the aliens 
gather the genetic materials necessary to reinvigorate their stock or hybridize 
with earthlings, while any altruistic pose of preparing the earth for a future 
catastrophe simply hides the true selfish purpose of abductions. 

A more favorable viewpoint, expressed in various ways by Sprinkle, 
Strieber, Mack, Kenneth Ring, John Keel, and Jacques Vallee, takes into 
account the baffling, surreal, seemingly paraphysical aspects of the 
phenomenon and interprets abduction as an effort of aliens or a cosmic mind to 
alter human consciousness. The effort may proceed with benign intent or with 
blind indifference, but the end result is a fundamental reordering of human 
thought, perhaps an acceptance of cosmic citizenship, perhaps a new sense of 
unity for humans with earth and cosmos, or perhaps merely a change with no 
clear direction. 

Skeptics note that abductions resemble fairy legends and near-death 
experiences. These similarities suggest a psychological source underlying the 
story content. Dr. Alvin Lawson experimented with non-abductees who told 
abduction-like stories when questioned under hypnosis and proposed that 
abduction content originates in memory of the birth experience. Other doubters 
blame hypnosis, pointing out that a hypnotized subject is highly suggestible and 
responds to cues from investigators eager to find an abduction. 

Leading UFO debunker, Philip J. Klass, argues that subjects familiar with 
media portrayals of abduction either fabricate the story or fantasize the 
narrative in response to leading questions. The possibility that false memory 
syndrome provokes accusations of child abuse and satanic ritual abuse, as well 
as abduction claims, has generated an extensive literature of psychological and 
skeptical commentary during the 1990s. 

Comparative study leaves no explanation entirely satisfactory. The skeptics 
who blame hypnosis must explain the cases retrieved without its help, while the 
order and details in the reports seem to recur too often for passing familiarity to 
explain. The tenaciousness of a single order and similar descriptions in report 
after report defies the usual process of variation characteristic of folk narratives 
or personal fantasies. 

Abduction reports also demonstrate a deep coherency, since the aliens 
manifest an interest in reproduction at the same time as they explain outright 

that their planet has lost its fertility. Anyone with a casual knowledge of the 
abduction story might pick up these clues. Yet the reports also include a 
preference for youthful captives, rejection of the old or infertile as unsuitable, 
the devastation of the otherworld, and the unhealthy appearance of the beings 

Pieces of the puzzle interlock into a meaningful picture, although this is not 
immediately evident. Rather, a meaningful whole appears only after comparing 
many more cases than most people ever examine. The same themes appear in 
various guises to reinforce the verisimilitude of the abduction story, and a 
coherent picture is undeniable. 

On the other hand, aliens advanced enough to create hybrids but obliged to 
steal the raw materials to do so seem implausible. With all the implants, 
missing fetuses, and aliens on patrol that abduction claims require, lack of 
creditable physical evidence that can be unequivocally connected to alien 
beings raises doubts as well. 

The mysteries of human memory and suggestibility open other paths to 
explore before the reality of abduction claims become acceptable. In any 
balanced evaluation the issue of abductions remains far from resolution. 

—Thomas Eddie Bullard 


Bryan, C. D. B. Close Encounters of the Fourth Kind: Alien Abduction, UFOs, and the Conference at 
M.l.T. (Alfred A. Knopf, 1995). 

Druffel, Ann, and D. Scott Rogo. The Tujunga Canyon Contacts (Prentice-Hall, 1980). 

Puller, John. The Interrupted Journey (Dial Press, 1966). 

Hopkins, Budd. Missing Time (Richard Marek, 1981). 

_. Intruders (Random House, 1987). 

Jacobs, David M. Secret Life (Simon & Schuster, 1992). 

_. The Threat (Simon & Schuster, 1998). 

Jordan, Debbie, and Kathy Mitchell. Abducted! The Story of the Intruders Continues... (Carroll & Graf, 

Klass, Philip J. UFO-Abductions: A Dangerous Game (Prometheus Books, 1988). 

Mack, John E. Abducted (Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1994). 

Ring, Kenneth. The Omega Project. (William Morrow, 1992). 

Story, Ronald D., ed. The Encyclopedia of UFOs. (Doubleday/New English Library, 1980). 

Walton, Travis. Fire in the Sky (Marlowe, 1996). 

Wilson, Katharina. The Alien Jigsaw (Puzzle Publishing, 1993-1995). 

Above Top Secret (Sidgwick and Jackson/William Morrow, 1987). British 

researcher Timothy Good summarizes or reprints UFO reports and government 
documents from ten nations in an attempt to prove a massive worldwide cover- 
up of the truth about UFOs. Good also spends a chapter trying to rehabilitate 
the reputation and credibility of Frank Scully, whose book in 1950 claimed that 
a spacecraft with alien bodies crashed in New Mexico. 

—Randall Fitzgerald 

Adamski, George (1891-1965). A Polish immigrant, without formal 
education, who was the first to widely publicize his alleged contacts with 
people from outer space. His bestselling book, Flying Saucers Have Landed 
(coauthored with Desmond Leslie), and its sequels, made him the best-known 
of all the “contactees,” several dozen of which followed his lead. 

He is described by his disciples (the present-day George Adamski 
Foundation, based in Vista, California) as a (former) “author-lecturer on 
Unidentified Flying Objects, space travel, Cosmic Philosophy and Universal 
Laws of Life.” As a child, Adamski is said to have had a deep feeling of 
reverence for nature and to have often pondered great philosophical questions 
about the interrelationship between the rest of nature and man. He was often 
referred to in written accounts as “Professor” Adamski, which he said was an 
honorary title bestowed upon him by his students. However, a significant 
portion of the general public was misled into believing that he was an 
accredited scientist. 


George Adamski 

According to Frank Edwards, writing in Flying Saucers—Here and Now! 
(1967): “Prior to becoming associated with a hamburger stand on the road to 
Mount Palomar, George had worked in a hamburger stand as a grill cook. With 
this scientific background he wrote, in his spare time, a document which he 
called An Imaginary Trip to the Moon, Venus and Mars. He voluntarily listed it 
with the Library of Congress for copyright purposes as a work of fiction.” 
Edwards claims to have read the manuscript, which he said was later offered, in 
revised form, as a factual account of Adamski’s contact experiences. 

Jerome Clark reports a similar story in his book The Unidentified (co¬ 
authored with Loren Coleman): “Ray Palmer has maintained for years that back 
in 1946, when he edited Amazing Stories, he rejected a manuscript Adamski 
had submitted. The story, which did not pretend to be anything but fantasy, 
concerned Jesus Christ’s landing on earth in a spaceship. In 1953, when Palmer 
read Flying Saucers Have Landed, he was amazed to discover that the new 
story was really the old one updated, with Jesus now a Venusian and the 
spaceship a flying saucer.” (Clark and Coleman, 1975) 

Adamski claimed to have seen his first “spaceship” on October 9, 1946, over 
his California home in Palomar Gardens. It was a dirigible-shaped “Mother 
Ship,” he said, which carried the smaller “flying saucers,” or “Scout craft,” 

inside. Then in August of 1947, 184 saucers allegedly passed over the slopes of 
Palomar again, as Adamski watched. 

It was not until November 20, 1952, that the first face-to-face meeting 
reportedly occurred between Adamski and his “space friends,” as he sometimes 
called them. The location of this historic event was said to be near Desert 
Center, in the California desert. Also present were six witnesses who later 
signed a sworn affidavit. A detailed account of the incident, in which Adamski 
meets Orthon, a man from Venus, appears in Flying Saucers Have Landed 

Briefly, the supposed event can be described as follows: Orthon’s saucer 
descends from a huge “Mother Ship,” hovering high above. After landing on a 
nearby hill, the Venusian walks over to Adamski, who remains calm and cool 
throughout the entire episode. Orthon was described as smooth-skinned, 
beardless, and well dressed. He had shoulder-length blond hair, was about five 
feet six inches tall, and wore what looked like a ski suit with a broad belt 
around the waist. 

The Venusian began communicating by telepathy, informing Adamski of the 
Space Peoples’ friendly intentions and concern over “radiations from our 
nuclear tests.” It was made clear to George that we earthlings had better start 
living according to the laws of the “Creator of All,” which, of course, had been 
taught all along by “Professor” Adamski. After about one hour had elapsed, 
Orthon returned to his ship and buzzed away. 



Cover art from Adamski’s first book, 

Flying Saucers Have Landed (1953) 

Many more contacts were to follow, including rides into space and lengthy 
dialogues with other spacemen (such as Firkon, a Martian, and Ramu, a 

Saturnian), which were recounted verbatim —without a tape recorder—in 
Adamski’s second book Inside the Space Ships (1955). 

Back on Earth, Adamski was in great demand for lectures, radio and TV 
appearances, as well as countless interviews for newspapers and magazines. He 
toured the world, speaking to millions of people, and was reportedly granted 
private audiences with Queen Juliana of the Netherlands and Pope John XX111. 

In October, 1957, UFO researcher James W. Moseley (now editor of Saucer 
Smear, formerly Saucer News ) published a damaging expose of Adamski’s 
claims, based on personal interviews with Adamski and most of his close 
friends and co-workers. Among other interesting tidbits, Moseley made the 
following points: 

1. Adamski’s first book misquoted a number of people regarding statements 
they supposedly made in support of his claims. 

2. The six “witnesses” at the November 20, 1952, “Desert Contact” all had 
backgrounds as UFO believers, had no special expertise, and did not see 
enough detail to vouch for the reality of the incident. Some of them later 
admitted this. 

3. The “Desert Contact” was not accidental as claimed, but was pre-planned 
from detailed information and instructions that Adamski tape recorded and 
played for several co-workers, about a week before the incident took place. 

4. In a letter to a close friend, which Moseley obtained, Adamski wrote: 
“Sometimes you have to use the back door to get the Truth across.” 

On Adamski’s behalf, it can be said that he was trying to get across certain 
truths—regardless of whether they were coming from the “space brothers” or 
ancient philosophers on Earth. As one reads Inside the Space Ships, especially, 
what is strikingly evident are the obvious metaphors on every page. This may 
be the point that Desmond Feslie intended in the foreword to the book when he 
said: “We are in no position to sit and split hairs when the very foundations of 
this planet are teetering on disaster. Read, then, the following with an open 
mind and see whether the light of its teaching rings true.” (Adamski, 1955) 

To a Jungian, Adamski’s tour of the space ship becomes a treasure trove of 
technological metaphors coinciding with virtually every principle of mystical 
truth found in the philosophica perennis —or Perennial Philosophy—and in the 
Holy Bible: the all-seeing “Eye of God,” warnings about idolatry, the 
importance of self-knowledge, warnings about egotism and self-seeking, 
respect for natural law and the need for harmony with nature, respect for the 
planet and other life-forms, unity and altruism, the reconciliation of opposites, 

microcosm and macrocosm, oneness with the universe, death and rebirth, the 
law of balance, karma and the Golden Rule, and cosmic understanding, in 

Examples of technological metaphors include: light as enlightenment; a 
giant lens as the “Eye of God”; the power of the space ship as the power of the 
mind; space travel as ascension; the secrets of space travel as the secrets of life; 
interplanetary travel as connecting the “gods” (for which the planets were 
named), which can be interpreted as integrating the potentialities within us; the 
speed of light as the speed of truth (or thought); and telepathy as a symbol for 
total honesty. 

As sociologist David Stupple cleverly pointed out, Adamski and most of the 
other leading contactees of the 1950s were Utopians. “George Adamski had a 
vision of a better world, and that vision apparently became reality for him.” 
(Stupple, 1980) 

After a successful twelve years as a famous celebrity, Adamski died of a 
heart attack on April 23, 1965, in Washington, D.C. 

—Ronald D. Story 


Adamski, George and Leslie, Desmond. Flying Saucers Have Landed (The British Book Centre/Wemer 
Laurie, 1953). 

_. Inside the Space Ships (Abelard-Schuman, 1955). 

Clark, Jerome and Coleman, Loren. The Unidentified (Warner Paperback Library, 1975). 

Edwards, Frank. Flying Saucers — Here and Now! (Lyle Stuart, 1967). 

Huxley, Aldous. The Perennial Philosophy (Harper & Brothers, 1945). 

Moseley, James W. Personal communication, February 14, 2000. 

Stupple, David. “The Man Who Talked with Venusians” in Proceedings of the First International UFO 
Congress, edited by Curtis G. Fuller (Warner Books, 1980). 

Aerial Phenomena Research Organization (APRO) APRO was founded 
in January 1952 by a Wisconsin couple, Jim (Leslie James) and Coral E. 
Lorenzen who later moved to Alamogordo, New Mexico, and finally to 
Tucson, Arizona, where the organization was based until it was dissolved in 

The organization was based on the premise that the UFO phenomenon is 
important enough to warrant an objective, scientific investigation. Toward this 
end APRO became a pacesetter in many ways. 

APRO was the first organization of its kind in the world in that it always 

maintained representatives in most foreign countries who kept headquarters in 
Tucson informed concerning UFO activity around the globe. About 10 percent 
of its membership were outside the United States. 

In 1956, APRO began to recruit scientific personnel to investigate and 
evaluate cases, rather than depend on newspaper clippings as source material. A 
Field Investigators Network, composed of selected APRO members was spread 
across North America and extending overseas. These members investigated 
UFO cases and forwarded the results to headquarters. The advice of APRO’s 
consultants in their various fields of specialization was relied upon to indicate 
appropriate areas and direction of research. 

The general membership would furnish leads to be referred to Field 
Investigators for follow-up. Current UFO reports, results of various projects, 
editorial commentaries and other features were carried in the monthly APRO 
Bulletin. The first issue of the APRO Bulletin was published in June 1952 and 
ran through most of 1987. 

In 1957, APRO began building its international staff as well as its scientific 
consulting staff. At one time, the organization had forty-two scientists on its 
consulting panels—listed under four general categories: biological, medical, 
physical, and social sciences—and foreign representatives in forty-seven 
different countries. 

APRO proved to be a pacesetter in other areas as well. The concept of 
specially selected Field Investigators originated with APRO, and in 1971 it was 
the first private UFO research organization to sponsor a scientific symposium 
on UFOs. 

In 1968, APRO initiated the Field Investigator Network system, which was 
later adopted by both MUFON (the Mutual UFO Network) and CUFOS (the 
Center for UFO Studies). 

In 1970, APRO published the first Field Investigator’s manual. The first 
UFO Conference was held in Peoria, Illinois in 1970, sponsored by APRO and 
the local Peoria Research Group. MUFON surfaced the same year when its 
leader, Walt Andrus, decided that he wanted his own group. 

APRO enjoyed considerable success during the late 1960s while UFOs were 
leading law enforcement officers and the general public in a merry chase that 
resulted in the appointment of the Condon Committee, under contract to the 
U.S. Air Force. 

When the Condon Committee closed its doors and issued its final report in 
1968, the Air Force followed suit and announced its disengagement with the 

UFO problem in December 1969. 

The last large UFO research group came upon the scene in 1973, when Dr, J. 
Allen Hynek founded the Center for UFO Studies. Between 1963 and 1973, Dr. 
Hynek contacted the top men in the UFO field around the world and to 
establish the nucleus of CUFOS. Both MUFON and CUFOS are similar to 
APRO in their organizational structure and methodology. 

Perhaps most significantly, APRO was a pacesetter in the overall modern 
trend in UFOlogy relating to close encounters of the third and fourth kinds 
(CE-3s and CE-4s): entities and abductions. From the time the first cases were 
publicized in the 1960s, APRO supported the idea of UFO “occupants” or 
“entities,” as the Lorenzens called them, while rejecting most “contactee” 

—ETEP Staff 

Aetherius Society An international metaphysical, scientific, and religious 
organization, the Aetherius Society was founded in London, England, in 1956 
by Dr. George King, Ph.D. (1919-1997). The American headquarters (in 
California) was established in 1960, and there are other branches in Detroit, 
Australia, West Africa, and throughout the British Isles. 

The society bases its beliefs upon the contact Dr. King is said to have had 
with highly evolved “Masters” on other planets—mostly within this solar 
system—and the more than six hundred communications, or “Transmissions,” 
he has allegedly received from them. King claims that he was first contacted, 
one morning in May 1954, by a “voice from space” that said. “Prepare 
yourself! You are to become the Voice of Interplanetary Parliament.” Thus, the 
thirty-five-year-old Englishman became the “Primary Terrestrial Mental 
Channel” by authority of the voice which (he later discovered) belonged to a 
thirty-five-hundred-year-old Venusian Master called Aetherius (a pseudonym 

meaning “One Who comes from Outer Space”). Aetherius and other members 
of the “Hierarchy of the Solar System” had an urgent message to give to Earth 
through the unique Yogic mediumship of George King, and in 1955 a series of 
“Cosmic Transmissions” began, which continued throughout his life. 

To receive them, King would go into a samadhic trance in which the 
consciousness is supposedly raised to a high “Psychic Center.” A telepathic 
beam of thought was placed on him by the communicator, and the message was 
received and transmitted through King’s brain and voice box, emerging in the 
form of slow-spoken, resonant English. All messages are preserved on audio 

The messages include warnings against the use of nuclear energy in any 
form and exhortations to put the world in order by returning to the “Cosmic 
Laws” as taught by great Masters such as Jesus, Buddha, and Krishna—all of 
whom are said to have come from other planets. 

Life on the other planets is described as free from war, hatred, disease, want, 
and ignorance. The inhabitants have perfected spacecraft that can traverse the 
galaxy and beyond. Some of these craft, engaged in metaphysical operations 
around the Earth, have been termed “flying saucers.” 

Among their supposed missions were the following: to protect us from 
outside interference from hostile races, to monitor all changes in the 
environment and geophysical structure of the planet, and to help clear up 
harmful radiation in the atmosphere. 

King stated that without flying saucers the world would be lifeless. 
Messages from the commanders of some of the craft indicate that mankind is 
the “problem child” of the solar system and an area of vulnerability in an 
otherwise well-protected sector of the galaxy. This is of special importance to 
the Aetherius Society in view of its belief that an intergalactic conflict is now in 

The society also believes in reincarnation and teaches that mankind itself 
originally came from another planet in this solar system, which is now the 
asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter. Our original home planet is said to have 
been destroyed by a total atomic chain reaction, and mankind was reincarnated 
on Earth some 18 million years ago. 

According to the society’s beliefs, two previous civilizations on Earth, 
Lemuria and Atlantis, also perished due to an atomic war, and the Cosmic 
Masters are now actively concerned with preventing a third such catastrophe. It 
is further maintained that specially trained interplanetary Adepts are on Earth 

engaged in a cleansing operation to eliminate the centers of evil, which have 
dominated the world for eons and seek to eventually enslave all of mankind. 

The plan will culminate with the arrival of an extraterrestrial Master from a 
flying saucer some time in the not-too-distant future. When this happens, all 
people on Earth will be offered the choice of following the laws of God and 
entering a New Age of peace and enlightenment, or rejecting the laws and 
passing through death to a younger planet where they will relearn the lessons of 

The Aetherius Society has published many texts of the Transmissions and 
also produces a full range of cassette tapes explaining the theory and practice of 
Cosmic metaphysics. The society organizes lectures, seminars, and other events 
to publicize the Teachings of the Cosmic Masters. 


Web site: 

6202 Afton Place 
Hollywood, CA 90028 U.S.A. 
757 Fulham Road 
London SW6 6UU 

AFR (Air Force Regulation) 190-1 Issued on August 30, 1991, by the 
Secretary of the United States Air Force to update the official USAF policy on 
Unidentified Flying Objects (UFOs): 

a. The following statement may be used in response to queries: Project Blue 
Book, the Air Force study of UFOs, ended in 1969, after 22 years of scientific 
investigation. More than 12,500 reported sightings were investigated; the vast 
majority—about 95 percent—were explainable. They were caused by such 
natural phenomena as meteors, satellites, aircraft, lightning, balloons, weather 
conditions, reflections of other planets, or just plain hoaxes. Of the very few 
that remained unexplained, there was no indication of a technology beyond our 
own scientific knowledge, or that any sighting could be considered an 
extraterrestrial vehicle. Most importantly, throughout Project Blue Book, there 
was never a shred of evidence to indicate a threat to our national security. 
Project Blue Book was ended based on these findings, as verified by a scientific 
study prepared by the University of Colorado, and further verified by the 
National Academy of Sciences. All of the Project Blue Book materials were 
turned over to the Modern Military Branch, National Archives and Records 
Administration, 8th Street and Pennsylvania, Wash DC 20408, and are 

available for public review and analysis. 

b. Individuals alleging current sighting[s] should be referred, without 
comment, to local law enforcement officials. 

—U.S. Air Force 

airship wave of 1896 The first major UFO wave in recorded history took 
place in 1896 (several years prior to any officially documented flights of 
airplanes or powered airships of any kind in the United States), beginning in 
November, with reports mostly confined to the state of California but involving 
also Washington State and Canada to a lesser degree. 

This woodcut appeared in an 1896 newspaper 
to illustrate the phantom “airship” that 
was seen before its time. 

A mystery light was first reported in the night sky over the capitol city of 
Sacramento on the evening of November 17, 1896. Local newspapers ran such 
and WHAT WAS IT? It was said that due to a heavy overcast on the evening of 
the first sighting, very little detail could be observed. The majority of alleged 
witnesses reported only a light source, but a few were said to have seen, in 
addition, a dark body of some sort above the luminous point (according to 
newspaper accounts). 

The strange flying light appeared a second time, so the story goes, on the 
evening of November 21 st , at which time the public and press are said to have 
taken the phenomenon much more seriously. Reportedly, witnesses to the 
second passage included a sizable number of the citizens of Sacramento, but, as 
before, a dark, cloudy sky masked any detail that would explain how the light 

was being carried through the atmosphere. 

Soon after the light passed out of sight, it was reportedly seen over the city 
of Folsom, some twenty miles to the west. Later that night, reports of lights in 
the heavens came in from the San Francisco Bay area. 

Unexplained flying lights and the story of the sighting of an airship by one 
R. L. Lowry prompted a San Francisco attorney to “disclose” that a man had 
supposedly contacted him some months earlier for legal advice concerning the 
“world’s first practical airship,” a craft that the supposed inventor asserted he 
had nearly completed. Flashing impressive blueprints and boasting of strong 
financial backing, the inventor convinced the attorney that the airship would 
soon be operational. The attorney, a George D. Collins, told the press that, in 
his opinion, the phenomenon in the skies over Sacramento must have been his 
client conducting nocturnal test flights before making an official announcement 
of his secret invention. This suggestion, a reasonable one in the minds of many, 
was given extensive publicity by San Francisco newspapers, stirring up 
imaginations all over California. Rumors and wild stones soon began to spread. 
For a while, the. ’’phantom airship” was the biggest news story in northern 

As more reports of strange lights in the sky were tallied, enhancing the 
mystery, attorney Collins became so tormented by reporters and curious 
busybodies that he regretted his earlier bragging and fled into hiding. 

Cities reporting airship sightings after November 23 included Stockton, 
Lathrop, Sebastopol, Santa Rosa, Red Bluff, Chico, Auburn, San Jose, 
Modesto, Woodland, Fresno, Visalia, Hanford, Bakersfield, Tulare, Delano, Los 
Angeles, Redlands, and Anderson. 

As to the exact nature of the mystery light, many reports were vague, 
mentioning only a bright light in the western sky early in the evening, 
indicating possible confusion with the planet Venus. Reported velocities of the 
light as it passed overhead were slow by modern standards, and if one considers 
the testimony of a number of witnesses that the light moved in an undulating 
fashion, this might indicate that some sightings were due to wind-blown 
balloons with a lantern attached. Again, some witnesses said they saw 
something large supporting the light but very few details were given. The most 
common terms used to describe the “supporting structure” were: “dark body,” 
“misty mass,” “cigar-shaped,” “egg-shaped,” and “barrel-shaped.” 

In spite of the difficulties involved, about a half-dozen reports can be 
explained satisfactorily. These were the sightings of three strange fights in the 

heavens a month before the passage of the mystery light (or lights) over 
Sacramento. There is a good possibility that people were confusing the 
“phantom airship” with the passage of a triple-headed bolide that had crossed 
the night sky with majestic slowness several weeks previously. 

However, all things considered, there were still some puzzling episodes that 
took place in November 1896: 

(1) A fiery object displaying three points of light was spotted resting on the 
ground near Knight’s Ferry, California. Two witnesses, both Methodist 
ministers, said the thing suddenly took off as they approached, flying away in a 
shallow climb. 

(2) A fast-moving cigar-shaped object surrounded by a shifting luminosity 
and making small explosions was reported by the captain of a steamboat. 

(3) According to hundreds of citizens of Tulare, California, of which fifteen 
are named in news accounts, something in the night sky came down quite a 
distance, and then went up and took a straight, quick move westward. Red, 
white, and blue lights were seen in succession. 

4) A resident of Tacoma, Washington, said he watched something strange in 
the sky over Mount Rainier one night. For over an hour, he said, an object 
emitted various colored rays, which shot out from the thing’s center in every 
direction like spokes of a wheel. The “object” reportedly moved about with a 
waving motion, swayed back and forth, and darted from one position to 

The Canadian press, which reported on the puzzling events taking place in 
California, seemed to take the airship possibility very seriously, even though 
one of the most intriguing reports of the year came from Rossland, British 
Columbia, on August 12, 1896. It told of a strange aerial body that approached 
the town, paused momentarily above a nearby mountain peak, made several 
wide circles in the sky, and then sped away on a straight course. The thing was 
described as a “luminous ball of fire that glowed amidst a halo of variegated 
colors.” The object took a quarter of an hour to complete its maneuvers and 
was watched by many citizens of Rossland. 

It. is interesting to note that even back in 1896 the extraterrestrial hypothesis 
was suggested by some to account for the appearance of the nineteenth-century 
UFOs. In a letter to the editor of the Sacramento Bee, published in the 
November 24 th issue, one citizen who gave his initials as “W.A.” stated his 
conviction that the observed phenomenon could only be due to the visit of a 
spacecraft from the planet Mars on a mission of exploration. He expressed his 

belief that the alien ship was made of very light metal and powered by some 
sort of electrical force, giving the Martian vessel the appearance of a ball of fire 
in flight. The speed of such an interplanetary craft he imagined to be a 
“thousand miles a second.” 

Perhaps even more intriguing is this early report of a “close encounter of the 
third kind”: Two men told the Stockton Evening Mail that they had met three 
“strange people” on a road near Lodi, California. According to the story, the 
strange beings were very tall, with small delicate hands, and large, narrow feet. 
Each creature’s head was bald with small ears and a small mouth, yet the eyes 
were big and lustrous. Instead of clothing, the creatures seemed to be covered 
with a natural silky growth. Conversation was impossible because the “strange 
people” could only utter a monotonous, guttural, warbling. Occasionally, one of 
the unusual beings would breathe deeply from a nozzle attached to a bag slung 
under an arm and in each hand the creatures carried something the size of an 
egg that gave off an intense light. The weird encounter ended with an attempted 
kidnap of the two Californians, but failing to overpower the two men, the 
creatures fled to a cigar-shaped craft hovering nearby, jumped through a hatch, 
and zoomed away. 

The California UFO wave of 1896 was over by December, but in February 
of 1897 reports of mysterious starlike bodies moving about the skies over 
western Nebraska marked the beginning of an even bigger UFO wave that 
would involve the greater part of the American Midwest. 

—Foren E. Gross 

airship wave of 1897 The California airship reports of November and 
December 1896, while recounted in some newspapers around the country, 
attracted relatively little attention in the Midwest and East. The arrival of 1897 
saw the end of the California flap, with only isolated sightings at Fodi and 
Acampo in mid-January. Curiously enough, Delaware farmers, three thousand 
miles away, also reported airships during January. 

By mid-February, unknown craft and mysterious lights in the night skies 
were reported in many areas of Nebraska. Sightings continued throughout 
March, with reports now coming from neighboring Kansas as well. To the 
north, in Michigan, late March brought stories of “balls of fire” moving through 
the darkness. 

On the night of March 29 th , hundreds of people in Omaha watched a large 
bright light fly over the city, hover briefly, then disappear to the northwest. An 

even larger audience, numbering in the thousands, witnessed the performance 
of an aerial mystery over Kansas City three nights later. In Everest, Kansas, the 
object was described as resembling an Indian canoe, some twenty-five to thirty 
feet in length, carrying a searchlight of varying colors. 

The airships were generally described as cigar-shaped, apparently metallic, 
with wings, propellers, fins, and other appendages. At night, they appeared to 
be brilliant lights, with dark superstructures sometimes visible behind the 

Skeptics searched in vain for a conventional explanation, blaming the 
reports on the planet Venus (then brilliant in the evening sky) or the star Alpha 
Orionis. The reports also inspired practical jokers, who began sending aloft 
balloons of every description. The situation was further confused by 
“enterprising” reporters who delighted in seeing who could concoct the tallest 
airship tale for publication. 

As the wave of reports continued throughout April, numerous stories of 
landed airships were published in newspapers around the country. In many such 
accounts, the operators of the craft were seen and communications were 
established by the witnesses. The airship occupants were usually described as 
normal-looking human beings who engaged their wondering admirers in 
conversation. They generally claimed to be experimenting with aerial travel, 
saying their craft had been constructed in secret in Iowa, New York, Tennessee, 
or some other locality. 

There were exceptions to this contact pattern, such as a report by Judge 
Lawrence A. Byrne of Texarkana, Arkansas, who claimed to have met Oriental¬ 
looking occupants of a landed airship. These beings, three in number, spoke 
among themselves in a foreign language. They beckoned to Byrne, who went 
aboard the craft and later described some of the machinery inside. 

In one Texas case, the airship crewmen claimed to be from an unknown 
region at the North Pole. A West Virginia report, only discovered in the late 
1970s, tells of “Martians” aboard a grounded craft. 

The people of 1897 did consider extraterrestrial explanations for the 
airships. Loren Gross, in his entry on the California events of 1896, has referred 
to a letter, published in the Sacramento (Calif.) Bee of November 24, 1896. 
This was the first “Martian” speculation, but others followed. The Colony 
(Kans.) Free Press, editorializing on the mystery, thought the airship was 
“probably operated by a party of scientists from the planet Mars” Similar 
theories of visitors from the Red Planet were mentioned in the St. Louis (Mo.) 

Post-Dispatch , the Memphis (Tenn.) Commercial-Appeal , and other 
newspapers of the period. The concept of life on Mars had already been 
brought to public consciousness by the research and theories of such 
astronomers as Percival Lowell and Camille Flammarion. Lowell’s ideas of the 
Martian canals were well known, and Flammarion had speculated on possible 
communication with the inhabitants of Mars. 

Reports of airship sightings continued throughout May of 1897, with an 
isolated sighting coming from Texas during June. This particular event was 
noteworthy, as it told of two airships seen at the same time. Sightings of more 
than one object were very rare, although the airships were seen in widely 
separated areas on the same day. For instance, on April 15 th , at the height of the 
wave, reports came from ten different towns in Michigan, seven towns in 
Illinois, and one location each in Iowa and South Dakota. It would be simple 
enough to quote similar instances for virtually any day in April. Nor were such 
sightings confined to only four states in one twenty-four-hour period, as in the 
above example. It should be noted also that any such statistics are based on 
incomplete research, as the newspaper files of several states remain virtually 
untouched by investigators. 

Hints of worldwide airship activity during 1897 are contained in reports 
from Sweden on July 17 th , off the coast of Norway on August 13 th , and from 
Ontario, Canada, on August 16 th . In late September, an engineer in the town of 
Ustyug, Russia, observed a “balloon” with an “electric,” or phosphorescent, 
sheen. As a matter of historical fact, the British and the French were known to 
have motor-powered balloons by this time, but the American airship reports 
have never been satisfactorily explained. Aviation historians state that craft 
such as were reported were not operational in the United States during the late 
1890s. Were they, then, extraterrestrial vehicles? The descriptions hardly fit the 
image of sleek, streamlined spaceships, designed for interplanetary voyages. To 
say that the airships were from a “parallel universe,” or some equally esoteric 
realm, is really no answer, but mere speculation. One is forced to admit that the 
strangers in the skies of 1897 remain as much of a mystery to us as they were to 
our ancestors. 

—Lucius Farish 

alien autopsy film The Roswell crashed-saucer myth has been given renewed 
impetus by a controversial television program called “Alien Autopsy: Fact or 
Fiction?” that purports to depict the autopsy of a flying saucer occupant. The 

“documentary,” promoted by a British marketing agency that formerly handled 
Walt Disney products, was aired August 28 and September 4, 1995, on the Fox 
television network. Skeptics, as well as many UFOlogists, quickly branded the 
film used in the program a hoax. 

“The Roswell Incident,” as it is known, is described in several controversial 
books, including one of that title by Charles Berlitz and William L. Moore. 
Reportedly, in early July 1947, a flying saucer crashed on the ranch property of 
William Brazel near Roswell, New Mexico, and was subsequently retrieved by 
the United States government (Berlitz and Moore 1980). Over the years, 
numerous rumors, urban legends, and outright hoaxes have claimed that saucer 
wreckage and the remains of its humanoid occupants were stored at a secret 
facility—e.g., a (nonexistent) “Hangar 18” at Wright Patterson Air Force Base 
—and that the small corpses were autopsied at that or another site (Berlitz and 
Moore, 1980; String-field, 1977). 

UFO hoaxes, both directly and indirectly related to Roswell, have since 
proliferated. For example, a 1949 science fiction movie, The Flying Saucer, 
produced by Mikel Conrad, purported to contain scenes of a captured 
spacecraft; an actor hired by Conrad actually posed as an FBI agent and swore 
the claim was true. In 1950, writer Frank Scully reported in his book Behind the 
Flying Saucers that the United States government had in its possession no 
fewer than three Venusian spaceships, together with the bodies of their 
humanoid occupants. Scully, who was also a Variety magazine columnist, was 
fed the story by two confidence men who had hoped to sell a petroleum- 
locating device allegedly based on alien technology. Other crash-retrieval 
stories followed, as did various photographs of space aliens living and dead: 
One gruesome photo portrayed the pilot of a small plane, his aviator’s glasses 
still visible in the picture (Clark, 1993). 

Among recent Roswell hoaxes was the MJ-12 fiasco, in which supposed top 
secret government documents—including an alleged briefing paper for 
President Eisenhower and an executive order from President Truman— 
corroborated the Roswell crash. Unfortunately, document experts readily 
exposed the papers as inept forgeries (Nickell and Fischer 1990). 

Sooner or later, a Roswell “alien autopsy” film was bound to turn up. That 
predictability, together with a lack of established historical record for the 
bizarre film, is indicative of a hoax. So is the anonymity of the cameraman. But 
the strongest argument against authenticity stems from what really crashed at 
Roswell in 1947. According to recently released air force files, the wreckage 

actually came from a balloon-borne array of radar reflectors and monitoring 
equipment launched as part of the secret Project Mogul and intended to monitor 
acoustic emissions from anticipated Soviet nuclear tests. In fact, materials from 
the device match contemporary descriptions of the debris (foiled paper, sticks, 
and tape) given by rancher Brazel’s children and others (Berlitz and Moore, 
1980; Thomas, 1995). 

Interestingly, the film failed to agree with earlier purported eyewitness 
testimony about the alleged autopsy. For example, multiple medical informants 
described the Roswell creatures as lacking ears and having only four fingers 
with no thumb (Berlitz and Moore, 1980), whereas the autopsy film depicts a 
creature with small ears and five fingers in addition to a thumb. Ergo, either the 
previous informants are hoaxers, or the film is a hoax, or both. 

Although the film was supposedly authenticated by Kodak, only the leader 
tape and a single frame were submitted for examination, not the entire footage. 
In fact, a Kodak spokesman told the Sunday Times of London: “There is no 
way I could authenticate this. I saw an image on the print. Sure it could be old 
film, but it doesn’t mean it is what the aliens were filmed on.” 

Various objections to the film’s authenticity came from journalists, UFO 
researchers, and scientists who viewed the film. They noted that it bore a 
bogus, nonmilitary codemark (“Restricted access, AOI classification”) that 
disappeared after it was criticized; that the anonymous photographer’s alleged 
military status had not been verified; and that the injuries sustained by the 
extraterrestrial were inconsistent with an air crash. On the basis of such 
objections, an article in the Sunday Times of London advised: “RELAX. The 
little green men have not landed. A much-hyped film purporting to prove that 
aliens had arrived on earth is a hoax.” (Chittenden, 1995) 

Similar opinions on the film came even from prominent Roswell-crash 
partisans: Kent Jeffrey, an associate of the Center for UFO Studies and author 
of the “Roswell Declaration” (a call for an executive order to declassify any 
United States government information on UFOs and alien intelligence) stated 
“up front and unequivocally there is no (zero!!!) doubt in my mind that this 
film is a fraud.” (1995) Even arch Roswell promoter Stanton T. Friedman said: 
“I saw nothing to indicate the footage came from the Roswell incident, or any 
other UFO incident for that matter” (“Alien or Fake?” 1995). 

Still other critics found many inconsistencies and suspicious elements in the 
alleged autopsy. For example, in one scene the “doctors” wore white, hooded 
anticontamination suits that could have been neither for protection from 

radiation (elsewhere the personnel are examining an alien body without such 
suits), nor for protection from the odor of decay or from unknown bacteria or 
viruses (either would have required some type of breathing apparatus). Thus it 
appears that the outfits served no purpose except to conceal the doctors’ 

American pathologists offered still more negative observations. Cyril Wecht, 
former president of the National Association of Forensic Pathologists, seemed 
credulous but described the viscera in terms that might apply to supermarket 
meat scraps and sponges: “1 cannot relate these structures to abdominal 
contexts.” Again, he said about contents of the cranial area being removed: 
“This is a structure that must be the brain, if it is a human being. It looks like no 
brain that 1 have ever seen, whether it is a brain filled with a tumor, a brain that 
has been radiated, a brain that has been traumatized and is hemorragic.... 
(Wecht, 1995) Much more critical was the assessment of nationally known 
pathologist Dominick Demaio who described the autopsy on television’s 
“American Journal” (1995): “I would say it’s a lot of bull.” 

Houston pathologist Ed Uthman (1995) was also bothered by the unrealistic 
viscera, stating: “The most implausible thing of all is that the ‘alien’ just had 
amorphous lumps of tissue in ‘her’ body cavities. 1 cannot fathom that an alien 
who had external organs so much like ours could not have some sort of 
definitive structural organs internally.” As well, “the prosectors did not make an 
attempt to arrange the organs for demonstration for the camera.” Uthman also 
observed that there was no body block, a basic piece of equipment used to prop 
up the trunk for examination and the head for brain removal. He also pointed 
out that “the prosector used scissors like a tailor, not like a pathologist or 
surgeon” (pathologists and surgeons place the middle or ring finger in the 
bottom scissors hole and use the forefinger to steady the scissors near the 
blades). Uthman further noted that “the initial cuts in the skin were made a little 
too Hollywood-like, too gingerly, like operating on a living patient” whereas 
autopsy incisions are made faster and deeper. Uthman faulted the film for 
lacking what he aptly termed “technical verisimilitude.” 

The degree of realism in the film has been debated, even by those who 
believe the film is a hoax. Some, like Kent Jeffrey (1995), thought the autopsy 
was done on a specially altered human corpse. On the other hand, many 
including movie special effects experts believed a dummy had been used. One 
suspicious point in that regard was that significant close-up views of the 
creature’s internal organs were consistently out of focus (“Alien or Fake?” 


“American Journal” (1995) also featured a special effects expert who 
doubted the film’s authenticity and demonstrated how the autopsy 
“incisions”—which left a line of “blood” as the scalpel was drawn across the 
alien’s skin—could easily have been faked. (The secret went unexplained but 
probably consisted of a tube fastened to the far side of the blade.) 

In contrast to the somewhat credulous response of a Hollywood special 
effects filmmaker on the Fox program, British expert Cliff Wallace of Creature 
Effects provided the following assessment: 

None of us were of the opinion that we were watching a real alien autopsy, 
or an autopsy on a mutated human which has also been suggested. We all 
agreed that what we were seeing was a very good fake body, a large 
proportion of which had been based on a lifecast. Although the nature of the 
film obscured many of the things we had hoped to see, we felt that the 
general posture and weighting of the corpse was incorrect for a body in a 
prone position and had more in common with a cast that had been taken in 
an upright position. 

We did notice evidence of a possible molding seam line down an arm in 
one segment of the film but were generally surprised that there was little 
other evidence of seaming which suggests a high degree of workmanship. 

We felt that the filming was done in such a way as to obscure details 
rather than highlight them and that many of the parts of the autopsy that 
would have been difficult to fake, for example the folding back of the chest 
flaps, were avoided, as was anything but the most cursory of limb 
movement. We were also pretty unconvinced by the lone removal sequence. 
In our opinion the insides of the creature did not bear much relation to the 
exterior where muscle and bone shapes can be easily discerned. We all 
agreed that the filming of the sequence would require either the use of two 
separate bodies, one with chest open, one with chest closed, or significant 
redressing of one mortal. Either way the processes involved are fairly 
complicated and require a high level of specialized knowledge. 

Another expert, Trey Stokes—a Hollywood special effects “motion 
designer” whose film credits include The Abyss, The Blob, Robocop Two, 
Batman Returns, Gremlins II, Tales from the Crypt , and many others—provided 
an independent analysis at CSICOP’s request. Interestingly, Stokes’ critique 

also indicated that the alien figure was a dummy cast in an upright position. He 
further noted that it seemed lightweight and “rubbery,” that it therefore moved 
unnaturally when handled, especially in one shot in which “the shoulder and 
upper arm actually are floating rigidly above the table surface, rather than 
sagging back against it” as would be expected. (Stokes, 1995) 

CSICOP staffers (Executive Director Barry Karr, Skeptical Inquirer 
Assistant Editor Tom Genoni, Jr., and the writer) monitored developments in 
the case. Before the film aired, CSICOP issued a press release, briefly 
summarizing the evidence against authenticity and quoting CSICOP Chairman 
Paul Kurtz as stating: “The Roswell myth should be permitted to die a deserved 
death. Whether or not we are alone in the universe will have to be decided on 
the basis of better evidence than that provided by the latest bit of Roswell 
fakery. Television executives have a responsibility not to confuse programs 
designed for entertainment with news documentaries.” 

—Joe Nickell 


“Alien or Fake?” Sheffield Star (August 18, 1995). 

“American Journal” (September 6, 1995). 

Berlitz, Charles, and Moore, William L. The Roswell Incident (Grosset and Dunlap, 1980; Berkley Books, 

Chittenden, Maurice. “Film that ‘Proves’ Aliens Visited Earth Is a Hoax,” (London) Sunday Times (July 
30, 1995). 

Clark, Jerome. “UFO Hoaxes” in Encyclopedia of Hoaxes, Stein, Gordon, ed. (Gale Research, 1993). 

Kent, Jeffrey. “Bulletin 2: The Purported 1947 Roswell Film,” Internet (May 26, 1995). 

Kurtz, Paul. Quoted in CSICOP press release: “Alien Autopsy: Pact or Fiction? Film a Hoax Concludes 
Scientific Organization” (April 25, 1995). 

Nickell, Joe, and Fischer, John F. “The Crashed-Saucer Forgeries,” The International UFO Reporter 
(March/April 1990). 

Stokes, Trey. Personal communication, (August 29-31, 1995). 

Stringfield, Leonard H. Situation Red: The UFO Siege (Doubleday, 1977). 

Thomas, Dave. “The Roswell Incident and Project Mogul,” Skeptical Inquirer (July-August, 1995). 

Uthman, Ed. “Fox’s ‘Alien Autopsy’: A Pathologist’s View,” Usenet, (September 15, 

Wallace, Cliff. Letter to Union Pictures, (August 3, 1995), quoted in Wallace’s letter to Graham Birdsall, 
UFO Magazine (August 16, 1995), quoted on Para-Net (August 22, 1995). 

Wecht, Cyril. Quoted on “Alien Autopsy: Fact or Fiction?” Fox Network (August 28, and September 4, 

alien gallery The illustrations that appear on the following four pages represent 

classic examples of alien beings that have been reported from 1947 to the 
present. 1 have researched each case in order to depict these beings as 
accurately as possible. 

The Humanoids (Charles Bowen, et al., 1969) was a useful reference for 
some of the earlier cases. 1 have used artistic license only where insufficient 
information was available to determine exactly what was seen. 

Whenever possible in occupant cases it is important that the investigators 
work with illustrators, or with the witnesses themselves, to produce drawings of 
the alien beings as well as getting detailed verbal descriptions. Only the 
combination of words and images can give a reasonably complete idea of the 
physical appearance of the reported beings. 

Villa Santrva, Italy 
August 14,1947 

Caracas, Venezuela 
November 28, 1954 

Kelly-Hopkinsville, Ky. 
August 21-22, 1955 

Minas Gerais, Brazil 
October 15, 1957 

Minas Gerais, Brazi 
October 15,1957 

Whitfield, N.H. 
September 19, 1961 

South Ashbumham, Mass. 

Ashland, Neb. 
December 3,1967 

Houston, Tex. 
May 1973 

Copjtgt C 2000 by Dmd W. Clwoe 

Houston, Tex. 
May 1973 

Rawlins, Wyo 
October 25. 1974 

Baltimore, Md. 
Summer 1973 

Pascagoula, Miss. 
October 11,1973 

Aveley, Essex, England 
October 27,1974 

Aveley, Essex, England 
October 27,1974 

I \ 

•' ® j 

V if 

Alamogordo, N.M. 
August 13,1975 

Heber-Snowftake, Ariz. Heber-Snowflake, Ariz. 
November 5,1975 November 5, 1975 

Copyist ® 2000 bj D«id W. Chace 

Allagash Wilderness, Me. 
August 26,1976 

(* c 

Allagash Wilderness, Me. 
August 26,1976 

<&>■ 0 

Lynnwood, Wash. 
July 1961 

Indianapolis, Ind. 
June 30,1983 

Upstate, N Y. 
December 26-27,1985 

Upstate, N Y. 
December 26-27,1985 



Charleston, S.C. 
March 18, 1978 


Indianapois, Ind. 
June 30,1983 

Gulf Breeze, Fla. 
December 2,1987 

Copjiryt o 2000 bj Daiid W. Chats 

Gulf Breeze, Fla. 
December 2, 1987 

Rural, Ark. 
September 29,1992 

Hayes, Va. 

Victoria, Australia 
August 8,1993 

Dutch Harbor, Alaska 
November 1991 

Bothell, Wash. 
February 9, 199S 

Woodinvlle, Wash. Varginha, Brazil The alien archetype 

January 1,1996 January 20,1996 in the year 2000 

Ccpjrigh © 2000 by Daml W Chaos 

For all we know, subtle differences in the pattern of scales on a reptilian 
being, or the shape of the eyes on a Gray being, may ultimately turn out to be 
very important in solving the UFO mystery. 

It is hoped that this pioneering effort to document reported alien features 
will prove useful to serious researchers in the future. 

—David W. Chace 


Bowen, Charles, ed. The Humanoids (Henry Regnery, 1969). 

Chace, David W. A Visual Guide to Alien Beings (Privately published, 1995, 1996, 1997). 

alien iconography. The familiar image of the little, big-headed humanoid 
with large, wraparound eyes is the result of an evolutionary process. Like 
Jesus’s portrait in art (Nickell, 1998) or the typical likeness of Santa Claus 
(Flynn, 1993), today’s ubiquitous alien is the product of a selection process 
involving interaction between alleged encounterees and the popular media. 

Putting aside science fiction examples, and beginning with the origin of the 
modern UFO era in 1947, a great variety of aliens characterized the early 
period (see for example Huyghe, 1996). There were the “little green men” 
reported in 1947 (Cohen, 1982), the beautiful, humanlike beings who appeared 
to “contactees” in the 1950s, the hairy dwarfs common in 1954, and many other 
varieties of alleged extraterrestrials reported in close encounters to the present 
(Story, 1980). 

The accompanying “Alien Time Line” (Nickell, 1997) depicts a selection of 
such alien beings. It has appeared in various magazines and on several 
television programs, including ABC’s 20/20 in a documentary on the “Alien 
Autopsy” hoax. There it was used to show that the extraterrestrials that were 
supposedly retrieved from the 1947 “flying disk” crash near Roswell, New 
Mexico, were of a type not popularly imagined until many years later. 

This type—appearing with the first widely reported alien abduction, the Betty 
and Barney Hill case of 1961—is now seen everywhere (in slight variations) on 
T-shirts, caps, ties, and other clothing items; featured on posters, wall hangings, 
book jackets, etc.; and fashioned into candles, toys, keychains, and countless 
other items. 

As part of an elaborate extraterrestrial mythology that has developed, the 
implication seems to be that the aliens are “time travelers”—in effect us as it is 
assumed we will be in our distant evolutionary future (Nickell, 1984). (This is 
in contrast to another mythical entity, Bigfoot, who is seen as our beastly 
relative from the remote past.) As futuristic beings, therefore, the aliens have 
dwindling bodies (due to presumed physical inactivity) and large brains (the 
imagined product of increased intelligence). Some critics, however, are 
skeptical of all human/humanoid models. As one commentator states, “While it 
seems incredible that life does not exist elsewhere in the universe, it is equally 
incredible that it should resemble man” (Palmer, 1951). 

Nevertheless, although they are sometimes cute and sometimes sinister (no 
doubt as expressions of our collective hopes and fears), they represent a 
relatively standardized type that is a creation in mankind’s own image. 

—Joe Nickell 


Cohen, D. The Encyclopedia of Monsters (Dorsett Press, 1982). 

Flynn, T. The Trouble with Christmas. Buffalo (Prometheus Books, 1993). 

Huyghe, P. The Field Guide to Extraterrestrials (Avon Books, 1996). (I relied heavily on this source, and 
Vallee 1969.) 

Nickell, J. “The ‘Hangar 18’ tales: A folkloristic approach,” Common Ground (June, 1984). 

_. “Extraterrestrial Iconography,” Skeptical Inquirer (September/October, 1997). 

Palmer, R. “New Report on the Flying Saucers. Fate (January, 1951). 

Story, R. D. The Encyclopedia of UFOs. (Doubleday/New English Library, 1980). 


Flat woode 

1954 1955 

8 "Flying 5aucar" 195 O'e era of “Hairy Dwarfo” common 

js craze begin® “Contact®®®" 

2 . 




POSTSCRIPT: Joe NickelTs “Alien Time Line” and entry on “alien 
iconography” could lead to misunderstandings for students of UFO culture 
interested in the evolution of ideas about aliens. Nickell, by his account, relied 
heavily on Patrick Huyghe’s Field Guide to Extraterrestrials for the creation of 
the Time Line, but the book was not a comprehensive catalog of UFO entity 
encounters. It was a sampler of cases intended only to demonstrate the diversity 
of imagery. It includes only a small fraction of the total number of alien images 
appearing in UFO culture. Within any given type of alien, the book tends to use 
a representative example of the image with no preference given to it being either 
the first of the type or its most popular or influential manifestation. This leads to 
significant omissions if the interest is to display ordering in a chronology. 

The most glaring omission has to be the absence of the face that appears on 
the cover of Whitley Strieber’s bestselling book Communion. Since it is 
blatantly the template of most images of the Grays since 1987—and easily the 
most significant image in the history of alien images—this omission is 
astonishing. The omission of representations of Grays from the works of Budd 
Hopkins, the most visible of alien abduction authors, is also troubling if one 
seeks to understand the present standardization of the form of the Grays. 

The aliens rendered by Steven Kilbum in Missing Time (Hopkins, 1981) are, 
for example, the first known examples of large-headed degenerate humanoids 
to display completely black eyes. The thin arms, disproportionately short legs, 

and slight paunch to the abdomen are distinctive and demonstrate an 
unambiguous relationship to the main alien in Steven Spielberg’s 1977 
blockbuster Close Encounters of the Third Kind. 

Hopkins’ next book Intruders (1987) introduced the thin, high necks into 
Gray iconography. This trait is clearly related to the Art Deco style of the main 
alien in Spielberg’s film. Prior to that film none of the Grays drawn by alien 
abductees had such necks. Reinforcing the assumption is the presence of all¬ 
black eyes and a number of facial features in both the film alien and drawings 
in the Intruders book. 

Whether or not Hopkins recognized the similarities, he failed to understand 
the influence of the film for a simple reason. He thought the aliens in the film 
were designed to look like aliens that had already been reported in the UFO 
literature. He knew that J. Allen Hynek served as a consultant, and he thought 
that guaranteed a basis in prior cases. He stated this in a radio interview 
published in the Spring 1988 Skeptical Inquirer: “Allen Hynek had many 
drawings that he gave to Steven Spielberg for use when he made Close 
Encounters of the Third Kind, which of course was one of the biggest box 
office successes of all time. There was a serious attempt to follow the data that 
Allen Hynek and other people had gathered. So I think you can say Steven 
Spielberg popularized the essential physical type that the UFO reports had 
engendered before that time.” 

This misimpression is easy to understand since Newsweek (November 21, 
1977) reported that the chief alien was “designed by Carlo Rimbaldi out of a 
consensus of reports.” An essay by Hynek for the noveli-zation of the film also 
creates such an impression with the line, “In particular, the appearance of the 
‘extraterrestrials’ were based on the most frequently reported features of such 

Neither Newsweek nor Hynek offer direct quotes by the builders of the film 
alien. A comprehensive article on the effects work for the film in a special 
double issue of Cinefantastique in 1978 has the builders denying this. Carlo 
Rimbaldi specifically states, “When we met, he told me he wanted something 
about 4 feet tall with a very large head and a slender body, but he gave me no 
actual designs.” Rimbaldi then goes on to explain his reasoning for why the 
alien appears as it does: 

I felt that, though humanoid in form, the extraterrestrials would be at 
least ten to twenty thousand years more advanced than humans, so I 

designed the head proportionately larger. But with their increased reliance 
on pure intellect, they would have a decreased need for such senses as 
hearing and smelling, and so the ears and nose and other facial features 
would become less prominent. And because of their extreme technological 
orientation, 1 felt they would no longer smile as broadly as we do on earth; 
but since they would still retain certain emotions, 1 gave them a slight 
smile. Also, as the brain expanded, other parts of the body would take an 
opposite course. The need for muscular movements would diminish, and so 
their limbs would become thinner and longer. (Shay, 1978) 

This is recognizably the same argument that H.G. Wells introduced many 
decades earlier about the future evolution of the human form. It was repeatedly 
used in the early science fiction pulps and even found its way into science 
journalism. Anyone who thinks Rimbaldi is just hyping himself in these quotes 
should dig up the Cinefantastique article and observe the paper trail of 
discarded concepts and drawings made by the alien builders in the course of 
their work. Add to this the readily confirmed observation that none of the 
drawings of Grays in the abduction accounts before that time had the combined 
traits of all-black large eyes and thin, high necks, and the role of the film in 
influencing subsequent UFO iconography is solidly established. 

Nickell’s Time Line presents a grasshopper alien over the year 1973 and 
labels it insectoid, implying either its origin or dominance at that time. Mike 
Shea said nothing about it until 1988, and he is fuzzy about whether it was 
1973 or 1974. Ted Owens claimed contact with a pair of grasshopper aliens 
named Twitter and Tweeter as early as 1965 and was a bit more vocal about it 
at the time. Insectoids do not present a major presence until the 1990s after the 
introduction of ancient Lovecraftian god-like mantis beings by Whitley Strieber 
and John Lear. (Kottmeyer, 1999) 

The significance of the Owens case and the intersection of UFO culture with 
Big Bug culture are discussed elsewhere. (Kottmeyer, 1996, 1997) The use of 
the Shea case on the Time Line introduces a systemic problem of method. 
Should the historian put a given drawing on the year a claimant alleges or 
believes he made contact, or on the year we can document the image was first 

If the interest is in the evolution of iconography, historians should favor the 
latter. The backdating could be fictitious for various reasons and the image 
subject to cultural influences between the claimed date of the experience and 

the putting of pen to paper. Nickell places Betty Andreasson’s drawing in 1967, 
but no drawing was made before 1977. This is important because in 1975 the 
television movie The UFO Incident aired, presenting the true-life story of the 
Hill abduction. The film followed the hypnotic regression narratives of Betty 
and Barney Hill more faithfully than we normally expect Hollywood 
productions to be, but the aliens are not exact replicas of what either of the 
Hills described and drew. 

Note the complaints by Betty Hill in a 1978 interview: 

My only serious criticism concerns the movie’s depiction of the aliens’ 
physical appearance. They did not look like that. The real ones looked more 
human than their humanoid counterparts. Also the movie shows them as being 
very short, but they weren’t. I’d say the leader was my size and I’m 5 feet tall. 
And they weren’t of such slender build.” (Clark, 1978) 

Similarly a comparison of the TV movie’s depiction and the drawings by 
David Baker (done in collaboration with Barney Hill and published in the April 
1972 issue of NICAP’s UFO Investigator) uncovers a number of important 
differences. There is a sharp angle to the inner corners of the eye sockets in the 
telefilm where the original shows a rounded curve. The pupils of the eyes are 
larger in the film. A crease above the eye is more pronounced in the film than in 
the drawing. The film alien has a slit mouth and a line in the film says it has no 
mouth at all. Baker is told a membrane hides the mouth. The eyes in the film 
also display a probably unintended effect that makes one eye appear blank 
when seen from a glancing camera angle. 

Betty Andreasson proved Raymond Fowler’s statement that “her powers of 
visual recall seemed unusually acute” by incorporating all the film’s 
modifications into her drawings of Quazgaa and his companions. (Fowler, 
1979.) The 1967 date claim makes no sense in the appearance of these details. 

The drawing labeled “little green men” and set on 1947 was first published 
in 1964 (by Johannis Luigi). By Johannis’s own account, the drawing probably 
was not faithful to drawings allegedly made in 1947 and subsequently lost by 
others. (Creighton, 1969) Of greater concern is the fact that the expression 
“little green men” does not seem to have been used in flying saucer journalism 
in 1947. (Bloecher, 1967) There is also no evidence it appeared in any 
newspaper clippings from the 1952 saucer wave, or for that matter in any 
saucer journalism between 1947 and August 1955. It seems to first appear in 
conjunction with the Kelly-Hopkinsville shoot’em up (in August of 1955). The 
press described the case as involving “an army of little green men” though in 

fact the witnesses denied the presence of any green color. 

A wire service story on August 25, 1955, by Air Force public relations man 
Captain Robert White reacting to the story also gave wide distribution to the 
phrase “little green men” and it appears in frequent use thereafter. There is no 
evidence whatever that little green men were a common form of saucer pilot 
and what little evidence we have suggests the phrase got transplanted from 
science fiction pulps. Fredric Brown, for example, speaks of the expression as a 
cliche in a September 1954 story Martians Go Home! (Kottmeyer, 1999) 

The 1978 Zanfretta alien is labeled reptilian, but one should beware that it is 
neither the first or significantly influential. Curiously, the Time Line’s drawing 
lacks the third eye that appeared in the original drawing. This caused some 
amusement among badfilm buffs for it made Zanfretta’s alien look rather like a 
cross between the reptilian Creature from the Black Lagoon (1954) and the 
three-eyed Mutant from The Day the World Ended (1956). 

There is one Reptoid type being as early as 1967, but the more significant 
omission here is any representation of the current version of reptoids seen in 
places like the M.I.T. conference (Pritchard, 1994), Linda Howe’s volumes, or 
Discover and Omni magazines around 1982, among other places. (Craft, 1996; 
Lewels, 1997) 

Lastly, we come to the issue of the use of the Time Line to demonstrate the 
anachronistic character of the Alien Autopsy Gray. We are told the type of alien 
described a “a little, big-headed humanoid with wraparound eyes” first 
appeared in 1961 with the Hill abduction. The initial descriptions of the entities 
in Betty Hill’s nightmares after the 1961 sighting are described as normal sized 
men with dark hair. Barney’s descriptions initially suggest military pilots. The 
wraparound eyes get added in 1964, and his version only turns fully humanoid 
after hearing tapes of the hypnotic regressions. (Kottmeyer, 1994, 1998) By the 
time of the Baker drawing, the hair and nose are gone. It is the 1975 telefilm 
that makes them little. This is a complex situation and hard to represent on a 
Time Line, one would have to agree. Yet it can’t be skirted given the 
importance of the Hill case. It has to be added that the drawing offered on the 
Time Line adds to the general confusion by making the shape of the head too 
globular and adding a thin neck. Such a neck is thoroughly anachronistic for a 
pre-Spielberg abductor Gray. 

The more serious error is the implication that there were no little, big-headed 
humanoids before the Hill case. As early as July 9, 1947, there appeared an 
item in the Houston (Texas) Post of a seaman who encountered a two-foot tall 

saucer pilot with a round head the size of a basketball. (Davis & Bloecher, 

In 1950, the Wiebadener Tagblatt (Germany) published a photo of a short 
alien with a large oval head and described as having large, glaring eyes. Berlitz 
and Moore published it The Roswell Incident (1980) with a cagey caption 
refusing to say “whether it may or may not pertain to certain significant aspects 
of the Roswell Incident.” Klaus Webner subsequently researched it and proved 
conclusively it was an April Fool’s joke perpetrated by reporter Wilhelm 
Sprunkel. He had confessed it in print two days afterwards and with Webner 
upon contact. (Webner, 1991) 

Additionally there are cases involving humanoids with big heads and short 
frames appearing during the 1954 French wave. These are contemporary 
enough to the alleged autopsy film to rebut the charge of anachronism. Big¬ 
headed men with degenerated bodies was a commonplace in the science fiction 
pulps in the early part of the century and pretty surely trace their ancestry to 
H.G. Wells’s writings about the future form of man. Wells himself never 
intended this form of future-man to be taken seriously as a scientific 
extrapolation. It started as a jest upon Herbert Spencer’s writings and the 
doctrine of orthogenesis that had a degree of acceptance among paleontologists. 
(Kottmeyer, 1998) 

Where the alien autopsy truly runs into trouble is when it bumps into a more 
compelling anachronism. During the film, the “doctor” removes a black 
membrane from the eyes. As discussed above, all-black eyes are 
unambiguously a post-Spielberg development without precedent among earlier 
Grays in the UFO literature. The notion of aliens having a removable covering 
membrane seems unknown prior to the 1976 film The Man Who Fell to Earth 
with David Bowie. 

The David Bowie character inserts membranes over his eyes so he can walk 
among humanity undetected as the alien that he is. In an interesting bit of 
malpractice, doctors who later examine him manage to fuse the membrane onto 
his eyes. I suppose one can consider it appropriate to have promoters of the 
Roswell crash, intended or unintended, borrowing material from a film with 
such a title. 

My final advice is to erase the numbers and use Huyghe’s drawings to prove 
what he intended to prove, namely, the diversity of the imagination in UFO 

Martin S. Kottmeyer 


Berlitz, Charles, and William Moore. The Roswell Incident (Grosset & Dunlap, 1980). 

Bloecher, Ted. Report on the Wave of 1947 (privately published, 1967). 

Clark, Jerry. “Betty Hill—The Closest Encounter,” Saga UFO Report (January 1978). 

Craft, Michael. Alien Impact (St. Martin’s Press, 1996). 

Creighton, Gordon. “The Villa Santina Case” in The Humanoids edited by Charles Bowen (Henry 
Regnery, 1969). 

Fowler, Raymond. The Andreasson Affair (Prentice-Hall, 1979). 

Gross, Loren. UFOS: A History — 1952 in 6 volumes (privately published, 1987-1999). 

Howe, Linda. Glimpses of Other Realities: volume 1: Facts and Eyewitnesses (publisher? and date?). 
Kottmeyer, Martin S. “The Eyes That Spoke,” RE ALL News (July 1994). 

_. “Space Bug a Boo Boo,” Talking Pictures (Summer 1996). 

_.“Bugs Baroque,” UFO Magazine (July/August 1997). 

_. “Varicose Brains,” Magonia (February 1998); also on the Magonia Web site. 

_. “Heading into the Future,” Magonia (September 1999). 

_. “The Fool on the Hill Case,” Doubting Thomas (October-November 1998). 

_. “Graying Mantis” RE ALL News (May 1999). 

_. “Little Green Men” (unpublished manuscript). 

Kroll, J. “The UFOs are Coming!” Newsweek (November 21, 1997). 

Lewels, J. The God Hypothesis ( Wild Flower Press, 1997). 

Pritchard, Andrea, ed. Alien Discussions—Proceedings of the Abduction Study Conference (North 
Cambridge Press, 1994). 

Shay, Don “Close Encounter Extraterrestrials” Cinefantastique (1978). 

Webner, Klaus. “The Strange Case of Mister X” The Probe Report (September 1981). 

Alien Identities (Govardhan Hill, 1993). Richard Thompson relates how 
ancient Vedic texts from India may not be folklore and myth, but could 
accurately preserve accounts of human interaction with extraterrestrial visitors. 
These stories portray the peoples of India from 3000 b.c. onward being in 
contact with advanced beings from a host of other worlds who traveled here in 
aerial vehicles that resemble modern accounts of UFO craft. 

—Randall Fitzgerald 

Alien Impact (St. Martin’s Press, 1996). To help himself understand his own 
“strange, UFO-type encounters,” Michael Craft explores the role of 
consciousness in the UFO experience. He concludes that UFO contactees, 
shamans, channelers, and white and black magic practitioners may all be seeing 
the same thing, a deliberately deceptive phenomena stage-managed by cosmic 
tricksters who are conditioning our species to engage in new behaviors. 

—Randall Fitzgerald 

alien motives A fundamental question in the great UFO-ET debate is: “If 
aliens are indeed visiting us, why are they here? 

Carl Sagan once wondered disdainfully “Why would all the anthropologists 
in the neighborhood suddenly come to Earth?” J. Allen Hynek once asked why 
would aliens visit Earth to scare people by swooping near their cars? Clearly 
these are inappropriate questions since there is no basis for suggesting a 
significant number of visitors are anthropologists. Furthermore, people who 
travel a great deal on Earth rarely bump into anthropologists. Because people in 
autos may be frightened by close approaches of flying saucers certainly doesn’t 
mean that the purpose of the flights are to frighten the people. Surely drivers of 
the crude automobiles of a century ago weren’t driving for the purpose of 
frightening horses, even though horses were sometimes frightened by the 

Before considering a host of possible reasons for visiting Earth, it is useful 
to examine travel by Earthlings. The reasons for travel and the locations to 
which one travels depend on a number of factors such as how long will the trip 
take? What will it cost and who will pay the bill? How much time and money 
can be spent? How important is the trip? 

Between 1890 and 1910 millions of poor immigrants came from Europe to 
North America in steerage class in ships seeking an opportunity to improve 
their lives and their families or to escape tyranny. Many had to save for years to 
obtain money for their passage. Before WW II, sleek luxury liners carried many 
people, most of them quite rich, between Europe and North America in great 
comfort. During WW II the Queen Elizabeth served as a troop carrier hauling 
15,000 soldiers per trip at government expense. Their objective was to fight in 
a war against tyranny. 

In May, 1927, Charles Lindberg received great acclaim for the first solo 
flight across the Atlantic. Last year ten million people flew across the ocean 
with very few of them being pilots. Some have gone to London or Paris or New 
York on the Concorde at great expense to spend a weekend. Impossible with the 
Queen Elizabeth. It is interesting that many military bombers depend entirely 
on aerial refueling to reach distant targets. Commercial airliners land for 

Anybody who spends much time at airports knows that there are many 
different reasons for flying. With regard to interstellar travel, one might expect 
that the number of trips and travelers would be determined by the ease of the 
trip and the importance of the trip to whoever pays the bill. 

What assumptions can be made about alien motivation? It seems to me there 
is really only one: namely that every civilization would be concerned about its 
own survival and security. That certainly seems true on Earth. Compare the 
annual U.S. budget for national security concerns (Roughly $300 billion) with 
that for anthropology and astronomy: surely under $1 billion. Security concerns 
would certainly require that an eye be kept on all primitives in the 
neighborhood. Especially close scrutiny would be required for those 
civilizations that will soon be able to take their brand of friendship, when it is 
hostility as it is for Earthlings, out to bother nearby civilizations. It was 
perfectly obvious by the end of WW 11 to any alien observer that in less than a 
century (which is no time at all by cosmic standards) this primitive Earthling 
society would be able to reach the stars. Reasons for concern might be the 
simple fact that between 1939 and 1946, we Earthlings killed at least 50 million 
of our own kind and destroyed 1700 cities. Signs indicating that interstellar 
flight would soon be a reality were: (1) nuclear weapon explosions; (2) the 
flights of V-2 rockets gradually improved upon for intercontinental ballistic 
missiles; and (3) the use of powerful radar indicating mastery of a whole new 
area of technology. 

It should be no surprise at all that the only place in the world in July, 1947, 
where visitors could study all three new, futuristic technologies was 
Southeastern New Mexico. Trinity site on White Sands Missile Range was 
where the first atomic bomb was exploded. WSMR was also where dozens of 
captured German V-2 rockets were being tested (by their German builders, for 
the U.S.) and where the best tracking radar was installed to follow the missiles 
which often didn’t go where they were supposed to go. Roswell is not far away. 

In short then, it may well be that aliens are primarily visiting to evaluate our 
society, our technology and countermeasures for it, and to make sure that 
Earthlings do not move out into space until we get our act together. One often 
hears the ridiculous question “why don’t they land on the White House lawn, 
and say “take me to your leader?” Does anybody believe that the President of 
the United States speaks for six billion Earthlings?. The UN doesn’t allow 
membership for individual cities. Why would we expect the Galactic 
Federation to allow individual countries (as opposed to a planet or solar 
system) to apply for membership? 

Many astronauts have expressed surprise that so little progress has been 
made in terms of manned space exploration since our first moon landing in 
1969. Many had expected that by now there would be bases on the moon and 

successful manned expeditions to Mars. Furthermore, it is not a trivial question 
as to why we didn’t launch Apollo 18, and Apollo 19 to the moon. All the 
hardware was built, the crews were selected and trained, so the excuse that it 
would have cost too much money sounds very hollow indeed. Are we being 

An important aspect of this line of reasoning is that it would seem , since it 
takes so little time once one starts down the advanced technology road, (look 
back just 100 years) that during any period of a few centuries there are very 
few civilizations in the neighborhood going through the transition from being 
stuck on one’s own planet to being able to bother the neighbors. Our neighbors 
are either way behind us or way ahead. Hence, everybody in the neighborhood 
would be concerned about the activities of a primitive society (Earth) whose 
major activity is tribal warfare. Note that planetary military budgets total near 
$1 trillion per year. Yet every single day more than 30,000 Earthling children 
die needlessly of preventable disease and starvation. Quarantining us would 
seem to be expected rather than surprising. Remember that a major motto here, 
for dealing with strangers, is shoot first and ask questions later. If you were an 
alien,, would you want Earthlings out there? 

Obviously, if interstellar jaunts within our neighborhood are as routine for 
our visitors as transatlantic flights are for us, we might expect an enormous 
variety of motivations for traveling here. What follows is a relatively brief list: 

1. Perhaps our visitors are broadcasters with a weekly show called “Idiocy in 
the Boondocks.” 

2. Visitors might be mining engineers. Earth is the densest planet in the solar 
system which means more rare, expensive, dense metals than on any other 
planet including Rhenium, Gold, Uranium, Platinum, Rhodium, Tungsten, 
Osmium, etc. The California and Klondike gold rushes of the 19 th century 
stimulated a great deal of often difficult travel. 

3. Visitors could be graduate students doing thesis work on the development of 
a primitive society, on foreign languages, on modern warfare. 

4. Earth could be the equivalent of a refueling station for Ocean going ships of 
the last century. 

5. Gas, food, lodging next exit. 

6. Perhaps this is the center of a vacation industry. Hunting and fishing; no 
license required. 

7. Perhaps Earth is the Devil’s Island of the local neighborhood with bad boys 
and girls having been dumped here. Might be why we are so nasty to each 
other. Georgia and Australia were initially settled by convicts. 

8. Perhaps visitors have come to observe a natural catastrophe they know will 
happen soon. 

9. Visitors might be collecting plant, animal, and human genetic material, of 
which there is an enormous variety, for breeding projects. Older planets 
might have much less variety available. 

10. Earth could be the “neutral” site for ET chess matches a la Fisher and 
Spassky on Iceland. 

11. We may have a convenient location from which one set of marauders might 
be attacking another as the U.S. and Japan fought terrible wars on native 
islands in the Pacific. 

12. Perhaps visitors are checking out a colony or colonies started here a long 
time ago. 

13. Some visitors may be completing cross-galaxy flying solos. 

14. Visitors may be intelligence spies for a variety of other civilizations in the 

15. Perhaps some visitors are gathering specimens for alien zoos. 

16. Buyers for ET curio and antique dealers may be collecting specimens. 

17. Perhaps some visitors are being punished. Spend two weeks near Earth, 
punishment to last a lifetime. 

18. Perhaps they are ET repairmen seeking the cause of interference with long 
existing communications, computing, or beacon services in the solar system 

19. Some ETs might be time travelers coming back to change things 

20. Some visitors might be ancestors from the distant past who have been 
traveling at close to the speed of light, coming back home to their 
descendants’ world. Like Methuselah living 900 years. 

21. Are some ETs talent recruiters for an ET sports group looking for bigger, 
faster, stronger recruits? 

22. Some visitors might be advance men for space religious missionaries. 
Earthling missionaries often go to the ends of the Earth. 

23. Artists, musicians, sculptures may be here to record new scenery in new 

24. Perhaps this is the only planet in the neighborhood that doesn’t have a 
planetary government or where a host of languages are still in use despite 
space shuttle trips around the world in 90 minutes. 

25. Perhaps the rules of the local Galactic Federation require that a complete 
inventory of the fauna, flora, structures and resources of our planet be done 
every 2000 years. 

26. Remembering there are many reports of huge “mother” ships, which 
apparently carry much smaller Earth excursion modules, the situation could 
be as complicated as an aircraft carrier serving as a base for several dozen 
smaller aircraft. Such a traveling city has pilots, cooks, mechanics, analysts, 
and many other specialized crew members. 

As the reader has now seen, there is no problem coming up with possible 
reasons for alien visitors; in fact, the possibilities are virtually endless. 

—Stanton T. Friedman 

alien roots For readers interested in CE-3 (close encounters of the third kind) 
aliens, it is important to realize that once upon a time there was no such thing 
as a “Gray.” Before the publication of The Andreasson Affair (Fowler, 1979), 
Missing Time (Hopkins, 1981), Intruders (Hopkins, 1987), Communion 
(Strieber, 1987), and other popular works by a then new breed of 
proponent/investigators, abductees claimed to have observed a wider range of 
alien creature types. Since then, however, abductees have described primarily 
bug-eyed gray humanoids. Skeptics could point out that a change in witness 
descriptions following the publication of a few books is decisive evidence that 
abductions are fantasies and not physical events. 

Abduction proponents of the 1980s may have become dissatisfied with 
earlier CE-3 entity descriptions, because many aliens seemed to them to look 
unlike any others. It was as if different alien races from all over the galaxy were 
visiting the Earth simultaneously. Certainly the abductionists could see that the 
situation undermined their favored view, the extraterrestrial hypothesis. They 
did not accept the possibility that abductees’ accounts are fantasies, which are 
as individual as nightmares: two dreamers’ descriptions of an exotic monster 
are never exactly the same. There were many fetal humanoid reports in CE-3s, 
however, so the proponents focused their research (and later books and articles 
discussed at UFO gatherings) on an evolving humanoid Gray, consistently 
ignoring other entity categories. Thus a mere handful of advocates changed the 

direction of abduction studies. 

Entity reports (formerly called occupant or landing cases) have been mired 
in credulousness and confusion from the very earliest CE-3s. This was so in 
part because most UFOlogists refused serious consideration of psychological 
and other non-extraterrestrial explanations for such reports. For many years this 
situation has obscured ties between CE-3 entities and earthly folklore, 
mythology, and literary tradition. 

Researchers have also ignored classifiable distinctions among CE-3 alien 
descriptions. Prior to the 1980s CE-3 creature reports were distributed more 
evenly into six categories: humans, humanoids, animals, robots, exotics 
(mutants or combinations of two or more types), and apparitions (ghostly 
creatures that can change shape or vanish). The six categories are based on 
physical characteristics only, and were not imposed on the data. They emerged 
from a study of scores of entity descriptions of CE-3s along with those of 
creatures from traditional and anthropological sources. This is not an attempt to 
construct an exo-biological tree of life for aliens. The subjects here are folklore 
and fantasy—not science—and the entity classifications offer some clarity to a 
mazelike segment of UFOlogy. 

CE-3 narratives are often fragmentary and sketches of aliens are amateurish, 
but most entity descriptions can readily be linked to one of the six categories. 
Witnesses’ awareness is acute and though they cannot always identify the type, 
they routinely capture key entity attributes, as these quotes show: “One looked 
human, but the others were little guys with big black eyes.” “Its face and hands 
—they were more like claws—were covered with thick hair or fur.” “It walked 
stiffly, like a robot.” “It’s got long appendages at ears, no nose, 
and maybe one eye in the center.” “One floated upwards, then just disappeared, 
like a ghost.” 

Previous Studies of 
CE-3 Entities 

In-depth studies of UFO/CE-3 entities have been few. The Humanoids 
(Bowen, 1969) was an early collection of mostly anecdotal case reviews: 
Jacques Vallee summarized 200 1954 European landings, Coral Lorenzen 
described 29 U.S. cases, and Gordon Creighton discussed 65 Latin American 
occupant and landing reports. Also in 1969, in Passport to Magonia, Vallee 
collected a century of worldwide landing reports (1868-1968)—923 brief 

sketches of cases—many of which involved entity sightings. David Webb and 
Ted Bloecher produced catalogues of sightings for various years of the 1970s 
and maintained the Humanoid study Group, which had collected 1000 CE-3 
reports. In these and other works, the writers made few attempts to classify the 
“humanoids” (then a newly coined synonym for aliens), and so possible entity 
distinctions are confused. Even so, the six entity types are evident in many of 
their accounts. In Webb’s 1973 study, witness descriptions were classifiable 
into six types, but the distribution is skewed (18 percent robots, 12 percent 
animals), perhaps because of same-year bias. 

Occasionally there are major studies such as Creighton’s piece on Brazilian 
abductee Antonio Villas-Boas. In the absence of meaningful case investigations 
of more than a handful of CE-3s, however, we plod through a mass of 
intriguing claims without guidance, and we do not learn much about ETs. 

The books, articles, and CE-3 narrative excerpts published by Ray Fowler, 
Budd Hopkins, and David Jacobs have focused on the fetal humanoid (though 
they don’t refer to its perinatal connections)—to the exclusion of the other five 
entity types. Jacobs (following Hopkins) implies that real abductees see only 
bug-eyed Grays, and the rest are mistakes. He dismisses the Imaginary 
Abductee Study in part because our subjects described too many entity types. 

T.E. Bullard’s lengthy study of about 300 abduction reports, UFO 
Abductions: Measure of a Mystery (1987), is an ambitious effort that will 
doubtless continue to be a resource for researchers. A problem is that the 
database for these abductions is fragmented, as Bullard admits. He cites 270 
cases, but includes in his references several newspaper accounts and similarly 
questionable sources. He concedes that there are only fifty good cases (about 
one out of five), and that even these are seriously flawed. Bullard 
acknowledges that no unambiguous scientific conclusion can be made about 
such fragmentary, minimal, and uncertain data. 

Bullard mentions only three types of entities (human, humanoid, and 
animal), and ignores or confuses evidence for the robot, exotic, and apparitional 
classes that make CE-3 entities consistent with entity types in mythology and 
folklore. Following earlier writers, he calls all entities “humanoid,” as if 
unaware that the word can also refer to a specific type of alien. But there are 
clear descriptions of robots in the Larson and Hickson cases, unmistakable 
exotics in the Garden Grove and Kendall reports, and a marvelous apparitional 
entity in a South African case. These CE-3 categories won’t go away, but his 
study doesn’t acknowledge their significance for entity typology. 

Examples of Six 
CE-3 Entity Types 

As the following examples show, most entity types in CE-3s and folk 
traditions classify themselves. Human and humanoid entities are self-evident 
and plentiful. Animal entities are rare in abduction lore but sometimes appear 
as part-animal exotics. Most robots are easy to recognize, whereas exotics are 
more complex. Consider two examples of exotic entities: the marvelously 
weird human/insectoid monster from the 1987 film Predator, and the 9-foot-tall 
floating biped with elephantine feet from the Garden Grove CE-3 hoax. These 
two entities have wildly varying anatomical particulars, but they are exotics in 
that each is a mutant or combines features of two or more other entity types. 
Apparitional beings are recognizable by their supernatural powers even if they 
are also shape-shifters, in which case their “home” shape determines their 
apparitional identity. 

Type # 1. Human entities: Human-appearing UFO creatures have the physical 
form of human beings and are identified as such by witnesses. Height: 5 to 7 
feet. Facial features, skin color, and hair are recognizably human. Bodily 
movement is normal, as are voice and manner, except for cases in which these 
beings are telepathic. Both genders are reported. Some humans are described as 
“Nordics”: tall, blond, of seeming Germanic or Scandinavian lineage. Clothing 
is usually a one-piece jumpsuit, as in the MUFON idealization which follows (in 
Figure 1). 

Type # 2. Humanoid entities: Humanoid (human-like) entities are the most 
frequently reported type of CE-3 alien, and are the original Little Green (now 
Gray) Men. (See Fig. 2.) Their appearance is almost always distinctly fetal or 
even embryonic: a short, frail stature; a disproportionately large head; pallid skin 
color; underdeveloped facial features; and a hairless body. The dominant feature 
of the Gray is their enormous, usually unblinking black eyes. Their size and 
distinctive slanted, almond shape has since become the standard. The pupils are 
usually double-sized and dark, with little or no white; some are cat-like and 

Body movement is normal to stiff, with frequent reports of floating. 
Telepathic communication with a witness is routine, though voice 
communication is sometimes reported. Despite their small stature and feeble 
physique, humanoids are reportedly very strong. They are usually clothed in a 

silver or gray skin-tight jumpsuit, although a few have worn a bulky “space 
suit” with an apparent breathing apparatus. Taller humanoids function as 
leaders or interact with the abductee during an abduction. 

Behavior ranges from impish teasing to brutal torment, but is usually 
clinically objective. Gender is usually unspecified, and although male and 
female humanoids are reported, when seen unclothed most humanoids show no 
genitalia. But not all: Antonio Villas-Boas’ 1957 claim was only the first of 
many alleged alien/human sexual encounters. This “sexy CE-3” trend 
reappeared suddenly in the 1980s, especially in the works of Hopkins and 
Jacobs, and quickly became (and has remained) the primary focus of many 
abductees and investigators. The abductee may “bond” with one humanoid 
abductor during the course of the examination or its aftermath. The bond may 
or may not be sexual, though sexual involvement leading to pregnancy or 
“genetic” activities between humanoids and abductees has allegedly occurred. 

Type # 3 . Animal entitles: CE-3 animal entities, rare except in Latin 
American reports, show distinctly mammalian, reptilian, or other animalistic 
features. (See Fig. 3.) They exhibit fur, claws, a tail, scales or similar epidermal 
texture, pointed ears, enlarged teeth, and non-human eyes with vertical pupils 
(sometimes glowing). There are a few reports of insect-like creatures, with 
exoskeletons and pincers. Height: 2 to 8 feet. Most animal entities assume an 
erect stance, although some slouching, ape-like postures and body movements 
are reported. Communication modes range from growls to telepathy. Gender is 
undetermined and few clothed animals are described. Animal entities 
sometimes carry an unpleasant odor. 

Most alien animals appear in CE-3 reports in the form of exotic entities, 
specifically as animal/human, animal/apparition, or other combinations. Few 
reports tell of extended communication, close involvement, or bonding between 
abductees and CE-3 animals; rather, encounters tend to be violent. Although 
abductees elsewhere have not encountered many animal abductors, three 
animal entities appear in the sixteen narratives of the 1977 Imaginary Abductee 

Type # 4 . Robot entities: CE-3 robots (Fig. 4) seem to be made of metallic or 
other non-organic materials, and they move at various speeds in a stiff or 
otherwise unnatural manner. They sometimes float or fly. Some have glowing 
eyes. Height: a startling range of 6 inches to 20 feet. Their shapes are mostly 
bipedal, but huge building-like machines are reported. Communication: voice 

and telepathy. Clothing includes “welder’s helmets,” padded space suits, and 
bubble-dome headgear (for improbable air-breathing robots?). Witnesses may 
have difficulty distinguishing robots from other creatures that would be 
perceived to move clumsily in bulky suits. 

Type #5. Exotic entities: Exotic entities (Fig. 5) are mutants or combinations of 
two or more other entity types. They display extraordinary physical 
characteristics and may be grotesque and/or repulsive (at least to earthlings). A 
richly diverse category, exotics include the infamous Bug-Eyed Monsters of 
science fiction, mythical beings such as the Minotaur (a man/bull), creatures 
with anatomical deformities (e.g., Cyclops), assorted demons, and a group of 
reportedly bizarre CE-3 entities. 

One subset of exotic entities may relate to birth memories. It includes 
tentacled placental/umbilical dragons of myth and legend, which are updated in 
science-fiction and fantasy films as special-effects monsters dripping with birth 
gore (e.g., in the Alien film series). Although tentacled aliens are common in 
sci-fi magazine illustrations, they are paradoxically rare in CE-3 narratives. 

A. B. C. D. E. F. 

Fig. 1. Human-type entities 

A. MUFON idealization of a typical human entity. B. Australian case, 9/6/73. C. 
Example of legendary “Man in Black,” a shadowy being of official or unearthly 
origins notorious for alleged contacts with UFO witnesses after sightings. D. 
Christ-like human in Winchester, England, 11/14/76. E. Vila Velha, Brazil, 
2/3/73. Note puffy variation on usual jumpsuit. F. Early Contactee George 
Adamski’s “Venusian” friend, allegedly met 11/20/52. Most Contactee entities 
are human. 

Fig. 2. Humanoid-type entities 

A. MUFON idealization of a humanoid entity. B. Humanoid specter from the 
peak time of a major UFO flap, Goffstown, New Hampshire, 11/2/73. C. 
Policeman Herbert Schirmer’s humanoid, Ashland, Nebraska, 12/3/67. D. 
Policeman Lonnie Zamora’s two humanoids near their egg-shaped craft, 
Socorro, New Mexico, 4/24/64. E. Paulo Silvieira humanoid, Itaperuna, Brazil, 
9/22/71. F. Travis Walton’s explicitly fetal humanoid, Heber, Arizona, 11/5/75, 
reported about two weeks after the telecast of the Betty Hill abduction, The UFO 
Incident (on NBC-TV). 

Fig. 3. Animal CE-3 entities 

A. MUFON idealization of a CE3 animal (based on a Brazilian case). B. Animal 
reported during a major UFO flap, El Yunque Mt., Puerto Rico, 10/20/73. C. A 
driver glimpsed this animal near Frederick, Wisconsin, 12/2/74. D. A Bigfoot¬ 
like entity, Beech Hills, Pennsylvania, 8/23/73. E. A froglike amphibian entity, 
Carignan, France, 5/2/76. F. An ape-like entity reported during the 1973 flap, 
Cincinnati, Ohio, 10/12/73. 

Fig. 4. Robot CE-3 entities 

A. A robot with a highlighted navel area, a pattern in other entity descriptions, 
described during the 1973 flap, Draguinan, France, 10/19/73. B. A trio of robotic 
entities in a spherical craft, Belo Horizonte, Brazil, 8/28/63. C. Goodland, 
Kansas, 6/20/76. D. Robot reported in Ashburn, Georgia, 10/19/73 on the same 
date as the robot in France (A.). E. Three robot machines, one 20 feet tall, 
Prospect, Kentucky, 1/27/77. F. A mummy-like robot in a much-publicized CE- 
3, Pascagoula, Mississippi, 10/11/73. 

Fig. 5. Exotic CE-3 entities 

A. One of several exotic entities, Kelly-Hopkinsville, Kentucky, 10/21/55. No 
UFO was reported. B. “Grasshopper-eyed” entity of the Judy Kendall CE-3, 
Woodland, California, 11/25/71. C. Mysterious head-tubes on an exotic, Athens, 
Georgia, 10/20/73. D. Weird exotic entity seen in Fargo, North Dakota, 8/26/75. 
E. Bizarre malformed exotic, Branch Hill, Ohio, 5/25/55. F. Reptile-skinned 
entity of the Garden Grove Case, reported in Apache Junction, Arizona, 3/14/71. 

A. B. C. D. E. F. 

Fig. 6. Apparitionals 

A. Apparitional humanoid emerged from a ball of light, Garden Grove, 
California, 11/21/75. B. A grinning “electric” apparitional, Albany, Oh., 
10/16/73. C. A ghostly apparition, Riverside, California, 8/29/55. D. Little 
Lever, England, 1964. E. Talavera la Real, Spain, 11/12/76. F. Salisbury, 
Rhodesia, 5/31/74. The apparition in this case supposedly told the witnesses that 
they would see the apparition as whatever they wished -- a duck, a monster, 
whatever. The witnesses called this entity a “multi” — aptly emphasizing its 
capacity for multiple changes of form. An Imaginary Abductee described a 
precisely similar multi event three years later. 

Human Humanoid Animal 

Robot Exotic Apparitional 

Fig. 7. Children’s drawings of aliens 

A. A female human UFOnaut, perhaps a self-portrait. B. Oddly, this humanoid 
was one of very few of its type in 180 drawings. It has just three fingers. Most of 
the sketches depicted exotics. C. This tentacled animal entity suggests that even 
young children are exposed to expectations of tentacled aliens in UFOs. 

D. A beeping robot with antennae and clumsy joints—along with an apparent 


E. A very imaginative sketch of a one-eyed exotic with multiple arms—and a 

F. This animated LSD pill testifies to young people’s acute awareness of the real 
world about them. Is this drawing one youngster’s cynical assessment of CE-3 
reports? Perhaps, but it also suggests the view that entity sightings are 
apparitions, whether spontaneous or hallucinogenic. 

A. B. C. D. E. F. 

Fig. 8. CE-3 traditional entity parallels 

Fig. 9. CE-3 entities’ navel and umbilical symbolism 

Human Humanoid Animal Robot Exotic Apparition 

Fig. 10. Six creature types from world folklore 

A. Giant B. Pooka C. Kelpie D. Stock E. Fachan F. Fairies 

A. Folklore’s giants, despite their great size, are essentially human in physical 
appearance. B. A pooka. Like elves, leprechauns, and brownies, pookas were 
humanoid, but they also had apparitional powers. C. The pony-like kelpies from 
Irish lore were mischievous clawed water-demons. D. A wooden image of a 
baby called a “stock” or a “changeling” was supposedly vivified and left by 
kidnapping fairies in place of a nursing infant or human baby, and for a time 
passed for a real child before sickening and dying. E. One of the most bizarre 
folk creatures was the Fachan of Irish belief, who reportedly had one eye, one 
arm that emerged from its chest, one leg, and a nasty disposition. F. Fairies, like 
demons and divinities, were “shape-shifters” or polymorphous. 

Human Humanoid Animal Robot Exotic Apparition 

A. Alice B. Dum & Dee C. Rabbit D. Cards E. Humpty F. Cheshire 
Fig. 11. Six creature types from Alice’s Wonderland 

A. The very human Alice can’t resist her curiosity about everything. B. 
Tweedledum and Tweedledee are a special type of humanoid—mirror images of 

each other known as enantiomorphs. C. The White Rabbit is personified, but is 
an animal nevertheless. D. The Queen’s gardeners, like the rest of her court, are 
playing cards brought to robotic life. E. The exotic Humpty Dumpty. F. The 
Cheshire Cat’s apparition. 

Human Humanoid Animal Robot Exotic Apparition 

A. Duke B. Puck C. Bottom D. Wall E. Caliban F. Ariel 

Fig. 12. Six creature types in Shakespeare 

Though Shakespeare particularized his non-human creatures in wondrous 
fashion, they were patterned after well-established models in folklore and 
tradition. These examples are from two fantasies, Midsummer Night’s Dream and 
The Tempest. 

A. Theseus, the human Duke of Athens. B. Puck or Robin Goodfellow, a 
typically mischievous hobgoblin, brownie, or pooka, also had the shape-shifting 
powers of many other fairies. C. Bottom, after Puck changes him into an ass. 
Technically an exotic, he is the closest thing to an animal character in 
Shakespeare. D. Shakespeare’s only robot is shown in a 19th-century illustration 
of Snout’s costume for the part of the Wall in the ludicrous playlet about 
Pyramus and Thisbe. E. Caliban, the exotic monster of The Tempest, is the half 
human, half demonic offspring of a sorceress and a demon. F. Ariel, an 
apparitional fairy in The Tempest, spends much of his time on stage as an 
invisible presence. 


A. Dorothy 







B. Munchkins 

C. Lion 

D. Tin Man 

E. Ham’hds 

Fig. 13. Six creature types from The Wizard of Oz 


F. Wizard 

A. The adventurously human child heroine, Dorothy. B. Munchkin-style 
humanoids. C. The Cowardly Lion is a personified animal. D. The Tin 
Woodsman may be the world’s most famous robot. E. The Hammerheads are 
one of several exotics in Oz. F. The Wizard as an apparition: a scene he creates 
with technology rather than magic. 

Type #6. Apparitional entities: Apparitionals (Fig. 6) may float, change form, 
materialize, or dematerialize. Akin to ghosts and fairyland creatures, 
apparitionals possess a rich tradition in mythology and contemporary folklore: 
angels, demons, trickster figures, and the “Beam me up, Scotty” telepor-tation 
technology of TV’s Star Trek. Through shape-shifting, apparitionals can mimic a 
human, animal, or any other creature or thing, thus temporarily masking their 
true identity; yet they are distinctive enough to be easily classified. 
Communication is verbal or telepathic but often is non-existent. Height: 2 to 10 

Apparitional capabilities are shared by other entities. Some humanoids 
become temporary apparitionals. They change shape unexpectedly, float, pass 
through walls and windows unscathed, or disappear and reappear at will—and 
then revert to being a humanoid. Similar abilities have been attributed at times 
to every supposed alien type that abductees describe. The presence of these 
powers—certainly among the most fantastic of reported entity faculties— 
underscores abductions’ linkages with folklore and myth. 

Perspectives on 
CE-3 Entities 

Origins of entity types: The origins of entity types are open to speculation. 
Human entities could develop out of witnesses’ awareness of their own body. 
Humanoids are largely fetal and probably have perinatal roots. Resemblances 
among humanoids and brownies, imps, and hordes of other “little folk” 
seemingly link them all with human birth events. Numerous animals and robots 
in folklore, myth, and contemporary sources help explain them in CE-3 reports. 
Exotics may be traced to mutant human or animal births. Apparitional entities’ 
powers of rapid transformation may have entered myth via ancient peoples’ 
responses to sudden changes in individual human development and attitudes, or 
metamorphoses in the natural world. 

The six entity types have appeared in countless contemporary formats— 
comic books, science-fiction films, TV cartoons, advertisements, and other pop 
culture—though never in a context with identifying categories that provide 
perspective and awareness. Every schoolboy (and potential hypnotic subject) 
knows about the entity classes on some level and can sprinkle his imagined 
yarns with them, as our 1979 study of a group of adolescents in Orange County, 
California demonstrated. About 180 mentally gifted children in grades 6, 7, and 
8 were asked to draw their conception of a UFO occupant. Their responses 
were readily classifiable and represented the complete range of six entity types: 

Parallels in traditional and CE-3 entities: A well-established pattern in folklore 
and traditional literature is entity clothing: typically a seamless, one-piece jump 
suit or similar outfit that covers the body except for the head and the hands 
(which may be gloved). Compare the “UFOnaut” in Fig. 8-A with Fig. 8-B, a 
19th-century sketch of traditional brownies from folklore. Both creatures are 
small in stature and have frail physiques. They wear similar one-piece, seamless, 
skin-tight garments that we may interpret as skin, for it is often described as 
slick and shiny like plastic, suggesting a newborn’s wet skin. Other birth 
parallels include many reports of instrument-carrying UFO entities (Fig. 8-C) 
and elves from folk tradition (Fig. 8-D). The tube-like instruments suggest 
another perinatal reminder: the umbilical cord. With ultrasound viewers, fetuses 
have often been observed grasping the umbilical, either in contentment or fright. 
A curious aspect of witnesses’ entity sketches is that facial features and 
extremities are sometimes missing, as in Figs. 8-E and 8-F. Inadequate drawing 
or observational skills may be responsible, though some witnesses maintain that 
certain entity features were not perceived. There are no analogs in traditional 
sources for such anatomical omissions. 

Navel and umbilical symbolism: CE-3 entities often wear a large buckle, 
medallion, or similar device on their abdomen (as in Figs. 9-A through 9-C), 
sometimes with a diagonal strap or “Sam Browne” belt across the chest (as in 
Figs. 9-D through 9-F). Sometimes the buckle device glows brightly (Fig. 9-B). 
The emphasis on the navel area and the umbilical strap are distinctly perinatal, 
suggesting that memories of birth events have a significant role in CE-3 fantasies 
about entities other than the fetal humanoid. Researchers do not offer persuasive 
alternate interpretations of such details. 

Entity types from various sources: I have compiled illustrated sets of creature 
types from folklore and literary traditions in support of the validity of the six- 
category CE-3 entity classification system. The six creature types thrive in 
diverse cultures worldwide. There are always human entities and diminutive 
fetal beings that resemble but are distinct from adult humans, as with the rest of 
the entity types. The patterns in CE-3 witnesses’ alien fantasies are operative in 
wide-ranging sources, including: Greek fables and mythology, Christian belief, 
de monology, science fiction, comic books, breakfast cereal-box heroes, and the 
Imaginary Abductee narratives. The following four examples are representative. 

Frequencies of CE-3s and UFOs: Nobody knows how many abductions or 
other CE-3s there have been worldwide since 1947. The Bullard study of about 
300 cases used data up to the early 1980s. Abduction proponents claim to have 
discovered thousands of unknown CE-3s in the 1980s and 1990s. If CE-3s now 
number 5000, as suggested by the very dubious Roper survey, they are still 
dwarfed by the guestimated three million or so raw UFO sightings worldwide 
over the past half-century (about 150+ daily). 

Whether or not we conservatively dump 90 percent of UFO sightings as 
IFOs and 90 percent of CE-3s as hoaxes and mistakes, abductions total only 
about 0.167 percent of UFO sightings (5000-+3,000,000=00167). That means 
less than two of every thousand UFOs abduct someone. Although abductions 
are supposedly what UFOs do, these representative statistics argue otherwise. 
Why the discrepancy? 

Proponents have traditionally explained the disproportion in three ways: 1) 
we encounter aliens only when they want us to; and 2) most abductees forget 
their CE-3, in strict obedience to their captors’ orders. A third explanation, 
witness reticence, at first glance seems better—who wants to admit being 
abducted by weirdoes from outer space? Proponent-investigators tell of scores 

of abductees in professional or otherwise sensitive positions (doctors, lawyers, 
politicians, etc.), who shun all publicity. Yet the public spotlight, such as that 
offered by Hopkins and others in the past twenty years or so, has obviously 
proved irresistible to many wannabe famous abductees. The numbers of alleged 
abductions and books about them since about 1980 has multiplied, while 
UFO/IFO sightings, corrected for population growth, are about the same. Even 
so, the ratio of CE-3s to sightings remains minuscule. 

The most likely reason for the frequency imbalance between UFO sightings 
and CE-3s is that the two are separate and distinct experiences, and have 
nothing to do with one another—aside from the idea of ET visitors. There has 
never been an authenticated CE-3 in which two or more persons watch while a 
UFO lands, occupants get out and abduct someone, then the UFO takes off. 
This primal CE-3 scene, supposedly the initiating and definitive event of 
unknown numbers of typical abductions, has never been authentically 
witnessed. There is no unambiguous evidence that it—or anything similar to it 
—has ever occurred. 

Abductions are most likely fantasy/hallucinations and are subjective 
experiences that probably date from the first shaman’s “vision quest” early in 
human prehistory. UFO sightings at best are objective physical events— 
whatever the UFO actually is. The lack of connections between these events 
helps account for the contrasting numbers. 

Of course, many “experiences” (now the preferred term for abductees) 
surely mistake their dreams or nightmares for CE-3 fantasies, or they really do 
forget them. Others may undergo their CE-3s as NDEs, OBEs, Marian 
visitations, or a dozen other abduction analogs. Also, it has been established 
that the CE3-like hallucinations of sick and elderly people are routinely ignored 
by clinical and institutional personnel, and thus are not counted. 

Psychologists and other social workers—within and outside of UFOlogy— 
until recently have not provided a convenient, scientifically respectable, and 
supportive way for percipients to report, communicate about, and deal with 
supposed alien abduction events. Indeed, psychologists had not even 
acknowledged the CE-3 syndrome until a few national support groups for 
reported CE-3 witnesses, such as P.E.E.R. and T.R.E.A.T., were formed. 
Psychiatrist John Mack and hypnotherapist Edith Fiore are two of an increasing 
number of professionals (never mind that most are true believers) who have 
created CE-3 support groups as a regular part of their practice. 

Low numbers of abduction reports could also reflect the fact that researchers 

have not embraced credible non-ETH theories to account for such experiences. 
More “hidden” abductees/experiencers might come forth if there were a viable 
alternative interpretation to being snatched by planet-hopping aliens. Compared 
to the ETH, the Birth Memories Hypothesis does not seem far-out at all. 

Why only six types of CE-3 entities? If CE-3s are not real and witnesses are 
fantasizing wildly, why do they repeatedly describe the same few types of 
creatures—rather than Grays or a sequence of uniquely different entity forms? 
And why are there only six categories? 

To repeat, witnesses describe the same six classes of aliens because 
abductions are fantasies based on the only models they have: earthly folklore 
and tradition. As to the six types, it can be shown that they do not exhaust the 
range of creature types, even within traditional Earth lore. Ancient Middle 
Eastern cylinder seals (ca. 1000 b.c.) depict what were called “elementals,” a 
variety of creatures that would be unclassifiable under the six-part system. 
These archaic engraved figures are “heroes and deities” created out of 
elemental processes (fire, air, water, and earth). They have human or animal 
bodies, but are shown with water, flames, or light streaming out of their 

Although the flowing water and other substances may have 
placental/umbilical relevance, these creatures’ anatomy and connections with 
elemental forces make them qualitatively distinct from the other six types. They 
can properly be placed in a seventh entity category. 

There are a few elemental creatures in TV cartoons, comics, and folklore, 
but as far as I know they are not described in CE-3s. Perhaps there are too few 
elementals in contemporary sources, or their differences from other entity types 
are too subtle, to serve as models. 

Other entity types: Although this seventh entity type can be considered the 
exception that proves the CE-3 six-category rule, additional kinds of entities are 
certainly conceivable. From time to time imaginative authors have proposed 
unusual creatures that would not be classifiable under the six CE-3 categories. 

In astronomer Fred Hoyle’s novel, The Black Cloud , a vast intelligent cloud 
“lives” in interstellar space, with a molecular heart, a brain, and other necessary 
organs. It feeds on stellar energy and its central nervous system functions via 
radio waves. 

Astrophysicist Ronald Bracewell has imagined “intelligent scum,” an 

enormous collective cellular civilization that thinks and acts as a single entity 
and controls its environment through a kind of evolutionary specialization. 

Equally bizarre is astronomer Frank Drake’s fictionalized neutron-star life 
form: microscopic, macronucleic creatures weighing tons each and living out 
their accelerated lives on a 100-million-degree world in fractions of a second. 

Philosopher Wilfred Desan describes a creature extended indefinitely in both 
space and time, making it quasi-infinite and immortal, and since there would be 
no other of its kind it would be a biological singularity. 

These examples are fanciful, but one can infer that the infinitely resourceful 
universe could produce a greatly more varied range of alien entity types than 
scientists, writers, and CE-3 witnesses have conjectured. 

Must ETs look like us? Considered opinion is divided on whether or not aliens 
would resemble Earthly life forms. Some exobiologists and SF writers believe 
that ETs would share many qualities with us. They point out that eons of 
evolutionary survival have shaped human anatomical and physiological makeup, 
and many characteristics seem too useful and widespread among other living 
creatures not to be essential. They conclude that aliens might not look much 
different from the rest of Earth life. 

Let us speculate that alien life-forms would be more efficient if they were 
not in a collective, but physically independent from others of their kind— 
though they could be linked mentally. If made of living tissue they would have 
to eat, they could get sick, be injured, or die. It is difficult to imagine a hitech 
space-traveler without something like a sizeable brain, several senses, and 
mobility. The brain needs protection, and the major sense organs should have 
short nerve pathways for efficiency; so something like eyes, ears, nose, and a 
mouth should be in that something like a skull covering the alien’s brain. 
Bilateral symmetry gives human beings survival-oriented 3-D vision and 
stereophonic hearing, though maybe those are not essential. But an upright 
stance could place an alien’s limb—with something like hands bearing 
something like fingers—within convenient distance of its eyes for manipulating 
food, weapons, and tools. The being would be neither a giant (too ponderous) 
nor microbe-sized (too few brain cells). It would have to be able to 
communicate. Telepathy would be the best mode, but speech is efficient too. 
And aliens almost certainly would be sexual creatures. 

An ET space traveler could use traits such as curiosity, intellection, high 
skills, flexibility, imagination, and a value system with enough altruism to 

delay tangible rewards; and maybe an emotional nature that helps make 
existence fun or otherwise worthwhile. If their purpose is to observe Earthlings 
longitudinally, they need the capacity to feel joy and/or despair. 

But other writers have warned against Earth chauvinism, the assumption that 
conditions for life elsewhere must be generally Earthlike: carbon-based, of 
moderate temperature, with available water, oxygen, and so on. They reason 
that different geophysical conditions could create living forms far different 
from any that have ever existed on Earth. A truly alien being might be 
something we cannot yet easily imagine, the likeness of which is not in our 
folklore or systems of traditional belief. 

Again, consider the long-term effects of technology. If the dinosaurs had 
evolved into a smart reptile, it might have been an upright biped, verbal, sexy, 
and with tool-making hands—more than a little like us. But what would the 
surviving dinosaurs look like today, after a hundred million years of evolution 
and hi-tech genetic innovations? We are on the verge of modifying our human 
genome by seeking super babies with higher IQs, more attractive physiques, 
and better health. Even if an alien race started out as human-like, after a few 
hundred millennia of super technology a species could evolve itself into 
unimaginable modes that CE-3 witnesses might perceive, but which would be 
unclassifiable within traditional Earthly life forms. 

If aliens ever really come here and are like Travis Walton’s fetal humanoids 
or the Garden Grove exotics, they will leave physical traces and their presence 
will be provable. In the absence of physical evidence, CE-3s would gain more 
credibility if even a few abductees told us of a new category of entities, things 
without the familiar connections to folklore, myth, and tradition; things 
believable yet strictly alien to Earthly experience. Regrettably for true 
believers, no such CE-3 aliens have yet been described. 

—Alvin H. Lawson 


Bowen, Charles, ed. The Humanoids (Henry Regnery, 1969). 

Bullard, T.E. UFO Abductions: Measure of a Mystery (Fund for UFO Research, 1987). 

Fowler, Raymond E. The Andreasson Affair (Prentice-Hall, 1979; Bantam Books, 1980; Wild Flower 
Press, 1994). 

Hopkins, Budd. Missing Time (Richard Marek, 1981). 

_. Intruders (Random House, 1987; Ballantine, 1988). Jacobs, David M. Secret Life (Simon & 

Schuster, 1992). 

Vallee, Jacques. Passport to Magonia (Henry Regnery, 1969; Neville Spearman, 1970). 

alien types Since the late 1960s, a few UFO researchers have tried valiantly to 
establish a typology of creatures said to be of an extraterrestrial nature. But so 
great is the variety of alien life-forms reported in UFO incidents (critics like to 
point out that there are as many types of aliens as there are people who report 
them) that classification systems have generally failed to cover the entire range 
of alien types, or take into account the dozens of small differences among the 
reported entities. 

To address this problem, and to counter the notion popularized by the media 
that the “Grays” are the only “real” aliens, this writer developed an alien 
classification system based strictly on phenotype (or the observable physical 
characteristics) of the aliens reported in UFO incidents. This classification 
system has been detailed (with some 50 sample cases, which are fully 
illustrated) in my book: The Field Guide to Extraterrestrials (Avon, 1996). 

1 found that just about all the “aliens” seen during the past century could be 
categorized as belonging to one of four broad classes. 

The first class, the Humanoid, describes beings with an essentially human 
shape: a head, torso, two arms, and two legs. The second class, the Animalian, 
refers to entities that are far more animal in appearance than human. The third 
class, Robotic, describes those that look distinctly mechanical. About 95 
percent of alien reports fall into these three classes. The other 5 percent can be 
lumped together into a catch-all category that, for want of a better term, 1 call 

1 then divided each of these four classes of aliens into a variety of distinct 
types. Among the Humanoid, the first and the most recognizable are what 1 call 
Human simply because they look so much like us that it would be impossible to 
tell “them” from “us” on any busy metropolitan street corner. 

The second type are the Short Grays, which thanks to Hollywood, if not the 
aliens themselves, are the pre-eminent alien type reported today. But since 
many short humanoid aliens do not in any way resemble Grays, either because 
of their extreme hairiness, green skin tone, or bulky spacesuit, 1 created a 
separate type called Short Non-Grays. 

Rounding out the Humanoid class are two other types, the Giants, for those 
entities that stand 8- to 15- feet tall, and the Non-Classic, for those that do not 
fit into any other humanoid type—like the odd being with pointed ears and 
mummy-like skin seen in Pascagoula, Mississippi in 1973. 

The second major class of beings, the Animalian, consist of entities as 
different as Bigfoot, swamp creatures, goblins, and fairy-like aliens. For the 

names of the five Animalian alien types— Mammalian, Reptilian, Amphibian, 
Insectoid, and Avian —I simply drew upon their resemblance to either hairy 
mammals, reptiles, amphibians, insects, or birds. 

1 found that all Robotic aliens could fit comfortably into one of two types. 
Either the robots appear to be entirely “Metallic,” and are so named, or a part of 
them, like their appendages, resemble flesh and are therefore called “Fleshy” 
Robots. Likewise, 1 divided the Exotic class of aliens into two types: the 
“Physical” Exotics, which resemble the classic blobs of science fiction, and the 
“Apparitional” Exotics, which are at least partially transparent or ghost-like in 

The Field Guide to Extraterrestrials was generally well received and is 
widely regarded as the standard reference on alien types. 

—Patrick Huyghe 

Allagash abductions This was a multiple-witness abduction that involved 
four art students, whose encounter occurred while on a camping trip in the state 
of Maine. The case involved identical twins, Jim and Jack Weiner, and their 
companions, Charlie Foltz and Chuck Rak, who were abducted from a canoe on 
the Allagash Waterway on August 26, 1976. 

The investigation took place between January 1988 and mid-1993. It 
resulted in a 702-page (10-volume) report and a book entitled The Allagash 
Abductions written by Raymond E. Fowler and published by Wild Flower Press 
in 1993. The investigators of the case included: MUFON Director of 
Investigations, Ray Fowler; a physicist who specialized in UFO entity cases; a 
MUFON consultant in hypnosis; and consultants in the areas of polygraph and 
psychiatric testing. 

The UFO encounter was initially reported to Ray Fowler by one of the 
percipients (Jim Weiner) during a UFO symposium at Waltham, Massachusetts, 
in May of 1988. Jim told Ray that he, his twin brother Jack, and two friends 
had a close encounter with a UFO while camping on the Allagash Waterway in 
a wilderness area of northern Maine. Concurrent with the encounter they had 
experienced a period of “missing time,” which had bothered them for years. 
Years later, Jim was referred to Ray Fowler by his personal physician during 
treatment at Both Israel Hospital in Boston. What follows is a synopsis of the 
abduction accounts and the subsequent investigation. 

On Friday night, August 20, 1976, the four young art students (all in their 
twenties) left Boston, Massachusetts for a canoe and camping trip on the 

Allagash Waterway. Upon arrival at a staging area, they hired a pontoon 
airplane, which flew them and their canoes to Telos Lake on the Allagash 
River. During the next several days they canoed and camped along the 

On the evening of Thursday, August 26 th , they reached Eagle Lake, where 
they set up camp and later decided to go night fishing for trout in a canoe. The 
pitch darkness of the area necessitated the building of a huge bonfire to mark 
their campsite, so that they could find their way back. Shortly after beginning 
to fish, Chuck Rak became aware of a feeling that he was being “watched.” He 
said: “1 turned toward the direction from where 1 felt this and saw a large bright 
sphere of colored light hovering motionless and soundless about 200-300 feet 
above the southeastern rim of the cove.” 

Chuck yelled for the others to look behind them. There, rising above the 
trees was a huge oval glowing object. As their eyes became adapted to its 
intense brightness, a gyroscopic motion was noted as if there were pathways of 
energy flowing equatorially and longitudinally from pole to pole. This divided 
the sphere into four oscillating quadrants of bright colored light. The color 
changes were very liquid and enveloping, as if the entire object had a plasmatic 
motion to it, like a thick sauce does as it starts a rolling boil. 

Charlie Folz grabbed a flashlight and blinked it on-and-off toward the 
object. Simultaneously, a tube-shaped beam of light erupted from the object and 
hit the water. A glowing ring with a dark center reflected on the water’s surface, 
indicating that the beam was low. The object and its extruding beam of light 
began moving toward the canoe. Terrified, the campers began paddling 
frantically toward their glowing bonfire and camp, as the beam swept across 
the water and engulfed them. 

It was from this point on that the conscious memories of the four differed 
according to each of their vantage points. 

The next thing Charlie remembered was paddling for shore and then 
standing at the campsite with the others, watching the object move away. 

Chuck Rak remembers staying in the canoe after the others had piled out in 
panic onto the shore. Transfixed, still holding his idle paddle, he could not take 
his eyes off the object. 

Jack and Jim were able to consciously remember a bit more about the tail 
end of the chase. Jack explained that “it was just behind us, and 1 could see that 
we were never going to outrun the beam. It was advancing too fast and 1 
remember thinking ‘Holy Shit’! This is it! We’ll never get away.” The next 

thing I knew, we were on the shore getting out of the canoe looking directly at 
the object which was now about 20 or 30 feet above the water. The beam was 
still coming out of the bottom of it like the object was sitting on the beam. It 
hovered there, right in front of us, completely silent for what seemed like four 
or five minutes. 

“Suddenly the beam was pointing up towards the sky. The object began to 
move up and away from us towards the southwestern sky and then shot into the 
stars and was gone in just a second.” 

Jim Weiner added: “There was no mistake that the beam was coming 
directly to us. Then I remember standing on the lake-shore watching the object 
hovering above the lake 50 to 75 yards in front of us.... Then the search beam 
went upward into the sky and we saw it moving away at a tremendous speed. 
We all seemed to be in a state of shock.... We just stood there unable to move or 

The object left with a step-like motion. It would suddenly implode into 
nothing and than appear further in the sky and then repeat this strange flight 
path before streaking out of sight. 

When the strange anesthetizing effect wore off, Chuck got out of the canoe 
and joined the others as they trudged dreamily up the beach to their camp. Even 
in this state, they were dumbfounded when they realized what had happened to 
the huge bonfire that had just been blazing a seeming several minutes ago. 

“‘When we left to go fishing,” said Jim, “we set very large logs on the fire to 
bum for a good 2 to 3 hours. The entire experience seemed to last, at the most, 
15 or 20 minutes. Yet the fire was completely burned down to red coals.” 

At that time, they had no memory of what happened during the time it took 
for their huge bon fire to burn down. This remained a puzzle to them for years. 

Several years after the Allagash incident, Jim suffered a head injury, which 
caused tempero-limbic epilepsy. During treatment, Jim began to have 
nightmares about he and his camping companions being nude and in a strange 
place with bug-eyed humanoids around him. He also awoke at night to see 
strange creatures around his bed. Sometimes he felt as he were being levitated 
from bed; and other times after being overcome with paralysis, he felt 
something was being done to his genitals. Jim’s doctor noticed that he was 
overtired and asked him what was the matter. Jim refused to tell him at first but 
when the doctor told him that it was affecting his medical treatment, Jim 
confessed to what was happening to him. He also told the Doctor about his 
prior “missing time” experience on the Allagash waterway. Jim’s physician was 

familiar with the abduction phenomenon and advised him to contact a UFO 
researcher. At that time Jim was reluctant to do so. However, later the doctor 
saw a newspaper story about Ray Fowler lecturing at a symposium in the area 
in May of 1988. He phoned Jim and convinced him to attend the lecture and 
talk to Ray about the UFO experience. 

In January of 1989, Ray Fowler initiated a formal investigation with 
MUFON UFO entity specialist and physicist David Webb and MUFON 
hypnosis consultant Anthony (Tony) Constantino. The investigation was 
conducted in a careful and meticulous manner over a period exceeding two 
years. After the four witnesses completed and signed MUFON UFO-sighting 
forms, they were interrogated. Their stories were cross-checked for consistency 
and a character check was performed to check their credibility. 

It was obvious that the period of missing time had to be sandwiched between 
sighting the object and reaching shore. The beam of light engulfing the canoe 
seemed to be the dividing point between memory and amnesia. During the first 
of a long series of hypnosis sessions, it was decided to concentrate on this 
segment of the terrifying encounter. 

Under hypnosis, all four witnesses relived detailed and traumatic UFO 
abduction experiences during the period of missing time. All were transferred 
from their canoe into the UFO by the hollow tube-like beam of light. On board, 
they encountered strange humanoid creatures that exerted some kind of mind 
control over them, so they could not resist their demands. 

All four were made to take their clothes off and sit on a plastic-like bench in 
a misty area illuminated by diffuse white light. After looking at their eyes and 
in their mouths with a pencil-sized rod with a light on its tip, the entities placed 
them in a harness and flexed their arms and legs. Then, one by one they were 
made to lie on a table where each was examined by a number of strange 
handheld and larger machine-like instruments that were lowered over their 
bodies. During this segment of the examinations, the entities removed samples 
of saliva, skin scrapings, blood, feces, urine, and sperm from each of the 

After the physical examinations, the abductees were made to dress and enter 
another room, which had a round portal in one of its walls. They were lined up 
and made to walk into the portal. Strange sensations surged through their 
bodies as they found themselves floating down the hollow beam of light into 
their canoe, which was now floating in shallow water at their campsite. The 
tube-like beam of light seemed to hold the canoe steady as each person was 

placed in it, in the same seating position that they were in prior to their 

Artist’s impression of Jim and Jack Weiner on a bench, in the UFO, with one of the aliens 

As the hypnosis sessions continued, much detail was recovered about their 
onboard experience. Also, it was discovered that the twins had undergone 
bedtime visitations by alien creatures and had abduction experiences since early 
childhood—in addition to being abducted a number of times during their adult 
life. These experiences were relived in vivid detail while under hypnosis. 

Their UFO experiences left physical evidence behind in the form of burns 
on the bottom Jack’s feet. Jack also received a biopsy-like scoop mark above 
his ankle during one of his adult abductions. The scoop mark was located just 
above a scar left behind during an operation for an anomalous lump that had 
appeared overnight on Jack’s leg. Jack’s local doctor thought it was a cyst, but 
was unable to drain it, so referred Jack to a surgeon who removed it. 

Jack was told that local pathologists did not know what it was and that it had 
been sent to the Center for Disease Control in Atlanta, Georgia, for further 
analysis. However, when Jack’s medical records were checked, it was 
discovered that the removed object was sent to military pathologists in 
Washington, D.C., where it was analyzed by a United States Air Force Colonel. 
Attempts for further information about the anomalous lump were thwarted, as 
the surgeon would not cooperate with the inquiry. 

In addition to character checks of the four abductees, a number of other 
checks were made to ascertain witness credibility. Medical records, camping 
diaries and photographs were examined. Friends and relatives that first heard 
about the experience were interviewed. The head forest ranger who supervised 
matters on the Allagash Waterway was located. He remembered the incident 
and had reported it to the then active Dow Air Force Base located in Bangor, 

Psychological profile tests were administered to each abductee. Each was 
also subjected to polygraph tests. All of these checks indicated that the four 
percipients were honest and telling the truth about their experience. 

The many-faceted and intriguing elements of the Allagash abductions also 
provided a catalyst for a detailed correlation of the witnesses’ experiences with 
benchmarks exhibited in other abduction reports being investigated and studied. 
Such reports were derived from an exhaustive survey of 270 reported UFO 
abductions in the United States and abroad by Dr. Thomas E. Bullard of the 
University of Indiana. It was found that the four abducteas had experienced 
many of the typical benchmarks of the UFO abduction phenomenon. 

A number of alternate theories for the abduction phenomenon were also 
examined in light of the Allagash abductions. These included hoaxes, fantasy- 
prone personalities, psychoses, birth-trauma memories and archetypical images 
form the so-called “collective unconscious.” Each of these was critiqued and 
eliminated in the light of the evidence collected dueing the investigation. 

The final 10-volume investigative report was made available to other 
researchers for peer review. Public information about the case was 
accomplished through Ray Fowler’s 1993 book, The Allagash Abductions , a 
Time-Life book on the UFO-abduction phenomenon, and several TV 

Charlie Foltz lying on the examination table; Jim and Jack sitting on a bench 

Fowler’s report concluded that the moral character of the witnesses, the 
graphic reliving of their experiences under hypnosis, and the extraordinary 
correlations between their experiences and those of others provided 
overwhelming evidence that their experiences were objective in nature. Such 
evidence combined with the positive results of polygraph and psychological 
tests, together with the typical physical effects found on the witness’s bodies, 
prompted Ray Fowler to place the Allagash abductions in MUFON’s great 
significance category. 

—RaymondE. Fowler 

Allende letters The mystery of the so-called “Allende letters” arose in 1956, 
when an annotated copy of Morris K. Jessup’s book, The Case for the UFO 
(1955), arrived at the Office of Naval Research (ONR). It looked as if three 
men (named “Mr. A.,” “Mr. B.,” and “Jemi”) had passed the book among 
themselves, adding handwritten notes to Jessup’s text. Jessup also reported that 
he had received a series of letters from Carlos Allende (a.k.a. Carl M. Allen). 
The letters and annotations seemed to indicate that the writers had some special 
knowledge of UFOs and alien cultures beyond that of any government on 

The story, as it is usually told, begins when the book arrives at the ONR. 
Some researchers have claimed that Navy officers, after carefully studying the 
text, became extremely interested and contacted Jessup. By that time, Jessup 
had already received the letters. 

The Navy, according to the story, requested and received permission to 
reproduce the book in a limited edition. The original text was printed in black 
and the notations in red. All the letters sent by Allende were included as an 

During the next several years the Navy allegedly spent taxpayer money, 
time, and a great deal of effort researching the incident. Navy investigators 
reportedly looked for Allende but failed to find him. Post marks suggested 
Seminole, Texas, Gainesville, Texas, and DuBois, Pennsylvania, as locations 
for Allende. 

The letters concerned the alleged teleportation of a Navy ship from its dock 
in Philadelphia to the a dock in Virginia and back again during the Second 
World War. The experiment, allegedly witnessed by Allende, who claimed to be 
a member of the crew, was mentioned only in a single brief article that 
appeared in a single Philadelphia newspaper. Allende supplied neither the date 

nor the name of the newspaper so that this aspect could not be corroborated. 

Allende claimed that the experiment was a success but the people were 
failures. Over half the crew was lost during the experiment, and the rest 
suffered from a variety of strange side effects. Some, according to Allende, 
were “mad as hatters,” while others would “go blank,” or “get stuck.” Allende 
said they would seem to disappear or “freeze” on the spot. 

The notes added to Jessup’s book were no less confusing. Terms like 
“mother ship,” “great war,” “force cutters,” “magnetic and gravity fields,” and 
“sheets of diamonds” were used. The notations explained what happened to the 
men, women, ships, and planes that have disappeared in various locations 
around the world. Allende and his friends seemed to explain many things that 
no one else had been able to solve. 

Sidney Sherby, an officer at ONR in 1956, told researchers in the 1970s that 
the reprinted annotated book was not part of a Navy project as tradition 
demanded, but a private investigation by men who happened to be in the Navy. 
No one officially at ONR thought much about the case. They were not going to 
waste time on an obvious hoax. It meant that members of the Navy, acting on 
their own as private citizens, had been interested. The Navy had no objection 
with the reproduction as long as it involved no Navy personnel, time, or 
finances. The fact that they were employed by the Navy shadowed them, giving 
rise to the rumor of official Naval interest. 

Jessup, who had a financial stake in the Allende Letters, and who saw them 
as a way of revitalizing his sagging career, never learned the truth. His search 
came to an end on April 29, 1959, when he was found dead in a Dade County, 
Florida, park. His death was ruled a suicide. 

The whole story should have ended in the 1970s when Jim Lorenzen 
announced that the whole thing was a hoax. According to a letter written by 
Lorenzen: “He [Allende] was on his way to Denver... and after talking to us for 
hours, admitted he had made up the whole thing. We even obtained a signed 
statement by him saying that it was a hoax.” 

William Moore and Charles Berlitz rejuvenated the tale with the publication 
of The Philadelphia Experiment (1979). In it, they even reprinted the famed 
newspaper article but in a break from journalistic tradition, not a single name 
appeared in the article. Once again the newspaper itself and the date were 
missing so that no corroboration could be found. 

In the years that followed, several men have come forward claiming they 
were involved in the experiment. However, not one has ever provided 

documentation that they were on the ship. In one case, a man claimed the Navy 
had altered his life so that it would seem he was not involved. 

In the end, Allende’s confession that he had invented the tale, Sherby’s 
explanation of what happened at the ONR, and the lack of any evidence that the 
experiment had taken place should have killed the story. The case has smacked 
of a hoax from the beginning, and no evidence has ever been offered to suggest 

—Kevin D. Randle 


“Allende Letters a Hoax,” The A.P.R.O. Bulletin (July/August 1969). 

Jessup, Morris K. The Case for the UFO (The Citadel Press/Bantam Books, 1955). 

Moore, William L., and Berlitz, Charles. The Philadelphia Experiment (Grosset & Dunlap, 1979). 

Randle, Kevin D. “Allende Letters” in Story, Ronald D., ed. The Encyclopedia of UFOs (Doubleday/New 
English Library, 1980). 

Steiger, Brad, and Whritenour. New UFO Breakthrough (Award Books, 1968). 

America West Airline sighting On the night of May 25, 1995, veteran 
Captain Eugene Tollefson and First Officer John J. Waller, in charge of 
America West Flight #564 on a routine trip from Tampa, Florida, to Fas Vegas, 
Nevada, encountered a UFO. At 10:25 mdt, two-thirds of the way through its 
planned four and one-half hour flight, the Boeing 757 was cruising smoothly at 
39,000 feet, and passing near Bovina, Texas. A stratus overcast stretched some 
8000 feet below the aircraft while to the northeast an active thunderstorm cell 
loomed, topping off some 1000 feet above it. 

Suddenly the attention of the lead flight attendant, sitting in the cabin behind 
the pilot, was drawn to a line of flashing lights in the sky to the north of and 
below the airliner. Both the flight attendant and first officer then observed a 
horizontal row of eight strobe-like lights, flashing on and off in a sequence 
from left to right. 

Appearing “bright white with a tint of blue” and having the brilliance of 
landing lights, the row seemed to be at an altitude of 30,000 to 35,000 feet. 
Although Capt. Tollefson had to leave his seat to observe the lights, he too 
noted their sequencing from left to right. Ultimately, the westward progression 
of the airliner caused the UFO to be situated in front of the thunderhead, whose 
lightning discharges silhouetted the strange object. Seen from this aspect, the 
UFO appeared to the first officer as a dark wingless cigar 300 to 400 feet long, 
with lights disposed along its length, and perhaps 22 miles distant. Tollefson 

felt the object might have been closer, with a 400- to 500-foot length. The 
object was in view for approximately five minutes. 

UFO observed by America West pilots (Drawing by Susan Swiatek) 

Although the air crew immediately contacted the Albuquerque Air Route 
Traffic Control Center to report the sighting, a flight controller stated that no 
unknown object was being picked up on radar; several airplanes in the vicinity 
of Flight #564 likewise were not able to spot the strange strobing lights. 
NORAD’s western headquarters, alerted by Albuquerque ARTCC to the 
presence of the unknown aircraft, initially indicated they were tracking a 
nontransponding radar target in the vicinity of Flight #564. However, NORAD 
subsequently received a transponder code identifying this target as a specific 

Longtime researcher Walter N. Webb, working with a grant from the UFO 
Research Coalition, conducted an extensive investigation of the Flight #564 
incident, ultimately acquiring the voice tape communications between the 757 
and Albuquerque ARTCC, but was unable to resolve the UFO as any known 
meteorological phenomenon or manmade aircraft. It remains unexplained. 

The case was profiled in 1995 on the TV show Sightings and is detailed in a 
report by Webb published by the UFO Research Coalition. 

—Robert Swiatek 

Anatomy of a Phenomenon (Henry Regnery, 1965). Jacques Vallee begins 
his distinguished career as a UFO investigator and theorist with this book, 
analyzing historical reports of UFOs to discern common themes in the effects on 
machines and people. Among his many astute observations: the period 1914 to 
1946 featured few UFO reports, yet it was “one of the richest periods in science 

fiction stories of all kinds.” This leads him to believe there is little substance to 
the notion that UFO rumors are spread by public intoxication with science 
fiction ideas. 

—Randall Fitzgerald 

Ancient Astronaut and SETI Society (AAS) Originally known as the 
Ancient Astronaut Society (founded in 1973 by Dr. Gene Phillips), the AAS is 
the principal organization that supports the ancient astronaut theory of Erich von 
Daniken, et al. The AAS organizes conferences, seminars, and field trips, some 
of which are guided by von Daniken himself. 

Their main areas of interest are quoted as follows: 

• The origins of life on Earth 

• The origins of intelligence on Earth 

• The origins of religions 

• The original core of global mythologies 

• The description of gods in ancient texts 

• The depiction of judgments of the gods” in prehistoric times 

• The legendary ancient kings and ancestors in old Sumerian texts and sacred 

• The vanishing of religious and mythological beings “into the heavens” 

• The issue of God and the Devil, the ancient symbols of good and evil 

• The promises of a “return” in all religions and the fear mankind has of this 

• The time-shift mentioned in a number of ancient texts 

• The construction and motivation of structures from prehistoric times for 
which there is as yet no explanation 

• The earliest offerings for the appeasement of the gods 

• The origins of ancient religious symbols and cults 

• The origins of related rock carvings around the globe 

• The origins of similar figurines of gods 

• The origins of worldwide giant ground drawings and hill figures which are 
designed in such a way that they can only be seen from the air 

Membership is the AAS is open to all. 

2_A STHoa. B 





mun .t o i t 

Ml fAiV* 

:isrj 'dz 







P.O. Box 818 


Ithaca, N.Y. 14851 


CH-3803 Beatenberg 

Web site: 

ancient astronaut theory The ancient astronaut or space-god theory 
proposes that intelligent, humanoid beings from outer space came to Earth in 
the distant past, created man in their image, and then went on to develop human 
civilization. Reports (i.e., legends and references by early historians) of ancient 
UFOs and alleged biblical UFO sightings are generally assumed by space-god 
proponents to be connected with ancient astronauts, thereby making it a theory 
of ancient contactees. 

Author Erich von Daniken, the most popular spokesman for the movement, 
states the theory as follows: “In prehistoric and early historic times the Earth 
was visited by unknown beings from the Cosmos. These unknown beings 
created human intelligence by a deliberate genetic mutation. The 
extraterrestrials ennobled hominids ‘in their own image.’ That is why we 
resemble them—not they us. These visits to Earth by alien beings from the 
Cosmos were recorded and handed down in religions, mythologies and popular 
legends. In some places the extraterrestrials also deposited physical signs of 
their presence on Earth.” (Von Daniken s Proof, 1978) 

Hints of the theory can be found in the writings of Charles Fort, who once 
said “we are property,” in the context that extraterrestrial beings might be 
watching over us earth-lings as a farmer would cattle or sheep. Another early 
proponent of ancient astronauts was astronomer Morris K. Jessup, who began 
to develop the idea in his book The Case for the UFO (1955). 

It was not until 1960, however, that most of the “classic” or standard 
examples of alleged extraterrestrial evidence in ancient times was enumerated 
and synthesized by the French authors Louis Pauwels and Jacques Bergier in 
their book The Morning of the Magicians. Other books followed, such as The 
Sky People by Brinsley Le Poer Trench (1960); Paul Thomas’ Flying Saucers 
Through the Ages (1962); Robert Charroux’s One Hundred Thousand Years oj 
Man’s Unknown History (1963); and more recently, the whole series of books 
by von Daniken, beginning with Chariots of the Gods? in 1968, followed by 
another series of books by Zecharia Sitchin (beginning in 1976), known 
collectively as the “Earth Chronicles.” 

To von Daniken, this rock painting from Tin-Tazarift in the Tassili mountains 
most likely represents an ancient astronaut “wearing a close-fitting spacesuit 
with steering gear on his shoulders and antennae on his protective helmet.” 


■p . 


Could this 14th century fresco from the Desani Monastery in Jugoslavia represent an ancient 

space traveler? 

Although there is nothing absurd or impossible about the idea that ancient 
astronauts could have visited the Earth, the theory suffers from a lack of 
evidence that unambiguously links anything with extrater-restrrials. 
Discrepancies found in the books of von Daniken and others who have 

supported the ancient astronaut thesis can be categorized, for the most part, as 
follows: (1) speculations built on grossly inaccurate or misleading premises; (2) 
playing the game “it looks like”; and (3) omissions of pertinent information that 
if known would indicate a very different conclusion. 

For example: a Mexican sarcophagus lid that supposedly depicts a man 
piloting a rocket is actually a deceased Mayan ruler by the name of Lord Shield 
Pacal who, in the stone carving, is shown against the background of a corn 
plant (which has been verified by comparisons with other examples of Mayan 
art); the giant statues on Easter Island, which proponents of ancient astronauts 
claim could only have been constructed with the aid of extraterrestrials, are 
known to have been carved by the natives themselves (verified by experiments 
conducted by Thor Heyerdahl on his famous Easter Island expedition in 1955- 
56); and a series of events (related by von Daniken in Chariots of the Gods?) 
interpreted as an “eyewitness account of a space trip” supposedly contained in 
the Epic of Gilgamesh that, upon reading the entire Gilgamesh epic, one does 
not find! 

—Ronald D. Story 


Story, Ronald D. The Space-Gods Revealed (Harper & Row, 1976; New English Library, 1977). 

_. Guardians of the Universe? (St. Martin’s Press/New English Library, 1980). 

Von Daniken, Erich. Chariots of the Gods? (G. P. Putnam’s Sons,1970; Bantam Books, 1971). 

_. Gods From Outer Space (G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1971; Bantam Books, 1972) 

_. Von Daniken’s Proo/ 1 (Bantam Books, 1978). 

ancient UFOs There is no question but that strange aerial objects have been 
described in roughly similar terms for thousands of years. Unknown lights and 
shapes seen in the sky, strange beings making contact with humans—these 
mysteries are a part of man’s oldest art and literature. And although we should 
view the very early reports with caution, it would be unreasonable to ignore 

References are found all over the world, in ancient legends and written 
histories, of strange happenings in the sky. “Fiery globes” fluttering about the 
night sky, “circular shields” during the day—that is how the ancient Greeks and 
Romans described what they saw. The Egyptians of 3500 years ago left 
accounts of “circles of fire” and “flaming chariots” that sailed across the 
heavens. The American Indians had their legends of “flying canoes” and “great 

silvery airships” in the days of the covered wagons. Such accounts have been 
handed down through the ages by nearly all peoples of the world: from ancient 
Egypt, India, Tibet, Japan, China, Scandinavia, Ireland, England, France, Italy, 
Polynesia, and the Americas. 

The following examples are quoted by the British author Harold T. Wilkins, 
in his book Flying Saucers on the Attack (1954), from reportedly ancient 

216 b.c.: Things like ships were seen in the sky, over Italy. ...At Arpi (180 
Roman miles, east of Rome, in Apulia), a round shield was seen in the sky. 

214 b.c.: The forms of ships seen in the sky at Rome. 

213 b.c.: At Hadria (Gulf of Venice), the strange spectacle of men with white 
clothing was seen in the sky. They seemed to stand around an altar, and 
were robed in white. 

170 b.c.: At Lanupim (on the Appian Way, 16 miles from Rome), a 
remarkable spectacle of a fleet of ships was seen in the air. 

In November 1969, there appeared an intriguing article entitled “Paleolithic 
UFO Shapes,” by the French UFOlogist Aime Michel in the British Flying 
Saucer Review (Vol. 15, No.6). Michel had found that our Magdalenian 
ancestors fashioned works of art that are striking indications that they too had 
seen UFOs. On the walls of the famous les Eyzies, Faseaux, and Altamira 
caves in France and Spain are found renderings of objects that clearly resemble 
modern descriptions (and photographs) of disk-shaped UFOs. Just what the 
Magdalenian artists were attempting to portray—15,000 to 30,000 years ago— 
may never be known. But, without a definitive explanation, the UFO 
interpretation must at least be considered as a possibility. 

Many more examples of ancient UFO interpretations can be found in the 
books of Desmond Feslie, Morris K. Jessup, W. Raymond Drake, et al. 

—Ronald D. Story 

Andreasson abductions The UFO-related experiences and associated 
paranormal phenomena experienced by Betty (Andreasson) Luca and members 
of her family. Raymond Fowler s research over a period of twenty years is 
broken down into five separate investigative phases. During this inquiry, it 
gradually became apparent that Ray and his family also bore distinctive 
benchmarks of the UFO abduction phenomenon. The five phases of the 
investigation are published in five consecutive books: The Andreasson Affair 

(1979), The Andreasson Affair, Phase Two (1982), The Watchers (1990), The 
Watchers II (1993), and The Andreasson Legacy (1997). A synopsis follows: 

Betty (Andreasson) Luca 

Phase I 

Phase I of the investigation took place between January 1977 and January 
1978. Betty Ann Luca (then Mrs. James Andreasson) reported a UFO 
experience to J. Allen Hynek in response to an article that mentioned his 
interest in receiving such reports. Dr. Hynek referred her letter to the 
Massachusetts chapter of MUFON (the Mutual UFO Network). After an initial 
interview, a team was put together to investigate Betty’s reported experience. In 
addition to Ray Fowler, the Phase I MUFON team consisted of a physicist, an 
aerospace engineer, an electrical engineer, a telecommunications specialist, a 
professional hypnotist, a lie detector specialist, and a medical doctor (as a 

Betty’s report to Dr. Hynek described only her conscious memories and 
those of her father, Waino Aho (since deceased). The date was January 25, 
1967. At that time, Betty and her family resided in the small Massachusetts 
town of South Asburnham. She was in the kitchen when the event began. Her 
seven children, together with her mother and father, were in the living room. 
Her husband, James, was in the hospital recovering from an automobile 

At about 6:35 p.m. the house lights suddenly began to flicker and then 

blinked out. A pulsating pink, then reddish-orange light shone through the 
kitchen window; and a strange vacuum-like feeling settled over the house, as if 
time was standing still. 

Betty told her frightened children to remain in the living room while her 
father checked to see where the light was coming from. When he looked out the 
window, he saw a group of strange-looking small humanoid creatures coming 
toward the house moving with a strange floating, jumping motion. As they 
passed by the window, one of the entities looked at him. He remembered 
nothing after that, as he was placed in what can only be termed as a state of 
suspended animation. 

The five entities passed through the solid kitchen door and confronted Betty. 
As they passed through the door, they seemed to fade in and out of reality. This 
was essentially Betty’s conscious memory of the experience. However, during 
fourteen sessions of time-regression hypnosis, both Betty and her daughter 
relived what they think occurred after the entities entered the house. 

The rest of Betty’s family was placed in a state of suspended animation. The 
entities commanded Betty to follow them outside. Betty felt strangely 
compelled to go with them but was concerned for her family. The entities then 
temporarily released Betty’s oldest daughter, Becky, from her suspended state 
to assure Betty that her family would be all right. Becky relived this segment of 
the encounter under hypnosis. 

Betty floated through the solid-wood kitchen door in line with four of the 
entities. One entity was left behind. Under hypnosis, Becky remembered this 
entity again releasing her from suspended animation to ask questions about the 
rooms in the house and to amuse her with floating balls of light. 

Outside, Betty was brought to a small oval-shaped craft on tripod landing 
gear, whereupon she floated into it. The craft accelerated upward and 
apparently entered a much larger craft. While on board she was subjected to the 
effects of strange equipment before and after a physical examination. 

During the examination, a tiny BB-like object was removed from her nose. 
Attempts via hypnosis to learn how it got there were unsuccessful. Betty 
became terrorized during these probes and the hypnotist refused to press the 
matter further. 

After the exam, Betty was placed into a tank of liquid and made to drink 
another liquid that had a tranquilizing effect. Soon after, she was removed from 
the tank and floated along a track into an alien place. While there, she 
underwent a traumatic experience during an encounter with a holographic-like 

portrayal of the death and rebirth of the legendary Phoenix bird. 

During this experience, a booming chorus of voices told Betty that she had 
been chosen to show something important to the world. She then was returned 
home to find her family still in a state of suspended animation and guarded by 
the entity that was left behind. 

Betty and her family, under mind control of the entities, were put to bed in a 
state of unawareness. Betty was told that she would forget her experience until 
an appointed time. During the abduction the entities related to Betty that: 
humans would fear them, but they were here to help the human race; human 
time is localized and they were not bound by time; their technology is para- 
physical in nature, and man is not made of just flesh and blood. 

The MUFON team was able to verify a number of facts associated with the 
initial segment of Betty’s UFO abduction experience, including the power 
blackout and the approximate time that the incident began. 

Copyright © 1995 by Betty Atyeasson Luca 

Some of Betty Luca’s own drawings of the entities she encountered. 

Under hypnosis, Betty related that the event occurred in 1967 on a 
Wednesday. She stated that her husband was in a Veteran’s Administration 
Hospital and that her parents were visiting to help out. She described the 
weather as balmy with traces of snow on the ground, melting and causing the 
neighborhood to be enshrouded with fog. 

Copyright © 1995 by Betty Anareasson Luca 

Betty’s drawing of a disk-shaped craft into which she was taken. 

Betty’s husband’s hospital records showed that he was in the hospital 
between January 23 and March 17, 1967. A local weather station in South 
Ashburnham recorded a temperature of 33 to 54 degrees with mist rising from 
melting snow. Betty’s parents remembered the visit, and her father remembered 
his brief, conscious look at the entities, which he described as “Halloween 

The local power company confirmed the power failure and attributed it to an 
open circuit breaker, apparently tripped by an overloaded circuit. Unfortunately, 
the power company records did not give the time of the power outage. The time 
was established by other data. 

Prior to the encounter, Betty’s children were watching a show on TV that 
featured Bozo the Clown. A check of TV records revealed that this show aired 
between 4:30 and 5:30 p.m. on that date. Since it was dark outside when the 
event began, the time of sunset was checked. This turned out to be 4:48 p.m. 
Under hypnosis, Becky remembered that it was around 6:35 p.m. when the lights 
went out. 

Betty’s credibility was established through a character reference check, a lie- 

detector test, and a psychiatric interview. Only the weather, television show, 
and the power failure could be proved as objective reality. However, Betty’s 
(and Becky’s) reliving of the account was consistent during an interrogation, 
and while having her repeat various segments of their experience while under 
hypnosis. Her description of the entities and her experience were also 
consistent with other abduction reports. 

Phase 11 

Phase 11 of the investigation took place between June 1978 and June 1980. 
In addition to Ray Fowler, the investigative team consisted of a physicist and a 
behavioral psychologist. 

The Phase I investigation had come to a halt because Betty had moved to 
Florida to live with relatives after her marriage ended. Her first husband, James 
Andreasson, was a childhood sweetheart who had returned from service in the 
Navy as an alcoholic. Betty had lived a rocky life with the ups and downs of 
this disease and had sought help for him many times. However, the time came 
when he decided to leave her for the family’s own good. Attempts to change his 
mind had been futile. 

During her stay in Florida, Betty met Bob Luca. Bob and a friend had been 
on a cross-country trip to California. Bob had never intended to return to his 
home in Connecticut via Florida, but he suddenly had a compulsion to visit 
friends there. Coincidentally, Bob’s friends turned out to be mutual friends of 
Betty’s. In fact, they were people Betty worked with. They also told him about 
Betty’s UFO experience. 

He was very interested in meeting her, as he also had a UFO sighting, 
followed by missing time, in the summer of 1967. At that time he was on his 
way to a beach near Wallingford, Connecticut, when he noticed a railroad crew 
looking up at two large silver cylindrical objects. He stopped the car and 
watched as the cylinders released smaller disk-shaped objects. 

After the objects were out-of-sight, he continued to drive to the beach but 
was distressed when he arrived late with about two hours of missing time. 

Bob was introduced to Betty, who informed the MUFON team of his UFO 
experience, and arrangements were made to conduct an investigation of his 
“missing time” as well. Bob and Betty were later married. 

The team obtained the services of a MUFON consultant in hypnosis living 
in Connecticut, and Bob underwent two sessions in which he was hypnotically 


During the first session, the hypnotist asked Bob to go back to his first UFO 
experience. We were amazed when he began reliving an encounter that had 
taken place at age five, in 1944. Bob began speaking like a child. He said he 
was sitting on a swing in the back yard, behind his house. He noticed a bright 
light coming in the sky. When it got close, he described an oval object with two 
gray entities in a bubble-like dome on top. They flashed a light at him, which 
induced paralysis. They told him telepathically that they were visiting others 
like him to help people not to be afraid of them. He was told that someday 
something good would happen to him, when he was older. 

During the second session under hypnosis, Bob relived driving to the beach 
and watching the cylindrical objects release smaller objects. However, when he 
began driving to the beach, one of the smaller objects appeared and began 
descending like a falling leaf towards his car. The car was suddenly filled with 
red light and he found himself in the craft with small, gray alien beings. He 
could not resist their wishes. They had him remove his clothes and then placed 
him on a table, where he underwent a physical examination. While on the table 
he became terrified when one of the gray entities suddenly turned into a being 
of light. He refused to describe one of the procedures that the entities were 
performing on him. He was brought out of hypnosis and refused to undergo 
further sessions. 

Betty underwent seven more sessions under hypnosis. Coincidentally, Betty 
also relived her first remembered UFO-related experience at age seven, in 
1944, at Leominster, Massachusetts. While waiting for a friend in a playhouse, 
a buzzing glowing marble-sized object flew in and landed between Betty’s 
eyes. She felt tired and experienced a strange feeling in her head, as a chorus of 
voices told her that she was being watched and was making good progress. She 
was told that they were getting some things ready to show her and that it would 
make her and other people happy. These things would not be ready until she 
was 12 years of age. 

Her second encounter took place at age 12, in 1949, when she lived in 
Westminster, Massachusetts. While walking in the woods, she was confronted 
by a small gray entity in a strange coverall suit with buttons and symbols on it. 
The entity pressed a button on the suit and a glowing marble-sized ball of light 
flew out and landed between Betty’s eyes. Again she heard voices which said 
that she was not ready yet and that what they were preparing for her would 
happen in another year. 

True to the entities’ statement, when Betty was 13, in 1950, she was whisked 
up into an “orb-shaped” craft while walking in a field. The entities told her they 
were taking her home to meet the “One.” 

They placed an instrument in her mouth that held her tongue down and 
placed her on a smooth rubber-like wheel. The craft took her to an underground 
installation, which was entered by going underwater. There she witnessed a 
Museum of Time consisting of lifelike (or real) people from different ages, 
encased in transparent cubicles. 

The entities then caused Betty to undergo an out-of-body experience (OBE). 
In this state of being, she was told to enter a huge glass door. Through it she 
entered into a “world of light” and there encountered the One. 

Under hypnosis, her face beamed in ecstasy as she described a feeling of 
unconditional love and a oneness with all things. Attempts to discover other 
things that she learned there were futile. 

She was also subjected to a number of tests including being trained on a 
console. During the physical examination, the entities removed her eye and 
inserted a tiny object in her head through the eye cavity, which would be 
removed 17 years later. 

Follow-on hypnotic sessions revealed that in 1961, at age 24, a strange force 
drew Betty from her home into the woods, where she encountered a tall gray 
entity. She was told not to be afraid, that the Lord was with her and that her 
faith in the light would bring many others to the light. She was warned of 
upcoming trials but to keep her faith for the Lord Jesus was with her. 

Phase 11 of the investigation came to a halt due to a painful mental block 
when Betty started to relive her next UFO experiences in the 1970s. This pain 
frightened her so much that she refused to undergo further hypnosis. She felt 
that the entities did not want her to relate these experiences at this time. 

Phase 111 

Phase 111 of the investigation took place between November 1987 and 
December 1988. It was conducted by Ray Fowler and a behavioral 
psychologist. At this time, Betty began experiencing dreams and memory 
flashbacks of a woman’s face. What disquieted her so much was the expression 
of intense fear on the woman’s face. The eyes of the woman literally cried out 
to her for help. Betty tried her utmost to remember who the woman was, as she 
felt that she had seen her somewhere before. 

Betty decided that she would undergo hypnosis again to find out who the 
woman was, in spite of the chance that she would undergo a painful block 
again. An initial hypnotic session was not painful and revealed the woman was 
related to Betty’s UFO experiences. 

This instigated 17 new hypnotic sessions, which revealed a number of UFO 
experiences involving both Betty and Bob Luca. It was during these sessions 
that the entities told Betty that they were the “Watchers.” 

In 1973, at age 36, Betty described a bedroom visitation by an entity who 
informed her that it was now time to begin to remember her previous 
experiences and what she had been told. 

In 1975, at age 38, Betty again experienced a bedroom visitation by an entity 
who told her that her first marriage would end and to prepare for hardships. 

In 1977, at age 40, during yet another bedroom visitation by an entity, Betty 
was told about the impending death of two of her sons. Later, they were both 
killed in an automobile accident. 

In 1978, at age 41, Betty described and shared an OBE abduction with her 
husband Bob. They were taken to a large round-shaped facility where they 
witnessed many incredible things, including an alien operation on three family 
members. During this same year, Betty, Bob, and one of her daughters sighted 
four UFOs from their car. 

Between 1981 and 1986, Betty described several occasions where alien 
entities were sighted in her bedroom at night. 

In 1986, at age 49, Betty was suddenly confronted by an entity during the 
day, as she lay on the couch. The entity placed a black box on the couch, which 
precipitated an OBE abduction experience. 

In 1987, at age 50, Betty discovered an anomalous scoop mark on the calf of 
her right leg. Three more scoop marks appeared on her arm, in 1988. During 
the same week a scoop mark appeared overnight on Ray Fowler’s right leg, 
after a dream of being operated on by alien entities. 

Ray’s personal physician referred him to a dermatologist, who said it looked 
like a “punch-biopsy” in the process of healing. The appearance of the scoop 
mark further instigated Ray to undergo hypnosis himself to explore personal 
childhood and adult experiences. Ray decided to include samples of personal 
UFO and paranormal events experienced by himself and family members 
within the context of the Phase III investigation. 

Phase IV 

The Phase IV investigation took place between November 1992 and April 
1993. It was conducted by Ray Fowler and a behavioral psychologist. During 
this period Betty underwent seven hypnotic regression sessions and Bob was 
involved in four sessions. 

One of the priorities in this particular phase of the investigation was to 
regress Bob Luca to relive his side of his shared OBE abduction experience, in 
1978, with Betty. When under hypnosis, Bob provided additional information 
about his personal interfaces with the entities. This included a detailed treatise 
on the survival of human beings after death, of which the entities had intimate 
knowledge. He also provided a complementary description of what he and 
Betty experienced while together. 

In addition, Bob recounted a number of times that he awoke to see entities 
nearby. Such experiences took place in 1981 during a camping trip and in 1985, 
1986, and 1992 in their home. However, each time when eye contact occurred 
between himself and an entity, he would fall back to sleep. 

Bob also relived abduction in 1989. He was awakened by the bed shaking 
and a bright red light coming through the window. His attempts to awake Betty 
were futile. When an entity appeared beside the bed, Bob became paralyzed. 
The entity placed his hand on Bob’s forehead and then poured some liquid into 
his mouth, which caused Bob to calm down. He then floated with the entity out 
the window into a hovering craft, and placed on a table where he was 
examined. He was told that they were monitoring his progress. During the 
examination a metal strap was placed on Bob’s head which produced a variety 
of pictures in his mind. 

Betty continued to relive in detail a number of follow-on personal 
abductions and a shared abduction from a car with Bob, in 1989. During a 
personal OBE abduction from her bed also in 1989, Betty was taken to a craft 
where she saw her daughter Becky being trained on a console. She was also 
brought back to Earth with a human-like robed entity in an OBE state where 
she was allowed to see him carry out several interfaces with events on Earth. 

During another abduction in 1989, Betty was taken in a small craft to a huge 
cylindrical craft in space, where she described a number of operations being 
carried out by the robed human-like entities and their small humanoid gray 

In addition to probing Betty and Bob’s memories of their UFO experiences, 
the Phase IV investigation included a detailed comparison between OBE 
abductions and the NDE (near-death experience). This resulted in the 

possibility that humankind were the larval form of the human-like entities 
encountered during OBE UFO abductions and NDEs. It hinted that the physical 
abductions and so-called animal mutilations were analogous to the breeding 
and maintenance of the human larval form. 

This would mean that so-called physical death might be the ultimate 
abduction: the reception of the metamorphosed larval form into the plane of 
existence from which the UFO phenomenon originates. Fowler theorized that 
this would explain why the entities appeared to be so similar in appearance to 
Homo Sapiens, and why OBE abductions and some NDE reports were 
identical. This concept was also supported by a treatise on human afterlife 
given to Bob Fuca during his shared OBE abduction with Betty, in 1978. 

Phase V 

The Phase V investigation took place between November 1993 and February 
1995. It was conducted by Ray Fowler and a MUFON consultant in hypnosis. 
The inquiry was directed specifically at probing the hidden memories of 
Becky’s daughter and Bob Fuca, and another probable abductee that was 
selected at random for comparative purposes. 

In addition to recording hypnotic recall, interviews with members of the 
Fuca and Fowler families took place. The experiences of both families were 
recorded and analyzed. Results supported other researchers’ findings that UFO 
abductions are a family phenomenon, and other types of paranormal 
phenomena usually accompany UFO experiences. Based on these findings, it 
was theorized that UFOs and various types of paranormal phenomena might be 
singular components of one overall metaphenomenon. 

Under hypnosis, Becky relived childhood and adult UFO experiences. Her 
earliest memories went back to 1958 when she was only three years of age. The 
early abductions were conducted by the robed human-like entities who took her 
from her crib by a beam of light into a craft, where she was examined with an 
African-American child. It was at this time that she was returned to her 
backyard sandbox in the early morning hours, rather than to her crib. This 
caused great alarm to her mother, who could not understand how she could 
have gotten outside of a locked house. 

A scar remains from an apparent biopsy taken during her childhood 
abductions. During these early abductions, Becky relived her experience with 
the entity that was left in the house during Betty’s 1967 abduction. Her adult 

abductions were conducted by the typical small gray entities. During both 
childhood and adult abductions, Becky was trained on a console with a TV 
screen-like monitor. Becky attributes her ability to write strange hieroglyphic- 
type writing to these training sessions. 

Bob relived several other abduction episodes, such as being taken from his 
bed and out a closed window by a small red-suited gray entity in a buzzing 
beam of light. During another childhood bedtime episode, he suddenly found 
himself in a strange lighted room with his mother and father, and small gray 
entities that performed examinations on them. 

He also relived his 1967 adult experience, where he was taken from his car 
while on the way to a beach. During past hypnotic sessions, when probing this 
event, a mental block was encountered where Bob refused to describe what the 
entities were doing to him. However, during this session, the block was 
neutralized. Bob became very upset as he described entities extracting semen 
from him. 

One of the priorities of the Phase V investigation was to probe a recurring 
dream of Bob seeing an alien child, under hypnosis, Bob emotionally recalled 
being in a place where there was a large hallway. A gray entity emerged with an 
alien-like child with blue eyes, which somehow Bob recognized as his own. 
Bob was not allowed to go close to the child and sobbed uncontrollably when 
the child was taken away. 

During the Phase V investigation, Ray Fowler decided to include one of the 
many suspected abductees that had phoned him for help. He wanted to see 
whether she would relive similar UFO and paranormal events as the Luca and 
Fowler families. The similitude of the results was extraordinary. 

Jean (a pseudonym) was selected and relived both childhood and adult UFO 
and paranormal experiences in excruciating detail. Of great interest was her 
being used as a surrogate mother for three fetuses and being brought to see and 
hold them at a later date. 

Like Betty, Jean saw other surrogate mothers onboard the craft who were 
undergoing gynecological procedures. She, like members of the Luca and 
Fowler family, had experienced a variety of psychic phenomena. 

Fowler’s continuing investigation into his own family uncovered a variety of 
UFO and paranormal phenomena experienced by them. A highlight event was 
the discovery that his father, brother, and his brother’s son also had pronounced 
scoop marks just above their shins. His brother recalled remnants of an 
abduction experience from a motel room, which coincided with the appearance 

of the scoop mark. Ray’s father did not remember when the mark had appeared 
and was unaware of it until it was pointed out to him. His nephew could not 
recall anything about the strange scoop marks on his leg. 

Phase V was the culmination of a twenty-year investigation of the 
Andreasson abductions. The result is a collection of conversations between the 
abductees and their alien abductors, which have been recorded as their message 
to humankind in the book, The Andreasson Legacy (1997). 

—Raymond E. Fowler 


Fowler, Raymond E.. The Andreasson Affair (Prentice-Hall, 1979; Bantam Books, 1980). 

_. The Andreasson Affair, Phase Two (Prentice-Hall, 1982). 

_. The Watchers: The Secret Design Behind UFO Abduction (Bantam, 1990). 

_. The Watchers II: Exploring UFOs and the Near Death Experience (Wild Flower Press, 1993). 

_. The Andreasson Legacy (Marlowe, 1997). 

POSTSCRIPT: The following is Betty (Andreasson) Luca’s own summary of her 
extraterrestrial encounters: Since the beginning I have believed that extremely 
intelligent extraterrestrials have coexisted with mankind, quietly touching the 
human life and mind, hoping to lead man into a higher path of consciousness 
where wisdom, love, and freedom abound. 

Many people fear and mistrust these entities, because of their covert 
influence. I have had several physical and spiritual close encounters. Most all 
the beings I’ve been involved with, for well over fifty years of UFO 
encounters, have been benevolent. 

In 1967, as I lay magnetically pinned to a table aboard an extraterrestrial 
craft, several dark eyed entities, having three fingers on each hand, vigorously 
measured me for light and procreation, before retrieving a BB-like implant 
from my nose. 

My mind fearfully grasped for answers as I questioned their intention, 
purpose, and attitude concerning such a peculiar and frightful examination. 

I soon realized although these physical probes and unusual methods were 
bizarre, the beings did not want to hurt me in any way, for they removed the 
pain by laying their hands on my forehead. I reasoned that their radical 
examination was no more puzzling, painful or embarrassing than many 
necessary medical operations humans endure from physicians, surgeons, and 

Knowledge of these extraterrestrial creatures capable of transformation and 
invisibility began at age seven and continues to this day. My first abduction in 
1950 thrust me into a realm where denizens of small gray skinned beings dwell, 
whose enlarged heads and big black eyes seemed grotesque compared to the 
human form. 

Copyright €> 1979 by Betty Andreasson Luca 


In this scene from Betty’s 1967 encounter, the leader, “Quazgaa,” exchanges a magical book for 

the Bible. 

In their strange environment was a beautiful crystal forest with amazing 
powers that came alive through touch. Beyond the forest was a huge crystal¬ 
like door. This was the entrance into the beautiful world of Light where the 
magnificence of One reside. Words are inadequate and incapable of describing 
the glorious and majestic presence within the dimensions of Light. Upon my 
exit from the great door, I was greeted by a tall, white-haired being who placed 
me in a small transport craft to return to the main ship. 

While on my journey back home, an implant was strategically placed inside 
my head which would be removed seventeen years into my future. After the 
removal I was taken to a room with eight unusual chairs, submersed in liquid 
for protection from G-forces, then escorted to a high place before the Light 
where a chorus of one voice called my name to inform me that I had been 

chosen to show the world. Six more years would pass before 1 would come to 
understand what the intriguing statement meant. 

Copyright © 1995 by Betty Andreasson Luca 

A huge cigar-shaped craft, which carries the Elders and the Watchers. 

Through each encounter, they were revealing themselves: who they were, 
what they were doing, and why. 1 had been chosen to report the impact of their 
reality through my encounters. 

In 1973, the gray beings summoned me from my home to their craft where a 
young terrified woman lay paralyzed on a table. Much to my surprise, some of 
the beings were working down by her raised legs. 

A hybrid fetus was aborted from the woman’s womb and thrust into a 
waiting tank of liquid close by. It was at this time I learned these gray beings 
were called “Watchers”: care takers of nature and all natural form. They 
informed me the reason they’d been collecting seed and fetuses was because 
man would eventually become sterile. 

I witnessed technology that seemed magical. A large hovering craft attached 
itself to a smaller craft below to purge and reline its “cyclinetic trowel,” which 
caused lightning and a rain shower to occur. The lower craft was later shrunken 
to the size of a car. 

Watchers escorted me back to the main craft, where I was lifted to an upper 
room and brought to a huge forest-like terrarium with a fish pond. The central 
part of the water opened, and as water and fish fell below, the Watcher 
explained: “they were just replenishing.” I stood in the forest in amazement as 
tiny fetus-like children, remarkable hybrid infants, appeared from behind 
bushes and trees. 

The next unusual encounter was an out-of-body (OBE) event that happened 

to both my husband, Bob, and me. We were lifted out of our bodies and brought 
aboard a craft where the gray Watchers were examining our three daughters. 
Two tall white-haired beings took Bob into a different room, as I along with 
others were changed into beings of light. This experience was an advanced 
learning session for us. 

Betty’s drawing of an Elder: one of the white-robed beings. 

In 1989, I was once again transported to a craft by the gray Watchers and 
brought to the crystal forest. The ground rumbled and great sheets of blinding 
light suddenly appeared as the great door to the world of Light opened once 

A spherical craft transported me forward, where I saw a mass of nesting 
orbs. These orbs were collectors of wisdom, knowledge, and intelligence. 
Watchers escorted me to another spherical craft, and we sailed toward a 
massive cigar-shaped vehicle hovering in the darkness of space. One end of the 
huge ship was lit with red and white lights. As we entered the long cylindrical 
craft and parked the small ship, a tall white-robed being greeted us. 

Once inside, I learned that these beautiful pale blue-eyed extraterrestrials are 
called Elders, and are ambassadors of “O.” The gray Watchers are their work 

force. These Elders love the human race. 

-Betty Ann Luca 

P.O. Box 613 

Address: Hayes, VA 23072 U.S.A. 

^ j|. 

Andreasson Affair, The (Prentice-Hall, 1979). Raymond Fowler tells the 
story of Betty Andreasson, a Massachusetts housewife, who believes she was 
kidnapped by aliens and given religious messages and formulas for new 
technologies to benefit humankind. Her account of being subjected to medical 
tests by the aliens and having an implant removed from her sinuses came from 
hypnotic regression sessions and became a defining experience for later 
abductees and their hypnotists. 

—Randall Fitzgerald 

Andrews, Arlan K., Sr. (b. 1940). Dr. Andrews is an author, lecturer, and 
consultant, living on Padre Island on the Texas Gulf coast. A native of Little 
Rock, Arkansas, he retired in 1996 as Manager of Advanced Manufacturing 
Initiatives at the Sandia National Laboratories of the U.S. Department of 
Energy, Albuquerque, New Mexico. He is a co-founder of Muse Technologies, 
Inc., a virtual-reality software firm (NASDAQ: MUZE), and several other 
high-tech start-up companies. 

Arlan Andrews 

Dr. Andrews received his Doctor of Science in Engineering at New Mexico 
State University in 1968, and worked for AT&T Bell Laboratories at White 
Sands Missile Range, New Mexico; Greensboro, North Carolina; and 
Indianapolis, Indiana, with assignments in Hong Kong and Japan. 

He worked as a Fellow in the Technology Administration of the U.S. 
Department of Commerce in 1991-92, and in the White House Science Office 
(Office of Science and Technology Policy) during the Bush and Clinton 
Administrations in 1992-93, making him the only UFO researcher with White 
House credentials. He is a Registered Professional Engineer, a Mechanical 
Engineering consultant for MUFON and a professional member of the Science 
Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America. 

^ j|. 

POSITION STATEMENT: My basic outlook on UFOs has not changed since my 
original position statement in The Encyclopedia of UFOs (1980): 

“My own interpretation is with the hardware group: I think that the data 
reveal that we are visited by craft from other solar systems or elsewhere in 
space, and that these craft have advanced means of propulsion and 
materialization, and that the crews are (sometimes) humanoid, and that they are 
neutral—neither friends nor foes. It is almost meaningless to speculate further 

upon their motives.” 

In the years since 1980, most scientific discoveries and technological 
advancements have unknowingly supported this “Hardware and Extraterrestrial 
Hypothesis.” For example, we now possess “stealth technology,” which means 
that UFOs of the 20 th century did not have to show up on our radar, lending 
more credence to such reports. Extrasolar planets are showing up everywhere, 
and recent lab experiments indicate that the speed of light may not be the 
ultimate barrier after all. Advances in nanotechnology and genetic research are 
making 21 st Century technology look like magic to a 1950s observer. Each of 
these steps supports a universe in which interstellar travel is indeed possible. 

It is very interesting, then, that no further progress has been made in 
explaining UFOs since Day One in 1947. Perhaps UFOs will remain not only 
unknown, but unknowable. 

—Arlan K. Andrews, Sr. 

Andrus, Walter H. Jr. (b. 1920). As one of the founding members of MUFON 
in 1969, Walter Andrus served as the International Director of the Mutual UFO 
Network, Inc. since 1970, succeeding Dr. Allen R. Utke. On July 16, 2000, 
Andrus retired from that position, and the title was transferred to John F. 
Schuessler, also a founding member of MUFON. 

Born in Des Moines, Iowa, Andrus graduated from the Central Technical 
Institute in Kansas City, Missouri, in 1940. He also graduated from the U.S. 
Navy Electronics Technician Program (during World War II) and taught in both 
of the above schools. He was formerly employed by Mid-Continent Airlines as 
a Station Manager in Quincy, Illinois. From 1949 to 1975, Andrus was 
employed by Motorola, Inc. in successive capacities as Assistant Plant 
Manager, Manager of Quality Control, and Operations Manager in their 
Quincy, Illinois facility. In 1975 he transferred to the Seguin, Texas plant as a 
Production Manager. After a tenure of nearly thirty-four years with Motorola, 
he retired at the end of 1982 to devote full time to the management of the 
Mutual UFO Network. 


Walter Andrus 

The MUFON administrative offices were moved from Quincy, Illinois to 
Seguin, Texas in 1975, where MUFON became a Texas Nonprofit Corporation 
and an I.R.S. Tax Exempt Organization. 

Andrus has been interested in the UFO phenomenon since August 15, 1948, 
when he, his wife and son had a daylight sighting of four UFOs flying in 
formation over downtown Phoenix, Arizona. 

In addition to presenting slide-illustrated lectures in the U.S.A., Australia, 
Belgium, Brazil, Canada, England, Italy, and Mexico, he has appeared on 
national television numerous times, however, more recently with Oprah 
Winfrey, Larry King , and Encounters. 

Andrus is a member of the Board of Directors of the Joint USA-CIS Aerial 
Anomaly Federation. He is also on the Board of Directors for the influential 
UFO Research Coalition, composed of the J. Allen Hynek Center for UFO 
Studies (CU-FOS), Fund for UFO Research (FUFOR), and Mutual UFO 
Network (MUFON). 

103 Oldtowne Road 


Seguin, TX 78155 


(830) 379-9216 


(830) 372-9439 


POSITION STATEMENT: During half a century of involvement in the study of 
the enigma of unidentified flying objects, I have reached certain tentative 
conclusions based upon the “state of the art” of present-day science. 

After personally interviewing several hundred witnesses to UFO sightings, 
reviewing the 1,600 UFO landing-trace cases compiled by Ted Phillips, and 
reading the 1,800 humanoid or entity cases collected by Ted Bloecher, my 
initial conclusion is that our Earth is being visited by entities from an advanced 
intelligence in their spacecraft conducting a surveillance of life on this planet. 

Considering the giant steps that we have made in space travel during the past 
twenty years, the extraterrestrial hypothesis is not only very exciting, but the 
physical evidence helps to substantiate this theory. 

On the other hand, I cannot lose sight of the probability that they could 
constitute some unknown physical or psychological manifestation that cannot 
be explained by present-day science. Evidence to support this hypothesis is 
directly related to a personal daytime sighting on August 15, 1948, of four 
round silver objects which my wife, son, and I observed along with numerous 
other witnesses in downtown Phoenix, Arizona. The objects, while flying 
slowly from east to west in formation in a cloudless sky, one at a time simply 
vanished from our sight in sequence in the northern sky. After patiently 
continuing to observe the sky in the direction and speed that the objects had 
been traveling, the first three in formation “popped” back into our vision one at 
a time in the northwest sky still moving slowly west, where they eventually 
went out of sight due to distance. Considering all factors involved, these objects 
had performed a feat no known object manufactured on this planet could 
perform, thus meeting the requirements of a “UFO.” 

Did these balloon-shaped objects “dematerialize” or change into another 
dimension right before our eyes and then return a few minutes later into our 
three dimensional world? 

If UFOs are found to be extraterrestrial spacecraft, our aerospace engineers 
would like to duplicate their propulsion systems and aerodynamic 
maneuverability characteristics. If one of our aerospace industries could design 
and build a craft that could duplicate the feats of a UFO, the United States 
would be the unchallenged leader in the space race. We would no longer need 
rockets with millions of pounds of thrust to launch vehicles to the moon and 
nearby planets. 

The third vital question to be answered is “where do they originate?” 1947 

“kicked off’ the modern era of “flying saucers,” however the Bible and other 
historical writings provide evidence that UFOs have been around for several 
thousand years. If they are extraterrestrial in origin, our planet has been under 
surveillance for reasons known only to the creatures controlling the vehicles. If 
they are from another dimension, and have the ability to “materialize” into a 
“nuts and bolts” type of spacecraft, leaving physical traces, they could be 
residents of this or any other habitable planet. 

A question always directed to those of us involved in UFO research is, “Do 
you believe in UFOs?” My response always seems to shock the recipient, when 
I answer no. “Belief’ has a religious connotation. I believe in God, even though 
I have never seen him. When I consider UFO sightings, it is a case of looking at 
the facts, data, and evidence, and arriving at the conclusion that the evidence is 
overwhelming in favor of UFOs. 

I am very cognizant that a phenomenon which has baffled the residents of 
our tiny planet, conceivably for several thousand years, will not be resolved 
tomorrow, or even next year. However, until a concerted scientific effort is 
launched to deal with this perplexing dilemma, it will undoubtedly continue to 
be “the greatest mystery of our time.” 

—Walter H. Andrus, Jr. 

angelic kingdom According to metaphysical theory, this is an evolutionary 
line of non-physical beings, existing on Earth and in higher dimensions. The 
angelic kingdom is parallel to, interactive with, but objectively independent of 
the human line of evolution. These beings are said to be responsible for the 
maintenance of the planet and the solar system, assisting the Creator of our 
seven-dimensional system in the completion of its development. Examples 
include the mythical fairies, sylphs, and archangels (such as Mikael and 
Gabriel), with whom some modern channels also claim to be in contact. 

—Scott Mandelker 

Angels and Aliens (Addison-Wesley, 1991). Keith Thompson applies the 
ideas of Carl Jung and Joseph Campbell to the UFO phenomenon and concludes 
it is a mythological journey and a rite of passage for humankind to create a 
Cosmic Man. Thompson delineates the patterns which connect aliens, abductees, 
angels, and shamanic and near-death experiences, existing in a realm beyond 
“the tenuous dimension known as ordinary reality,” and concludes these 
experiences are awakening us to uncharted human capacities accelerating our 

evolution as a species. 

—Randall Fitzgerald 

angels and UFOs There has thus far been no comprehensive study relating 
Biblical angels and UFOs, although possible directions for such studies are 
apparent. There are several indications that UFOs in the Bible serve as 
transportation for the angels. 

Copyright © 2000 by Monarca Lynn Merrifield 

“And behold, there was a great earthquake, for an angel of the Lord descended from heaven and 
came and rolled back the stone, and sat upon it. His appearance was like lightning, and his 

garments were white as snow.” 

(Matthew 28: 2,3) 

UFOs in the Bible are variously referred to as “the pillar of cloud and fire” 
of the Exodus, or the “chariot of fire” of Elijah, or the “bright cloud” at the 
transfiguration of Jesus. Two men in white robes, understood to be angels, were 
present at the ascension of Jesus (Acts 1.10). Concerning his second coming 
Jesus says, “they shall see the Son of man coming in the clouds of heaven with 
power and great glory; and he shall send his angels with a great sound of a 
trumpet.” (Matt. 24:30-31) 

In modern UFO studies, it is assumed by many that UFOs provide 

transportation for humanoids or UFO occupants. Thus the question becomes: Is 
there a relation between the Biblical angels and modern UFO occupants? 

Jacques Vallee in his book Passport to Magonia (1969), has explored some 
similarities between folklore and fairy stories of old, and modern UFO stories 
and their human-like occupants. There are also parallels between modern UFO- 
occupant stories and Biblical angels. 

For instance, the Bible relates the famous story of Balaam, who while riding 
his ass met an angel of God. The donkey recognized or saw the angel, but the 
angel was invisible to Balaam for some time, until the angel chose to become 
visible to Balaam. (Num. 22:21-35) In modern UFO literature it is often argued 
that animals can sense the presence of UFOs before humans. Also, visible 
UFOs are often reported to become invisible almost instantly. The New 
Testament reports that an angel came into a prison cell to rescue Peter and led 
Peter and himself past the first and second guard without being seen, except by 
Peter. (Acts 12:1-17) The idea suggested is that angels may be visible to some 
humans while invisible to others at the same time 

Some modern UFO occupants have very different features from ordinary 
humans, but others are reported to look very human. The Biblical angels were 
understood to have the power to look very human. Thus, the Bible says: “Do 
not neglect to show hospitality to strangers, for thereby some have entertained 
angels unawares.” (Heb. 13:2) Post-Biblical culture and art frequently picture 
Biblical angels with wings, but wings are never mentioned in most angel 
accounts, and, obviously, an angel with wings would hardly catch one 

The idea that angels were very human begins with Abraham’s meeting with 
“three men” (Gen. 18:2) who meet him at noon and whom he feeds. Eventually 
he discovers they are from God, and they exhibit the ability of what we call 
mental telepathy, reading the mind of Sarah, Abraham’s wife. Modern UFO 
occupants are sometimes given credit for the ability to read human minds and 
communicate psychically. Likewise, angels in the Bible are understood to be 
able to communicate strictly through psychic impressions, as when an angel 
appears to Joseph, the husband of Mary, in a dream. (Matt. 2:13) Similarly, in 
modern cases, witnesses involved in close-encounter cases often report 
increased psychic sensitivity and suggest that the UFO reality is now 
communicating with them through dreams and visions. 

One other characteristic of angels of interest in the UFO field is that angels 
can apparently materialize and dematerialize, or else can pass through what we 

would call solid walls. Thus, in the story mentioned above of Peter in prison, 
the implication of the story is that the angel entered the jail cell without 
opening the door or gate. This is similar to the story of Jesus, after his 
resurrection, who entered a locked room to meet his disciples. (John 20:19-29) 
One can imagine a kind of “Star Trek” transporter bringing about these events, 
although the Bible never explains the happenings. A Mrs. Sandy Larson of 
North Dakota reported a series of UFO contacts, including one occasion when 
two UFO beings awakened her from sleep and carried her right through her 
bedroom wall to the waiting UFO. 

This is not to say that we have proof that modern UFOs and Biblical angels 
are connected, or identical. It is clear, however, that the Biblical concept of 
angels involves many elements, which are familiar to students of modern UFO 
stories and UFO-occupant cases. While it is true to say that there is no 
scientific proof at the present time of a connection between Biblical angels and 
modem UFOs, conversely, there is certainly no proof that they are independent 

Many modern UFO cults are of a religious nature, and persons sometimes 
claim to have received divine messages of salvation from UFOs. This fact has 
made the “scientific” study of UFOs difficult, either because UFOs are not 
scientific in the sense scientists want them to be or else because UFOs know 
how to use tactics, including religious symbolism, to make them less 
scientifically accessible. 

—Barry H. Downing 


Downing, Barry. The Bible and Flying Saucers (Lippincott, 1968; Avon, 1970; Marlowe, 1997). 

Jessup, M. K. UFO and the Bible (The Cidadel Press, 1956). 

Oswald, John Paul. What You Need To Know (privately published, 1983). 

Vallee, Jacques. Passport to Magonia (Henry Regnery, 1969). 

Angels: God’s Secret Agents (Double-day, 1975). Evangelist Billy Graham 
proposes that angels may be the occupants of UFOs who have been guiding our 
spiritual evolution since Biblical times. In contrast to other Christians who fear 
UFOs are piloted by demons, Graham suspects they are angels sent here by 
God to help us fight the demons because “the Second Coming of Jesus Christ is 
close at hand.” 

—Randall Fitzgerald 

Angelucci, Orfeo (1912-1993). Orfeo Angelucci is a UFO contactee whose 
account has attracted especial attention because of the purity of the religious 
symbolism and spiritual motifs it contains. For this reason Carl G. Jung,, in his 
Flying Saucers: A Modern Myth of Things Seen in the Skies (1959), devoted 
some ten pages to an analysis of the Italian-American’s UFO experience. 

Angelucci’s most important book is The Secret of the Saucers, published in 
1955. In this autobiographical narrative he tells us that he was raised in 
comfortable circumstances in New Jersey, married in 1936, had two sons, and 
moved to Los Angeles in 1948. His life was happy except for recurrent bouts of 
ill health, which reduced him periodically to a state of total exhaustion and 
painful nervous prostration, and in acute cases required hospitalization. 

One physician attributed the condition to the effects of a childhood attack of 
trichinosis. Because of this circumstance, he ended formal schooling in the 
ninth grade. His mind, however, was very much alive. Angelucci as a boy and 
young adult was continually performing experiments and writing theses on 
esoteric scientific topics from virology to “the nature of infinite entities.” 

Orfeo Angelucci 

By his own account, his first saucer experience occurred on May 23, 1952. 
Angelucci had felt peculiar and slightly sick throughout the day and about 11 
p.m., left the swing shift early to go home from his job at the Lockheed aircraft 

plant in Burbank, California. He was afraid his old illness might be coming 
back. But as he drove along the bank of the Los Angeles River around 
midnight, he noticed a glowing disk following him. It came closer and closer 
until it virtually forced him off the road. He stopped, got out, and encountered a 
supra-humanly splendid man and woman bathed in light who had come by 
saucer from another world. The aliens presented Angelucci with a revivifying 
drink from a crystal goblet, reminded him of events from his past, and informed 
him that, despite his humble state, he had been singled out as most suitable for 
the first contact of this magnificent race with the people of Earth. They spoke 
of the deep compassion they had for Earth and proclaimed they wished to offer 
hope to this troubled world 

On a couple of later occasions, Angelucci rode the marvelous vehicles of his 
friends, ringing with the music of the spheres, to their paradisal planets. The 
celestial companions reaffirmed their concern for suffering humankind and the 
designation of Angelucci as their evangelist. The latter’s transcendent 
experience ended with his mystical marriage to a spacewoman named Lyra. 

Dutifully, Angelucci commenced speaking and writing about his 
experiences. Needless to say, he and his family received considerable ridicule, 
but eventually he became known in more sympathetic circles and found himself 
to be a fixture of space conventions and the contactee lecture circuit. 

In a later book, Son of the Sun (1959), Angelucci relates the alleged 
experiences (as told by him) of a person known only as Adam, but who is 
described as a medical doctor from Seattle who had only a few months to live. 
This narrative concerns the same entities and ships as does The Secret of the 
Saucers and is replete with the same combination of romantic adventure with 
transcendent quality which makes the earlier book striking; the nature of the 
supernal beings and the philosophical perspective underlying them here comes 
through in fuller detail. 

The religious character of these encounters is reinforced by Angelucci’s 
continual insistence that the visitants and their craft are not just from another 
world but, in some way, from an entirely different order of reality. Their ships 
could not be seen by just anyone, but only by one who is mystically prepared or 
selected for the experience. On meeting them, he felt an exaltation “as though 
momentarily I had transcended mortality and was somehow related to these 
superior beings.” It was as though he had “felt another world, or something 
akin to a whole universe.” 

He tells us that we are continually under observation by the Spirit of God, by 

a hierarchy of angels and heavenly hosts, and by the very highly evolved beings 
he encountered—beings of other planets who are so perfected as to be “almost 
angels, on the threshold.” They cannot directly help us by interfering with the 
course of affairs in this world, but they can and do help indirectly by providing 
a powerful hope-giving experience of transcendence, which shows how 
marvelously beautiful and harmonious the infinite universe beyond darkened 
Earth really is and what glorious creatures humankind can become. But even 
this experience, according to Angelucei, can only be given to those able to 
receive it—“only to people who already have it within them”—for otherwise it 
would be an unjustifiable violation of the “divine code” of noninterference. 

Orfeo Angelucei’s saucerian message, based on what were essentially 
mystical experiences, is wholly one of hope and of the spaceman’s positive 
spiritual meaning. To him, UFOs afford a way to inspiration and transcendence 
and an assurance that for all its anguish Earth is not left alone but is part of a 
living, God-pervaded universe and has godlike friends. 

Orfeo Angelucei founded no organization, claimed no grandiose titles or 
callings, and claimed no mystical UFO experiences after those recounted in The 
Secret of the Saucers. Since then, he lived in Los Angeles, quietly and 
modestly, working at various jobs and speaking about his experiences and their 
meaning as occasion has allowed. His charm, humility, and sincerity were 
recognized by all who knew him, and he was widely regarded as expressing the 
religious wing of the UFO contactee movement at its best. 

—Robert S. Ellwood, Jr. 

animal mutilations Toward the end of 1974 and throughout most of 1975, 
newspapers across the United States carried stories of strange cattle mutilations 
and their possible connection with UFOs, which in some cases had allegedly 
been observed in close proximity to the time and place of these bizarre 

Hundreds of beef cattle were found dead across a section of the country as 
wide-ranging as Minnesota, Wisconsin, Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa, South Dakota, 
Colorado, Texas, Arizona, and California. The series of cases began in Meeker 
County, Minnesota, and spread westward as law-enforcement agencies became 
increasingly involved, especially in Minnesota and Colorado. 

It was found initially that the vast majority of cattle deaths had resulted from 
natural causes: mostly disease and malnutrition. The missing parts were those 
usually attacked first by scavenging animals, because they are the easiest to 

chew, i.e., the lips, tongue, ears, udders (teats), sex organs, and rectal area. 
However, some of the cattle bore strange mutilations which could not be 
accounted for in such a mundane manner. Ears were carefully removed, 
tongues were cut out, udders and sex organs were gone, anuses sliced out, all 
with apparent surgical skill. Also, in such cases, which were mostly black 
Angus or black white-faced cattle, the carcasses were devoid of blood as if 
drained with a needle. No blood could be found on the ground, nor footprints or 
vehicular tracks. As one farmer put it, it was as if the bodies were mutilated 
elsewhere and dropped to the ground from the air. (In fact, there had been 
several cases reported of helicopters leaving the scene of cattle mutilations, but 
identifying details were difficult to observe in the dark of night. Most often, in 
such instances, the helicopters were heard but not seen.) 

Eventually, law-enforcement personnel, working together with veterinarians, 
uncovered the working of a bizarre Satanical cult group somewhat reminiscent 
of the Charles Manson “family.” 

The leader of this “family” operated in Minnesota for a while, then moved 
abruptly to Texas when family members ran afoul of the law. The leaders were 
apprehended and placed in custody. 

Their general modus operandi was as follows: The group, which would 
approach its intended victim at night, walked upon large pieces of pasteboard 
which they picked up and carried with them; thus no tracks were left. The 
victim was shot with a tranquilizer dart, immobilizing it (traces of nicotine 
sulfate were found in the livers of some of the animals). Then a heart stimulant 
was injected, an artery in the throat was punctured, and the blood was caught in 
a plastic bag and carried from the scene in that manner. Organs to be used in the 
Satanic rites were then surgically removed with a minimum of bleeding. 

It seems likely that similar cult groups are responsible for other mutilated- 
animal cases and perhaps some of these instances are even the work of 
deranged individuals. But one of the least likely explanations is that UFOs were 

For a time, a young man who claimed to be a lecturer for the University of 
Minnesota was spreading the word that UFOs had shot some Minnesota cattle 
and had “collapsed their blood structure with mercury.” An interview with this 
man disclosed a preoccupation with achieving notoriety, and attempts at 
technical discussion were patently naive. His credibility also suffered from the 
fact that he claimed to be a “Sasquatch,” or “Bigfoot,” contactee (he had visited 
in their homes). Needless to say, his touted evidence connecting UFOs with 

dead cattle disappeared in the light of objective investigation. 

Despite claims by such individuals and certain sensationalist elements of the 
national media, no satisfactory evidence has ever emerged which links UFOs to 
mutilated animals. 

—Coral & Jim Lorenzen 

Anomalist, The In 1993, two freelance writers for Omni magazine, Patrick 
Huyghe and Dennis Stacy, met at a Mutual UFO Network (MUFON) 
conference in Richmond, Virginia, and lamented the then sorry state of UFO 
and Fortean journalism. Since both had been thinking about starting a new 
journal on anomalies, they decided to collaborate. 

By the Summer of 1994, the first issue of The Anomalist appeared. The 
resulting illustrated journal, in trade paperback format, features high quality 
writing on a variety of topics, ranging from “alien writing” and ghosts, to 
Bigfoot, crop circles, and issues of human invisibility. The twice yearly journal, 
which explores the mysteries of science, history and nature, quickly garnered 
rave reviews and spawned a complementary Web site of the same name at 

In its first five years, The Anomalist has published a number of major UFO 
stories, including “Project Blue Book’s Last Years,” an excerpt from the 
unpublished memoirs of Col. Hector J. Quintanilla; “UFOs: For RAND Use 
Only” by Karl Pflock; and Martin Kottmeyer’s award winning essay on “UFO 

The editing team of Huyghe and Stacy have much in common. Stacy was 
editor of The MUFON UFO Journal and had published articles on UFOs in 
such mainstream publications as Smithsonian Air & Space and New Scientist. 
Huyghe had been editor of UFO Commentary, back in the late 1960s and early 
1970s, and had published articles on UFOs in Science Digest and The New York 
Times Sunday Magazine. Huyghe’s book, The Field Guide to Extraterrestrials, 
appeared in 1996 and he has collaborated with Stacy on a companion volume 
called The Field Guide to UFOs (Quill, 2000). 


Web site: 

P.O. Box 577 

Jefferson Valley, NY 10535 U.S.A. 

Patrick Huyghe 

Anthropic Principle This idea is closely related to anthropomorphism or 
anthropocentrism, which is seeing the universe in terms of ourselves. As the 
ancient Greek philosopher Protagoras (ca. 490-420 b.c.) put it: “Man is the 
measure of all things.” This myopic point of view has extended to the human 
search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI). 

As concisely stated by Frank Drake: “...the controversial ‘Anthropic 
Principle’...holds that the universe was made exactly the way it is so we may 
exist. Or, put another way, we exist only because the unverse is the way it is.” 
This statement is basically a tautology (made true by its definition). However, 
the extreme implication is “...that the universe is so finely tuned as to hold just 
one intelligent species: us.” (Drake and Sobel, 1992) 

The “weak” version of the anthropic principle merely points out that if 
things had been different, we would not exist. For example, the laws of nature 
and the myriad “coincidences” that have figured into human evolution seem to 
have been amazingly well adapted to us (rather than the other way around). So 
much so, that according to proponents of the “strong” version of the anthropic 
principle, the laws of nature seem to have been specifically designed “...(don’t 
ask how or by Whom) so that humans would eventually come to be. Almost all 
of the other possible universes, they say, are inhospitable. In this way, the 
ancient conceit that the Universe was made for us is resuscitated.” (Sagan, 

—Ronald D. Story 


Drake, Frank, and Sobel, Dava. Is Anyone Out There? (Souvenir Press, 1992). 

Sagan, Carl. Pale Blue Dot (Random House, 1994). 

apocalyptic thought connected with UFOs and ETs The belief or 
feeling that a violent catastrophe will befall humanity in the near future is more 
formally termed “world-destruction fantasy” or “apocalyptic thought.” These 
terms are used in a broad sense to include cataclysms of virtually any 
magnitude in which great loss of life and suffering is implied. 

Such beliefs are pervasive in the history of UFO culture, with examples 
numbering in the hundreds. Their history extends back to the earliest puzzlings 
of Kenneth Arnold and runs continuously to the latest horrors at the cutting 
edge of abduction research. Contactees, abductees, fringe UFO buffs, and 
respected UFO researchers alike have contributed to the doom-saying 


The range of cataclysmic violence begins on the low end with modest 
spectacles of cities destroyed in nuclear blasts (Cecil Michael, Sonora desert-F- 
4-74) or a city dying from a nuclear storm or cloud (Cannon’s Carrie). The 
scale runs through wars (John Hodges, Ted Owens, Brian Scott, Linda Taylor, 
Jerry), the destruction of civilization (George Hunt Williamson, Buck Nelson, 
Norman Harrison, Marshall Applewhite), the sinking of California (PLW, 
Helen Hoag, Filiberto Cardenas, Mandelker’s Bob), the inundation of 
continents (Robin McPherson), population reduced by 40 percent or 50 percent 
or more (Andrijah Puharich’s Space Kids, Scott Mandelker), the cracking open 
of the planet (Pedro Ramirez, Francie Steiger), the atmosphere being set on fire 
(Linda Porter), the complete ignition of the planet (Ralph Lael, Arthur 
Shuttlewood), the orbit shifted outwards (MN Pleiadean), planets pulled toward 
the Sun (Dr. Malachi Z. York), destabilization of the solar system (Frank 
Stranges, John Sands, A.N. Tasca), the blowing up of the solar system 
(Necoma), destabilization of the galaxy (George Adamski), endangerment of 
the universe (C.A.V., Jerry Gross) destruction of other universes (Janice), and 
even beyond to a universal dissolution involving black holes that not even the 
gods would be immune to (George Andrews.) 

Concern over the “balance of the universe” is peculiarly common and begins 
early with the Ouija board contact of George Hunt Williamson with Zo of 
Neptune on August 17, 1952. Dorothy Martin, Sr. Helio Aguiar, Stuart 
Whitman, and Arthur Shuttlewood echoed this concern. Carlos, one of John 
Mack’s prophets, modernizes the wording by speaking of a tearing of the 
cosmic fabric essential to the unity of the universe. 

The mode of destruction varies across a wide and inconsistent repertoire of 
creative options. Some say the world will end in fire (Stephen Pulaski, William 
J. Herrmann, Arthur Shuttlewood, Dana Redfield, Linda Porter, Roxanne 
Zeigler). Some say in ice (Elgar Brom’s Noel, Stan Seers). 

Floods and tidal waves equally suffice (Dorothy Martin, Rolf Telano, 
Barbara Hudson, Lynn Volpe, Peter). Continents rise or fall and Earth’s axis 
will tilt for better than a dozen contactees. The Mitchell sisters and Helen Hoag 
overtly credit the fact that this is a replay of the Atlantis myth. Arthur, one of 
Mack’s group, warns a cosmic water balloon will flood the Earth, suffocating 
everything. Inversely, the desertfication of the Brazilian rain forest will extend 
everywhere according to Jerry in this same group. 

Mona Stafford and Francis Swan see the end coming in the manner mapped 

out by the Bible and Revelation. Orfeo Angelucci warned a fiery red comet of 
doom might collide with Earth if we did not change our ways. Anthony Volpe 
saw the Earth expanding like a balloon by 20 percent and then settling back. 
There’s an electromagnetic catastrophe coming (Joe), or the end of oil (Paul 
Bennett) or a plague of communicable AIDs (Scott), or extinction by sterility 
(Betty Andreasson). Eduard Meier and Robert Short see problems connected 
with the loss of the ionosphere. 

Professor R.N. Hernandez casts his doomsday in a virtually unreadable 
bafflegab that has something to do with a band of mineral solids encircling our 
world and aliens trying to make us annihilate ourselves. Richard Miller said 
aliens had a ring of ten million ships around our world trying to protect us from 
the effects of a cloud of cosmic debris. Some quakes, tidal waves, and bad 
weather caused by radiation effects on the Earth’s core could not be prevented. 

Dino Kraspedon warned use of the hydrogen bomb would create unknown 
elements that would upset the atmosphere in ways that would lead to quakes, 
tidal waves, strange diseases, and maniacs in the streets. Dorothy Cannon’s 
subject, Janice, fears the circumference of the Earth will fold into its center 
causing an explosion that ripples to other galaxies and universes, because of 
their atomic structure. 

A nice number of these prophets were kind enough to set firm endpoints on 
their prophecies thus allowing them to be easily tested and falsified by simply 
letting time pass. 

Phrases like “the end is coming soon” (Harry Joe Turner) and “Earth time is 
desperately short” (Arthur Shuttlewood) are a recurrent refrain. The fact that 
decades have passed since ten or so uttered them indicates either they are 
wrong or use “soon” in an opaque fashion. 

Date-Setting Saucer Prophets 


End tvpe: 

End time: 

MFS Hehr 



Orfeo Angelucci 



George van Tassel 



George Hunt 



Dec. 1, 1952 

Albert Bender 



Francis Swan 



Richard Miller 



Dorothy Martin 


Dec. 21.1954 

Gladys White Eagle 


Oct. 1954 

Wayne Alio 

Earth changes 


Ralph Lael 

Earth blows up 


Knud Weiking 

nuclear holocaust 

Dec. 24. 1967 

Robin McPherson 


Nov. 22. 1969 

John Hodges 



Ted Owens 

nuclear war 


Stephen Pulaski 

world burns 


Helen Hoag 

Earth changes 


Sonora desert contact 

U.S. city nuked 


German Navarrete 



Robert Short 



Greta Woodrew 

Earth changes 


Francie Steiger 

coastal floods 


Starseed poll 



Charles Hickson 

total destruction 



California sinks, world¬ 

wide disasters 


Gaynor Sunderland 

Earth destroyed 


Jamie Sams 

world cleansing 

Late 1980s 

Graham Allen 

Severe Earth changes 


Paul Bennett 

end of oil. cars, men 


Penny Smith 

period of destruction 

1995 2000 

The record of error presented in the table calls for some sort of explanation. 
Some will follow the lead of the Lorenzens who felt aliens were liars and 
disseminated disinformation as part of an immense charade. It is a peculiar sort 
of campaign however. 

Starfarers should be more scientifically sophisticated than to bluff with 
notions as dubious as pole-shifts. 

Concerns that man could have tangible effects on the universe’s balance 
sound pre-Copernican and a grandiose conceit of man’s powers. It is also odd 
that they don’t stick to one scenario filtered through all their contacts to give 

the lies more credibility and the letdown more bite. 

Kenneth Ring’s Omega Project affirms the ubiquitous character of 
apocalyptic thinking in UFO belief. His survey of a population of UFO 
experiencers found fully 85 percent reported an increase in their concern for 
planetary welfare after their experiences; 60 percent said it strongly increased. 
This provides a nice backdrop to Jenny Randles’ finding that 28 percent of 
bedroom-visitor contacts included imminent Earth catastrophe as a reason for 
alien visitation, the most common of the motifs looked at. 

Apocalyptic thought is hardly limited to the UFO subculture. One has only 
to look at the history of Christianity, from the beliefs of Jesus that the world 
would spectacularly end in his generation, to Revelation, to the latest end-time 
cults, to realize the power of this belief. 

Environmentalists have offered a smorgasbord of eco-catastrophes in recent 
decades. New Age literature repeatedly foresees Earth changes, with the name 
Edgar Cayce repeatedly invoked as an authority on these matters. Apocalypse 
has been considered part of the basic plot of all science fiction. Stanislaw Lem 
notes that every fan has a library of agonies in which writers have refined the 
end of the world into something “as formally elegant as a well thought out 
gambit” in chess. Anthropologists have encountered world-destruction fantasies 
in farflung cultures and myriad forms such as to suggest it extends back 
through aboriginal times. This hints at the involvement of a panhuman 
psychological process. 

Psychologists have developed some insights into this process. Fantasies 
about the destruction of the world are a common feature of psychotic mental 
universes. Freud was one of the earlier psychological thinkers to observe 
world-catastrophe beliefs are not infrequent in the agitated stages of developing 
paranoia. His favorite paranoid, the respected judge and doctor Daniel Paul 
Schreber, held a conviction of the imminence of a great catastrophe either by 
the withdrawal of the sun, by earthquake, or by pestilence through nervous 
disorders. Though he initially placed this event 212 years in the future, 
Schreber came to believe that period of time elapsed and he was the only real 
man left alive. His doctors and attendants were “miracled up, cursorily 
improvised men.” With the passage of time, he concluded that he himself had 
passed away and was replaced. Despite the florid nature of these delusions, in 
practical affairs Schreber was reasonable and well informed and never bothered 
people with his private beliefs save to publish a book stating them. 

Some lack this ability to wall off their delusions and slip into debilitating 

madness. In The Autobiography of a Schizophrenic Girl, a young lady named 
Renee describes in the early stages of her developing psychosis how she came 
to believe the frozen wind from the North Pole wanted to crush the Earth. In 
time she regarded it as an omen or sign, and confided to friends her fears that 
planes were coming to bomb and annihilate them. She covered her conviction 
in a jesting manner because of fears the idea was unfounded and not generally 
held. Her sense of unreality deepened and she saw her madness as a country of 
implacable blinding light. It was an immense space: limitless, flat, shadowless; 
a mineral lunar country, cold as the wastes at the pole; a stretching emptiness 
where all is congealed, crystallized, and unchanging. As time progressed, she 
had waking fantasies of an electric machine that could blow up the world and 
rob all men of their brains. This machine then took control of her life and made 
her do destructive acts like putting her hand in a fire. 

William J. Spring, who made a study of these world-destruction fantasies, 
affirms eschatological fantasies are frequently met in schizophrenia, especially 
in the early stages. Floods, wars, revolutions, earthquakes, plagues, and mass 
poisonings form some of the more common motifs. The wiping out of the 
human race is generally the anticipated outcome, but nations and mere cities 
have served as stand-ins. Ernest Keen, a narrative psychologist, goes even 
further than some observers and affirms he has “never known a paranoid who 
did not have cataclysmic content” in his expectations about life. 

The cause of this relationship has been the subject of some amount of 
theorizing over the years. Some of Freud’s thoughts about the involvement of 
the libido are no longer accepted. But there is one explanation that has 
approval. It is nicely embodied in a parable told by the fictional yet prototypical 
debunker Michael Webb: 

“As a philosopher I have a special license to be peculiar; so now Em going 
to tell a fable. It’s short and soon over—so listen closely. One day a peasant 
walking along a riverbank saw a fox struggling in the water. ‘Help, help’ the 
fox cried. ‘The world is coming to an end.’ ‘You are mistaken my friend,’ 
replied the peasant, all I see is one small fox drowning.’ The moral is short and 
easy to remember: when around deep water, watch your step.” 

The fable is as astute as it is succinct. In more formal jargon, the end of the 
world is a projection of a personal crisis. The ego is experiencing 
disintegration, dissolution, loss of identity—self-destruction—and these 
impulses are mirrored onto the external world. Of eleven patients presenting 
world destruction fantasies, William Spring found that the idea of the person’s 

own death played a prominent role in eight. Two fantasized about suicide, six 
had delusions of dying or already being dead. The identification of self with the 
cosmos was tragicomically illustrated by a patient of Spring who believed he 
was himself God. He believed people feared that if he died, they would die. 
One day, in a fit of anger, he pronounced retribution. “It’s the end of the 
world!” Then, he threw himself onto the floor. 

Kenneth Ring reinforced the general point in a study of near-death 
experiences. Visions of world destruction formed a small but significant 
fraction. They had a compelling vividness and similarity, but despite this soon 
failed as factual forecasting. Carl Jung, the famed psychologist, had a similarly 
vivid vision of the destruction of the world while suffering from arteriosclerosis 
shortly before his death. 

Stanislav Grof has observed that death and rebirth struggles in LSD 
hallucinations are similarly accompanied by imagery of violent catastrophe: 
earthquakes, volcanoes, hurricanes, tornadoes, electrical storms, gigantic 
comets and meteors, Armageddon, and so forth. They are constantly appearing 
during certain stages of the tearing down of the ego; a tactic sometimes obliged 
in therapy. Grof regards such imagery as the “source of schizophrenic 
experiences and paranoid conditions.” (Grof, 1975) 

The association of paranoia and schizophrenia with cataclysmic fantasy is 
readily explicable within the framework of object relations theory. (Rinsley, 
1981) When people fail to form an identity separate from parental figures, ego 
defenses are poorly developed and tend to have a primitive, fearlaced logic. 
The ego in such cases is easily susceptible to fragmentation and destruction in 
the face of crises. (Frosch, 1983) In paranoia, the crisis typically involves 
shame or humiliation. The persistence of apocalyptic thought thus reflects the 
persistence of suffering in the world and the panhuman tendency to project 
one’s mental state onto general reality. 

The projective character of UFO apocalypticism is strongly hinted in the 
expansive, totalistic nature of these fears. The imminent doom spreads to all 
facets of external reality, much as paranoid conspiracies often spread to 
international dimensions. The psychodynamic underpinnings of the world- 
destruction fantasies in UFO culture are sometimes fairly evident when the 
circumstances surrounding the prophecy are known to some degree of detail. 

When Prophecy Fails by Leon Festinger is a psycho-sociological classic that 
offers the most detailed account of a prophecy of doom on record. The 
investigators ran across an item in the paper in which Dorothy Martin was 

predicting a flood would destroy Chicago just before dawn on December 21, 
1954. The cataclysm would spread, and the West Coast from Washington State 
to Chile would be submerged. Festinger thought it would make an ideal case 
study in the nature of proselytization in the wake of doomsday prediction 

Festinger’s reporting is impressively comprehensive and he was able to pin 
down the first explicit reference to the impending disaster as appearing in a 
message from Sananda dated August 2, 1954. The authors don’t ask why it 
appeared when it did, but their chronicle provides the answer. The day before, 
on August 1 st , Martin was joined by a group of people at an airfield to await the 
landing of a spaceship that her contacts promised would come. It is simple 
enough to infer the failure of this prediction in so public a manner was a source 
of embarrassment. Some took it eventually as a sign she was a false prophet 
and dropped out of the group surrounding her. (Festinger, et ah, 1956) 

Wilhelm Reich was officially declared to possess a paranoid nature by a 
prison psychologist, and informally colleagues in Vienna psychoanalytic circles 
regarded him so long before. His wife separated from him due to irrational 
accusations of infidelity. In the waning years of his life he believed he was 
involved in a war being waged from outer space with DOR, a negative form of 
orgone energy he defined as Dead Life Energy. UFOs were an agent in the 
deterioration of the environment manifesting in the destruction of rocks, trees, 
forests, and the drying up of the atmosphere. Simultaneously with persecution 
by the FDA, Reich declared seeing far and wide a DOR emergency—evidence 
the War of the Universe was on. Later he predicted “the complete destruction of 
the globe of mother Earth looms on the horizon of the future.” David Boadella, 
speaking of Reich’s space-gun adventures in Arizona, regards it as obvious his 
mind had “tumbled beyond retrieve.” (Reich, 1973) 

Even before the events of Communion, Whitley Strieber was whispering 
conspiracies—so much so that acquaintances tended to regard him as “the 
quintessential paranoid.” His early life follows the recipe of creating a 
paranoid: a trauma-filled childhood, a proud and ambitious family, a fall from 
grace into financial ruin sparking social slights and ridicule, rejections, and a 
withdrawal into himself. (Metzger, 1984; Winter, 1985) 

These examples are merely illustrative of the personal dimension in the 
process of apocalyptic thought and not a full accounting. Charles Strozier’s 
study of the psychology of apocalyptic opinion among contemporary Christians 
gives cause to note that end-time beliefs are sometimes adopted because of 

group pressure, but modified and qualified by personality and experience. 
(Strozier, 1994) 

This likely applies in UFO culture when the fantasy conforms to more 
popular fears like the common New Age expectation of a pole-shift. A similar 
case would be Betty Andreasson’s aliens who forecast “mankind will become 
sterile.” This echoes a familiar fear of environmentalists, one involving some 
dubious premises according to an investigation by Michael Fumento. 
(Fumento, 1999) It also looks like projection of her life. Andreasson had a 
hysterectomy and abortion in 1964 because of cervical cancer. (Fowler, 1990) 
Her sterility expands to fill the fate of the world. 

One last note of possible interest is that these fantasies are rarely challenged 
in a forceful way among believers. The failure of apocalyptic predictions may 
be granted in a general way, but usually in a context advancing an alternative 

The ideologies of optimism found elsewhere in the culture never germinate 
there, never mind take root. Disbelievers, by contrast, tend to wax enthusiastic 
over human progress and the march of science, embed human history in deep 
time, and tend to see problems like overpopulation as soluble. (Kottmeyer, 
2000) The infrequent instances of apocalyptic thought tend to be those 
appearing popularly in general culture. 

—Martin S. Kottmeyer 

NOTE: For the sake of scholarly completeness, numerous names are mentioned 
in the text with which the reader may be unfamiliar. However, the author stands 
ready to direct the scholarly reader to his sources upon request. (Please include a 
self-addressed, stamped envelope.) Contact information can be found under the 
entry: Kottmeyer, Martin S., in this encyclopedia. 


Boadella, David. Wilhelm Reich: The Evolution of his Work (Laurel, 1973). 

Festinger, Leon, Henry W Riecken, and Stanley Schachter. When Prophecy Fails: A Social and 

Psychological Study of a Modern Group that Predicted the Destruction of the World (Harper, 1956). 
Fowler, Raymond. The Watchers (Bantam, 1990). 

Frosch, John. The Psychotic Process (International University Press, 1983). 

Fumento, Michael. “Hormonally Challenged,” American Spectator (October, 1999). 

Grof, Stanislaw. Realms of the Human Unconscious: Observations from LSD Research (Viking, 1975). 
Keel, John. The Mothman Prophecies (Signet/NAL, 1975). 

Keen, Ernest. “Paranoia and Cataclysmic Narratives,” in Sarbin, Theodore J., ed. Narrative Psychology: 

The Storied Nature of Human Conduct (Praeger, 1986). 

Kottmeyer, Martin. ‘"Debu nk ers of Doom,” The Anomalist (2000). 

LaBarre, Weston. The Ghost Dance: The Origins of Religion (Delta, 1972). 

Lem, Stanislaw. Microworlds (Harcourt, Brace & Jovanovick, 1984). 

Metzger, Linda, ed. Contemporary Authors, New Revision Series, Vol. 12 (Gale Research, 1984). 

Randles, Jenny. UFO Reality (Robert Hale, 1983). 

Reich, Wilhelm. Contact with Space: Orop Desert Ea 1954-55 (Core Pilot, 1957). 

Ring, Kenneth. “Precognitive and Prophetic Visions in Near Death Experiences,” Anabiosis: The Journal 
of Near-Death Studies (1982). 

_. “Prophetic Visions in 1988: A Critical Reappraisal,” The Journal of Near-Death Studies (Fall 


_. The Omega Project (William Morrow, 1992). 

Rinsley, Donald B. Borderline and Self Disorders: A Developmental and Object Relations Perspective 
(Jason Aronson, 1981). 

Sechehaye, Marguerite. Autobiography of a Schizophrenic Girl (Signet/NAL, 1968). 

Spring, William J. “Observations on World Destruction Fantasies,” Psychoanalytic Quarterly (1939). 
Strachey, James, ed. The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, Vol. 

12: The Case ofSchreber (The Hogarth Press, 1963). 

Strieber, Whitley. Communion: A True Story (William Morrow/Beech Tree, 1987). 

_. Transformation (William Morrow/Beech Tree, 1988). 

Strozier, Charles. A pocalypse: On the Psychology of Fundamentalism in America (Beacon, 1994). 

Winter, Douglas. Faces of Fear (Berkeley, 1985). 

Woodward, W. E. Bunk (Harper, 1923). 

APRO See Aerial Phenomena Research Organization. 

archetypes, UFO-ET phenomena as Psychologist Carl G. Jung was the 
first to term UFO sightings and contacts with them as “archetypal” phenomena 
in his 1959 book, Flying Saucers: A Modern Myth of Things Seen in the Sky. 
Jung was quick to point out that the word “myth” did not imply something that 
did not happen. All myths, according to Jung, have a basis in reality; however, 
myths are embellishments of truth. 

Jung believed that UFOs had both a psychic (archetypal) and a physical 
component. The spectacular, physical appearance of an unknown phenomenon 
(like brilliant manifestations in the sky) stimulated powerful unconscious 
processes in observers. These unconscious processes were released into the 
conscious minds of the observers causing them to give meaning to what they 
had observed. The meaning ascribed to UFO sightings come from the 
observers’ cultural and personal expectations. 

For example, UFO reports beginning in the modern era (1949) were often 
interpreted as a military threat or a possible “alien” invasion. This was 

consistent with societal fears caused by the Cold War developing immediately 
after World War 11 and the rapid proliferation of nuclear weapons. Some people 
also saw the emerging UFO phenomenon as representing the coming of a 
savior. Many people saw a world gone mad and had fervent hopes for an 
unearthly salvation from the madness. The contactee reports in the 1950s 
affirmed these expectations. 

Basel Broadsheet of 1566 

Jung interpreted the UFO phenomenon as a meaningful coincidence—or 
synchronicity—between a physical occurrence coinciding with an expectant 
mental state. Many people expected—and feared—uncontrollable disruption in 
all life. At the same time—and probably unrelated to the ongoing events in 
humanity—an unknown phenomenon (UFOs) manifested in the skies around 
the world. This unknown provided people with a screen upon which they could 
project their unconscious expectations and a “visionary rumor” quickly 
developed. Jung’ famous statement, “something is seen, but one doesn’t know 
what, ’’ was his way of describing how this process begins. 

When the unknown event is observed, people immediately project meaning 
to it and report it to others. As more and more people hear about the reports, 
this “rumor” —driven by something actually seen but not understood—is 
perpetuated and strengthened. In this complicated process, archetypal forces are 
released and provoke a powerful influence on society. 

Jung took care to show that a long-term historical record existed showing 
that spectacular (and unknown) manifestations in the sky had occurred 
regularly throughout history. He cited Biblical accounts and reproduced the 
Nuremberg Broadsheet from 1561 and the Basel Broadsheet from 1566 as 

Broadsheets served as the newspapers of that time. The unknown aerial 
phenomena observed by thousands in Germany during this period were widely 
reported and generally interpreted as a heavenly battle that was occurring in 
conjunction with the many religious wars going on in Germany. The present 
writer has uncovered at least fifty additional broadsheets showing similar 

Nuremberg Broadsheet of 1561 

Jung’s thought can be incomprehensible to many people, in part, because it 
is necessary to be deeply acquainted with his other writings where he explains 
his terminology in greater detail. Few people have the necessary background or 
motivation to delve that deeply into his writing and have simply read or 
skimmed his 1959 book. Many of the examples Jung used to show how 
archetypes effect humanity come from consistencies in fairy tales, angelic 
visitations, and even in art. So, the average person envisions an archetype 
merely as a symbol. Most UFO writers have therefore interpreted Jung’s 
depiction of UFOs as a visionary rumor to mean that the phenomenon is not 
real in a physical sense—it is a mental process. However, that is not the case. 

Jung termed the actual UFO manifestations as archetypal in nature and quite 
real. (“Something is seen, but one doesn’t know what.”) In his vast writings, 
Jung defined archetypes as “psychoid factors consisting of pure energy.” Under 
the right conditions, these psychoid factors—archetypes—can manifest into 
physical reality. Jung also related that the archetypes actually exist on the 
“invisible, ultraviolet end of the light spectrum.” In The Archetype Experience 
(Little, 1984) it was explained that the term “psychoid” describes a process that 
bridges the gap between psychological reality and objective reality—exactly as 
Jung described it. That is, archetypes are living energy forms (as described by 

Jung) that can move into the visible portion of the electromagnetic energy 
spectrum. John Keel’s (1970) classic book, UFOs: Operation Trojan Horse and 
Grand Illusions (Little, 1994) make similar proposals. 

Perhaps the most misunderstood and ignored aspect of Jung’s archetypal 
theory of UFO phenomena was his idea that UFO-like flaps occur at regular, 
predictable times in a great, cosmic cycle. In the preface to his 1959 book, Jung 
states that, “reflections such as these are ... exceedingly unpopular...” What he 
proposed in his preface was that spectacular manifestations occur in the sky 
roughly every 2,150 years. Each 2,150-year cycle was a transition period 
between the so-called Platonic Months in the well-known 26,000-year 
precession of the equinoxes. The Age of Pisces, beginning just before the birth 
of Christ, was heralded by archetypal manifestations (angels, stars, etc.), and 
the Age of Aquarius is being heralded by modern UFO sightings. As each age 
changed, the religious focus of the world changed with it. Jung wrote that the 
transition period could last for a considerable time period, but that almost no 
one would comprehend this idea or accept it—a prediction that has proven true 
up to this point. 

—Gregory L. Little 


Jung, C. G. Flying Saucers: A Modern Myth of Things Seen in the Skies (Routledge & Kegan 
Paul/Harcourt, Brace & Co. 1959; Signet/NAL, 1969; Princeton University Press, 1978). 

_ . Mandala Symbolism (Princeton University Press, 1959, 1972). 

_. The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious (Princeton University Press, 1959, 1969). 

_. On the Nature of the Psyche (Princeton University Press, 1960, 1969). 

_. Answer to Job (Princeton University Press, 1960). 

_. Two Essays on Analytical Psychology (Princeton University Press, 1966). 

_. The Undiscovered Se// - (Princeton University Press, 1990). 

Keel, John. UFOs:Operation Trojan Horse (G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1970). 

Little, Gregory L. The Archetype Experience (Rainbow Books, 1984). 

_. Grand Illusions (White Buffalo Books, 1994). 

Are We Alone? (Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1981). Two University of Virginia 
science professors, Robert Rood and James Trefil, write the first science book 
proposing that we humans may be alone in our galaxy because a series of 
“bottlenecks” make the evolution of life rare if not impossible elsewhere. The 
first extraterrestrials we meet in space will be our own grandchildren who have 
migrated from Earth. 

Randall Fitzgerald 

Are We Alone? (Basic Books, 1995). Paul Davies, an Australian Professor of 
Natural Philosophy, thinks the extraterrestrial civilizations we eventually meet 
will be so far advanced they will appear as gods to us. He conjectures that what 
we know as consciousness is a “fundamental emergent property” and natural 
consequence of the laws of physics, meaning “the emergence of consciousness 
in the universe is more or less guaranteed.” 

—Randall Fitzgerald 

Area 51 Also known as “Dreamland,” “Groom Lake,” or simply “the Ranch,” 
this now semi-secret U.S. government test facility has become in the minds of 
many the UFO capital of the world. The six-by-ten-mile dry lake bed is located 
approximately 90 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, as part of the Nellis 
Test Range. 

Popularly known as “Area 51” the site has a long history of official denial 
and controversy, which has only intensified outside interest in it. During a 1995 
hearing on an environmental pollution suit at the base, then-Secretary of the Air 
Force Sheila Widnall refused to reveal even the official name of the facility, 
claiming national security concerns. 

Area 51 reportedly began life in the early 1950s, under the unofficial 
designation “McGinley’s Farm,” to serve as a test site for the U-2 spyplane. 
Since then, the facility has allegedly served as a test range for many of 
America’s “black projects,” such as the SR-71 “Blackbird” reconnaissance 
airplane, the F-117 stealth fighter, and other stillundisclosed aerospace vehicles 
and systems; possibly including the mysterious hypersonic “Aurora,” as well as 
laser-assisted orbital launching systems and particle beam weapons. 

In 1989, a self-described “physicist” by the name of Robert Lazar claimed in 
a Las Vegas TV interview to have observed and worked with “flying saucers” 
under test at the neighboring S-4 location (also known as Papoose Dry Lake 
Bed), while he was employed there as a contractor. Lazar’s allegations that the 
government has recovered, “reverse-engineered,” and flight-tested alien saucer- 
craft are completely unsubstantiated, and his falsified educational and 
employment histories have been exposed by investigators. Nonetheless, Lazar’s 
claims have brought lasting worldwide attention to the base and himself, which 
of course is the point. If any of Lazar’s claims of secret technology were true, 
he would be serving a long prison term for violation of his so-called “Majestic” 

security clearance. 

Perhaps one should ask which is more likely: that Lazar can freely reveal to 
the world his super-secret assignment (for which he was especially chosen) of 
backengineering the propulsion systems of captured UFOs, or that this elusive 
fellow who drives a red Corvette sporting a license plate that reads “MJ-12,” 
and whose claimed credentials are mostly nonexistent, might have something 
of a Walter Mitty complex? 

Because the Groom Lake facility is in a known, accessible location and 
because unusual aircraft and unidentified aerial phenomena are sometimes 
visible from nearby, it has become a magnet for many who wish to observe 
“UFO events.” 

The nearby town of Rachel, Nevada, boasts a “Little A’Le’Inn” and a small 
but continuous stream of tourists looking for UFOs. The state of Nevada has 
even designated the local road, State Highway 375, as ’’The Extraterrestrial 
Highway.” A cottage industry of Area 51 experts and alleged witnesses, similar 
to that of the Roswell, New Mexico, incident, seems to be a permanent part of 
UFO lore. 

Russian satellite photo of runways at Area 51 

The U. S. Air Force has resisted allowing this once-secret installation to be 
scrutinized close-up by uncleared people with no need-to-know. In response to 
the unwanted worldwide publicity, the government recently expanded the 60- 

square-mile property to include nearby hills, in an effort to deny would-be 
observers any high ground from which to photograph tests in Area 51. The 
government also employs contracted security guards to prevent unauthorized 
entry to the posted area, and prominent signs warn intruders away with the 
statement: “deadly force is authorized.” 

Despite these government attempts, determined UFO buffs have recorded 
intriguing telescopic videos that show bright lights hovering and zipping about 
Groom Lake in maneuvers that seem impossible for conventional aircraft. It has 
been suggested that these pictures may indicate tests of VTOL (vertical takeoff 
and landing) craft, laser-assisted launch systems, particle-beam weapons, or 
other developmental projects that combine these or other technologies. 

Not surprisingly, the government has also resisted legal efforts by citizens to 
disclose Area 51’s activities. A lawsuit concerning alleged pollution injuries in 
Area 51 brought the following response on September 20, 1999: In Presidential 
Determination 99-37, President Clinton said, in part, “I find that it is in the 
paramount interest of the United States to exempt the United States Air Force’s 
operating location near Groom Lake, Nevada, from any applicable requirement 
for the disclosure to unauthorized persons of classified information concerning 
that operating location.” 

A search of the literature on the World Wide Web provides many speculative 
articles on the possible uses and significance of Area 51, as well as detailed 
satellite photographs of the base. 

—Arlan K. Andrews 

Arnold sighting The “modern age” of “flying saucers” began with the sighting 
by Kenneth Arnold on June 24, 1947. Arnold, a civilian pilot, was flying over 
the Cascade mountains in western Washington State, when he reported seeing 
nine shiny objects in a chain-like formation flying at an estimated speed of 
1,600 miles per hour. 

Kenneth Arnold and his plane 

Arnold was thirty-two years old at the time, and the owner of a fire-control 
equipment company based in Boise, Idaho. He took off from the Chehalis, 
Washington, airport at 2 p.m. flying his own single-engine plane. He was 
searching for a lost Marine C-46 transport; a $5,000 reward had been offered 
for its location. 

After about one hour aloft, Arnold trimmed out his aircraft and simply 
observed the terrain. He described the sky as clear and the air smooth. 

Upon entering the vicinity of Mount Rainier, a sudden brilliant flash lit up 
the surfaces of his plane. Startled, he began scanning the sky to locate the 
source. The only other aircraft in sight was a lone DC-4 far to his left and rear, 
too far away to have been the source of the flash. The flash occurred again, and 
this time he caught the direction from which it came. To his left and to the north 
he saw nine brightly illuminated objects flying in a chain-like formation from 
north to south. 

A recreation of the scene according to Arnold’s description (Drawing by Susan Swiatek) 

Arnold was no stranger to this territory, as he had flown in the area many 
times before. This was one aspect of the sighting that made many people take it 
seriously. Not only was he a “solid citizen” and a respected businessman, but an 
experienced mountain pilot as well; and he saw something that was truly 
unusual to him. 

The objects appeared to come from the vicinity of Mount Baker and were 
staying close to the mountaintops, swerving in and out of the highest peaks. 
Noticing this, Arnold was able to calculate their speed. The distance between 
Mount Rainier and Mount Adams was forty-seven miles and the “objects” 
crossed this distance in one minute and forty-two seconds. This translates into 
1,656.71 miles per hour, nearly three times as fast as the capability of any 

aircraft at that time. (The top speed of the F-80 “Shooting Star” was 605 mph, 
and the top speed of the F-84 “Thunderjet” and F-84F “Thunderstreak” was 
620 mph.) 

The objects, furthermore, had a strange appearance, which Arnold said he 
could observe plainly (though this point is questionable, since he was observing 
from an estimated distance of twenty-three miles); they had wings, he said, but 
no tails. One was almost crescent-shaped, with a small dome midway between 
the wingtips; the others were “flat like a pie pan and so shiny they reflected the 
sun in a mirror.” Their motion was also weird: “like speedboats on rough 
water” or, to use Arnold’s most famous phrase, “they flew like a saucer would 
if you skipped it across the water.” The duration of the sighting was two to 
three minutes. 

A tracing of Arnold’s original sketch for the U.S. Air Force 

After giving his original account to newsmen at Pendleton, Oregon, airport, 
the story soon broke worldwide, over the radio and via the press. The news 
reporter who is generally credited with coining the term “flying saucer” is 
William C. Bequette, who at the time worked in the newsroom of the Pendleton 
East Oregonian. (See the POSTSCRIPT to this entry for more infonnation on 

Arnold originally described the objects for the Air Force as being nearly 
round but slightly longer than wide. But, in the book he wrote with Ray Palmer 
there appears a drawing of a quite different shape, looking almost like a 
crescent moon with a small, speckled circle located midway between the 

Photo of a model of one of the objects Arnold reportedly saw 

For fourteen years, Arnold had refrained from endorsing any special theory 
to account for his sighting. He steadfastly rejected any possibility of a mirage 
or illusion of any sort, insisting that he saw something that was flying through 
the air, just as he was, at 9,500 feet. But, what is not widely known is that 
Arnold is a “repeater,” i.e., he claims to have seen several more UFOs since his 
famous sighting in 1947. In Flying Saucers magazine of November 1962 
(edited and published by the late Ray Palmer), Arnold took a position which 
must have shocked many who relied upon his original sighting as corroborative 
evidence for the extraterrestrial-spaceship theory to account for UFOs. He 

After some fourteen years of extensive research, it is my conclusion that the 
so-called unidentified flying objects that have seen in our atmosphere are 
not space ships from another planet at all, but are groups and masses of 
living organisms that are as much a part of our atmosphere and space as the 
life we find in the depths of our oceans. The only major difference in the 
space and atmospheric organisms are that they have the natural ability to 
change their densities at will. 

And, in a special issue of Look magazine devoted to flying saucers, Arnold was 
quoted as saying: “The impression I have held after observing these strange 
objects a second time was that they were something alive rather than machines 
—a living organism of some type that apparently has the ability to change its 
density similar to fish that are found in our oceans without losing their apparent 

After reviewing such bizarre testimony, perhaps there is little wonder why 

the U.S. Air Force could not explain what Arnold actually saw on 24 June 
1947. As in all cases of alleged UFO sightings, no matter who investigates the 
case, the investigator is severely limited by the testimony of the witness. 
Astronomer J. Allen Hynek (who served as the scientific consultant to the U.S. 
Air Force’s Projects Sign and Blue Book from 1948 to 1969) first thought that 
Arnold saw a fleet of jet aircraft and that the estimated distance between the 
objects and the witness, was wrong. 

Debunkers have paraded a long list of explanations over the following half- 
century including clouds, mirages, balloons, earth-lights, hallucinations, and 

More recently, the theory has been offered by James Easton—and endorsed 
by Martin Kottmeyer—that what Arnold actually saw was a flock of American 
White Pelicans, which were much closer to Arnold than he realized. The 
behavior and appearance of the “objects” as described by Arnold seem to be 
more consistent with this answer than anything else. 

(1) Appearance 
(wings, but no tails); 

(2) Formation (“very similar to a formation of geese”); 

(3) Flight characteristics (“they fluttered and sailed, tipping their wings 
alternately and emitting those very bright blue-white flashes from their 

Arnold also stated that he “...did not get the impression that these flashes 
were emitted by them, but rather that it was the sun’s reflection from the 
extremely highly polished surface of their wings.” 

But, the Arnold sighting was an exciting story in 1947, and the one that 
triggered public interest and official U.S. Air Force involvement in the UFO 
controversy. It is also a sighting that is technically unexplained. 

—Ronald D. Story 


Arnold, Kenneth, and Palmer, Ray. The Coming of the Saucers (privately published, 1952). 

Arnold, Kenneth. Flying Saucers (November 1962). 

“Flying Saucers,” a Look magazine special by the editors of United Press International and Cowles 
Communications (1967). 

Story, Ronald D. UFOs and the Limits of Science (William Morrow, 1981). 

Story, Ronald D., ed. The Encyclopedia of UFOs (Doubleday/New English Library, 1980). 

POSTSCRIPT: In early 1992,1 was working as a technical editor on a temporary 
contract assignment at the Hanford nuclear site in southeastern Washington 
State, about 70 miles north of Pendleton, Oregon. One Sunday, as I flipped 
through the Tri-City Herald, I noticed an editorial by retired editor William C. 
Bequette. I thought the name sounded familiar, and a small photo of the guest 
editor showed him to be just about the right age. 

It then dawned on me who this was. I proceeded to look up his number in 
the local telephone directory (for Kennewick, Richland, and Pasco) and decided 
to give him a call. When Mr. Bequette answered the phone, I asked whether he 
was the newsman who had interviewed Kenneth Arnold for the East 
Oregonian, in 1947, and coined the term “flying saucer.” He said he was. 

I just had to ask a few questions for historical interest—and to satisfy my 
own curiosity—and Mr. Bequette kindly obliged me with a very pleasant 30- 
minute telephone conversation. I first wanted to know the story behind the term 
“flying saucer” itself. There has always been a controversy about the Arnold 
case concerning whether the term “saucer” referred to the object’s motion or 
shape. Even in Arnold’s book, The Coming of the Saucers, co-authored with 
Ray Palmer in 1951, the term “saucer” was used only to describe the objects’ 
motion. The famous quote is: “...they flew like a saucer would if you skipped it 
across the water.” The shape is depicted variously as a crescent or flying wing, 
a pie pan, and a giant washer with a hole in the middle. But Bequette told me 
that Arnold used the term to describe the objects’ shape as well as its motion. 
He said that Arnold definitely described the objects as “saucer-shaped,” and 
that is how the term “flying saucer” was born. 

I recently read somewhere that Bequette has said otherwise, but I can only 
repeat what he confirmed to me: that he was indeed the man who coined the 
term “flying saucer,” which was based on Arnold’s description of both the 
objects’ appearance and motion. If the reporters and witnesses change and/or 
confuse their stories—which often happens in UFO logy—what can you say? 

—Ronald D. Story 

Ashtar Command A title used to describe an intergalactic, multidimensional 
federation of benevolent extraterrestrials, under the supreme jurisdiction of a 
being named “Ashtar” or “Ashtar Sheran,” said to be a higher dimensional ET 
ship commander. The phenomenon of physical and/or telepathic contact with 
Ashtar seems to have begun with the 1950s contactees, and continues globally 
to the present day. 

Scott Mandelker 

astrogenesis This term was coined by the editor of this encyclopedia (Ronald 
Story) to designate the particular theory that Biblical references to the “Elohim” 
or extraterrestrial “gods” having created human beings closely parallel the 
modern conception of god-like beings coming here from outer space. 

Even in our enlightened age (at the dawn of the 21 st Century) the most 
intelligent species on this planet (supposedly Homo sapiens) is split on the 
question of its origins. About 50 percent believe in the received doctrine of 
official science: Darwin’s theory of evolution as modified by the modern 
scientific community. According to this view, the magic ingredient to 
evolutionary development is time. Agreeing with the Bible in that man (or 
Adam) was derived from the dust of the Earth—after possible seeding from the 
heavens—most scientists think that given sufficient time, atoms just naturally 
evolve into molecules, and molecules eventually evolve into thinking 
anthropoids. All of this occurs through a process of random mutation, natural 
selection, and survival of the fittest, they say. Admittedly, this is a bit 
oversimplified; but the key point is that for most self-respecting scientific 
types, no intelligent intervention is required. 

Another view, held by the other half of the world’s population, is that the 
world and its inhabitants were not the result of accidental forces—but that some 
form of intelligence was required. Those who favor this idea are divided into 
various factions, all of which represent some form of special creation. 

The religious fundamentalists say that God is the Creator. However, their 
version of God, the Father, has an uncanny resemblance to our own fathers or at 
least the common childhood concept. Freud’s theory was that God is indeed the 
father—writ large—as derived from our own exaggerated concept conceived in 

Another version of special creation, and one that is more compatible with 
modern science than the views of the religious fundamentalists is the space-god 
theory—or what 1 prefer to call “astrogenesis.” This view is, in effect, a space- 
age Genesis: a creation story featuring mankind as the product of a cosmic 
experiment being carried out not by the traditional Judeo-Christian God, but by 
advanced extraterrestrials who, because of attributes acquired during their own 
long evolution, might themselves be defined as gods. 

The popularity of this view in recent times is clearly attributable to author 
Erich von Daniken, who resurrected the concept (in tandem with the release of 

Arthur C. Clarke and Stanley Kubrick’s 2001: A Space Odyssey) three decades 
ago, and has since sold more than 50 million books on the subject. 

While many do not accept all his examples of alleged extraterrestrial 
evidence, there seems to be growing support for the underlying thesis that 
extraterrestrial intervention holds the key to our origin and purpose on this 

What is the nature of the evidence for astrogenesis? There are two major 
categories: (1) artifacts and (2) contact myths. The artifacts usually take the 
form of impressive monuments—such as the Egyptian pyramids and other 
gigantic stone structures—which seemingly were beyond the capabilities of 
mere humans to create. Thus, it is argued that advanced extraterrestrial science 
must have been required. The contact myths, found worldwide, share an 
intriguing consistency in their tales of super-beings coming from the sky to 
create mankind and instruct him in how to live. 

For some, the theory of astrogenesis brings science and religion closer 
together. For others, it represents a travesty on both. This writer believes that 
we should strive to be as objective and open-minded as possible to allow for 
new discoveries. Keeping an open mind does not mean ignoring the facts, 
however, as one can see by reading my previous books on this subject: The 
Space-Gods Revealed (1976) and Guardians of the Universe? (1980). Both 
studies dealt extensively with the question of alleged extraterrestrial science 
and found none. 

What 1 found was that if you take each of the examples of “alien 
technology” (as alleged by von Daniken, et al.) and subject them to the normal 
rules of evidence, they fall apart. For one thing, the level of technology 
required for the construction of the various artifacts and monuments in question 
never exceeds the capabilities of Earthmen working on their own in the context 
of their own cultures. The archaeological “wonders” that are alleged to prove, 
or at least “indicate,” ancient astronauts comprise a collection of interesting 
finds, superficially described and taken out of context. In most cases, when 
looking more deeply into the matter—as opposed to playing the “it looks 
like...” game—one finds the omission of highly relevant, key information that 
if known casts an entirely different light on the subject at hand. These “sins of 
omission” are unfortunately typical of all the leading proponents of ancient 

So, leaving aside the issue of physical evidence at this time, let us consider 
the world’s most popular contact myth: the Holy Bible. The implications are 

enormous. If indeed the Bible does refer to extraterrestrials (which it does, in 
one sense or another), it tells their purpose and ours. It tells us where we came 
from, our mission on Earth, and what we can expect in the future—depending 
on whether or not we follow the teachings of the Bible. If we obey the Ten 
Commandments (and the other universal laws taught in the Bible) and have 
faith that Jesus Christ is our savior, we are told that we will not only be saved, 
but that we can achieve immortality like the gods. 

In essence, the Bible is a creation story and operating manual for life on 
planet Earth. Whether it is interpreted supernaturally or scientifically, one 
cannot escape its central message—that we are not alone. Nor can anyone deny 
that here we are dealing with an account of superior extraterrestrial forces 
coming down out of the heavens to intervene in the lives of mortal human 
beings. This is literally what the Bible says. 

These gods (the Elohim) first create man in their image, and then attempt to 
impart ultimate principles (or Cosmic Laws) for him to live by. What is 
promised, if we choose to obey these laws, is nothing less than everlasting life. 
Put simply, we are given vital instructions on how to achieve immortality— 
individually and as a species. These laws, such as the Ten Commandments and 
the lessons of Jesus, constitute the “good” or benevolent God (or gods) versus 
the “evil” forces (or dark side) of the universe. These laws, known as the “word 
of God,” tell us how to live in harmony with nature and find our rightful place 
in a universe of immortal souls. Whatever your interpretation, God and his 
angels (including the fallen angels) are de facto extraterrestrials and represent 
ultimate authority, any way you look at it. That is the key point. 

An important question often asked by skeptics is: “If extraterrestrials exist, 
why is there no open contact?” One answer to this question is that if the Bible 
is to be taken literally, then we have had open contact. According to both the 
Old and New Testaments, extraterrestrial forces representing the classic 
struggle of good versus evil (gods and demons) have intervened in the creation 
and development of humankind and may be planning a return visit as indicated 
in the Book of Revelation. 

We know what happened last time, when Jesus tried to convert the masses to 
follow the “word of God.” According to the prophecies of Revelation, we 
should clearly expect something different next time. For one thing—no more 
Mr. Nice Guy! 

This writer’s position is that if we are to take the Bible literally, then 
logically speaking, the concept of technologically superior beings from other 

worlds in space is at least as reasonable as the traditional supernatural 
interpretation. In addition, we have the moral and religious teachings kept in 
tact as well, if we view the Biblical messages as the philosophy of advanced 
civilizations—representing good and evil factions—each vying for control. 

—Ronald D. Story 

astronauts, UFO sightings by The glamour and drama of manned space 
flights have been transferred to the UFO field via a highly publicized group of 
“UFO sightings” and photographs allegedly made by American and Russian 
space pilots. Hardly a UFO book or movie fails to mention that “astronauts 
have seen UFOs too.” 

However, careful examination of each and every one of these stories can 
produce quite reasonable explanations, in terms of visual phenomena associated 
with space flights. On a visit to NASA’s Johnson Manned Spacecraft Center in 
Houston in July 1976, Dr. J. Allen Hynek, of the Center for UFO Studies, 
concluded that none of the authentic cases (as opposed to the majority of 
reports, which are fictitious) really had anything to do with the “real UFO 

UFO skeptics, while pleased that Hynek had dismissed all “astronaut UFO 
reports” as unreliable, have insisted that this body of stories has quite a lot to do 
with the major problems besetting the UFO community. How, they ask, can a 
body of stories so patently false and unreliable obtain such seeming 
authenticity simply by being passed back and forth among researchers without 
ever being seriously investigated? Is this a characteristic of UFO stories in 
general, and if so, the skeptics ask, can a study of how the “astronaut UFO” 
myth began and flourished help us to understand better the UFO phenomenon 
in general? 

Hynek’s disavowal of the stories came after publication of his book, The 
Edge of Reality (1975), which carried a long list of astronaut-sighting reports. 
Hynek told colleagues that the inclusion of the list (compiled by UFOlogist 
George Fawcett) in the book was Jacques Vallee’s idea, not his, but that even 
so, he just wanted to generate interest and discussion. He insisted that inclusion 
of the list was not a judgment on his belief in its credibility and that readers had 
no right to assume that the data had actually been verified just because it was 
included. Fawcett, on the other hand, claims that he just assembled the list from 
all available sources and assumed that somebody else would check the accounts 
before publication. “Maybe one percent of the stories are true UFOs,” Fawcett 

suggested in 1978. 

Here is the complete “Fawcett List” quoted from The Edge of Reality but, 
this time, including likely explanations (in italics) of the reports: 

(1) “February 20, 1962—John Glenn, piloting his Mercury capsule, saw 
three objects follow him and then overtake him at varying speeds.” Glenn also 
said that these “snowflakes ” were small, and seemed to be coming from the 
rear end of his capsule. Astronauts on later flights also observed them and were 
able to create “snowstorms ” by banging on the walls of their capsules. 

(2) “May 24, 1962—Mercury VII: Scott Carpenter reported photographing 
firefly like objects with a hand camera and that he had what looked like a good 
shot of a saucer.” Carpenter did see “fireflies, ” as well as a balloon ejected 
from his capsule. The claim that he reported photographing a “saucer” is 
counterfeit. His photo, taking into account the glare of sunlight, smeared 
window, and gross enlargement of the small image, has been widely published 
as a “saucer” but is in fact the tracking balloon. 

(3) “May 30, 1962—XI5 Pilot Joe Walton photographed five disc-like 
objects.” This story appears to be a complete fabrication. The real pilots name 
was Joe Walker, who supports no such claim 

(4) “July 17, 1962—XI5 Pilot Robert White photographed objects about 
thirty feet away from his craft while about fifty-eight miles up.” Right, and he 
also reported that the objects were small—“about the size of a piece of paper. ” 
They were probably flakes of ice off the supercold fuel tanks. 

(5) “May 16, 1963—Mercury IX: Gordon Cooper reported a greenish UFO 
with a red tail during his fifteenth orbit. He also reported other mysterious 
sightings over South America and Australia. The object he sighted over Perth, 
Australia, was caught on screens by ground tracking stations.” Cooper has 
recently denounced all stories of UFOs on his space flights as fabrications — 
this one included The multicolor UFO is probably based on a misquotation oj 
Cooper s postflight report on a sighting of the Aurora Australis. 

(6) “October 3, 1963—Mercury VIII: Walter Schirra reported large glowing 
masses over the Indian Ocean.” Indeed he did, referring to lightning-lit cloud 
masses over the nighttime ocean a hundred miles below. 

(7) “March 8, 1964—Voskhod 2: Russian cosmonauts reported an 
unidentified object just as they entered the Earth’s atmosphere.” Several hours 
before returning to Earth the cosmonauts spotted a cylindershaped object they 
assumed (probably correctly) was just another man-made satellite. Such 

sightings were becoming more and more frequent as the number of manned 
flights and unmanned satellites rose. 

(8) “June 3, 1964—Gemini IV: Jim McDivitt reported he photographed 
several strange objects, including a cylindrical object with arms sticking out 
and an eggshaped UFO with some sort of exhaust.” This is the most famous 
“astronaut-UFO” case and it has been embellished and distorted in dozens oj 
publications. McDivitt saw a “beer can-shaped’’ object, which he took to be 
another man-made satellite (some observers believe it was his own booster 
rocket), and tried to take a few photos which did not turn out. A still from the 
movie camera was mistakenly released without the astronaut’s review, showing 
what turned out to be a light reflection off his copilot’s window, according to 
McDivitt. Some UFO buffs became excited about this photo and acclaimed it as 
one of the best UFO photos ever taken, showing (they claim) a glowing object 
with a plasma tail. But, McDivitt denies he saw anything like that in space. 

(9) “October 12, 1964—Voskhod 1: Three Russian cosmonauts reported 
they were surrounded by a formation of swiftly moving disc-shaped objects.” 
This story appears to be a complete fabrication but certain UFO believers cling 
to it while challenging skeptics to approve it did NOT happen.” 

(10) “December 4, 1965—Gemini Vlll: Frank Borman and Jim Lovell 
photographed twin oval-shaped UFOs with glowing undersides.” This famous 
photograph is a blatant forgery (by sensationalist elements of the media), in 
which light reflections off the nose of the spacecraft were later made to look 
like UFOs, by airbrushing away the vehicle structure around them 

(11) “July 18, 1966—Gemini X: John Young and Mike Collins saw a large, 
cylindrical object accompanied by two smaller, bright objects, which Young 
photographed. NASA failed to pick them up on screens.” The astronauts 
reported two bright fragments near their spacecraft soon after launch, 
presumably pieces of the booster or of some other satellite. No photos were 
taken. They were out of range of NASA radar at this point anyway. 

(12) “September 12, 1966—Gemini XI: Richard Gordon and Charles 
Conrad reported a yellow-orange UFO about six miles from them. It dropped 
down in front of them and then disappeared when they tried to photograph it.” 
The astronauts described the close passage of another space satellite, identified 
by NORAD as the Russian Proton-3 satellite (an identification later disproved 
by Bruce Maccabee). The men got three fuzzy photos which, much blown up, 
have been widely published. But their eyesight accounts describe a solid 
satellite-looking object on ballistic nonmaneuvering path. 

(13) “November 11, 1966—Gemini Xlll: Jim Lovell and Edwin Aldrin saw 
four UFOs linked in a row. Both spacemen said the objects were not stars.” 
Indeed they were not, since the astronauts were talking about four bags of trash 
they had thrown overboard an hour earlier! 

(14) “December 21, 1968—Apollo Vlll: Frank Borman and Jim Fovell 
reported a “bogie”—an unidentified object—ten miles up.” Actually, Borman 
referred to a “bogie” on his first space flight three years before, describing 
some pieces of debris associated with his spacecraft’s separation from the 
booster rocket. The reference to Apollo VIII is careless, possibly even fictitious. 

(15) “July 16, 1969—Apollo XI: This was a mission on which a UFO 
reportedly chased the spacecraft.” “Reportedly, ” indeed, but not very accurate. 
Actually, several UFO stories have attached themselves barnacle-like to man s 
first moon landing. A photo of an insulation fragment taken soon after third- 
stage separation has been widely published as a “UFO. ” The astronauts 
watched their booster through a telescope on the way to the moon. A series oj 
“UFO photos” allegedly taken by astronaut Aldrin in lunar orbit are actually 

forgeries by a Japanese UFO magazine. An alleged “astronaut radio 
conversation ” describing a UFO ambush is a hoax. 

(16) “November 14, 1969—Apollo XII: Astronauts Pete Conrad, Alan Bean, 
and Dick Gordon said a UFO accompanied them to within 132,000 miles of the 
moon, preceding them all the way.” They never said that. They were joking with 
the ground control about a tumbling piece of their booster rocket which was 
flashing in the sky. Certain UFO buffs completely misunderstood the meaning 
of the conversation and conjured up a UFO. On the way back to Earth, the 
astronauts were puzzled by a light between them and the Earth which turned 
out to be the reflection of the moon behind them on the nighttime Indian Ocean 

The “UFO” at the right in this NASA photograph is actually an insulation fragment from the Apollo 

XI rocket. 

Many other “astronaut reports” have been added to this list, including 
photographs from Skylab (of a passing satellite, distorted by some camera 
artifact), from Apollo lunar flights (movies showing debris floating around 
inside the cabin), and from other Mercury and Gemini flights. None, when 
investigated with an appreciation of the actual space-flight environment, 
appears to be “extraordinary” or “unusual,” although many sightings of passing 
satellites remain technically “unidentified” because the actual satellites have 
never been named (since nobody has taken the trouble to spend the necessary 
time searching computer memory banks). 

The entire phenomenon of the “astronaut UFO sightings,” however, does 
explicitly demonstrate the carelessness and lack of verification among certain 
UFO circles eager to exchange the latest, hottest stories without any regard for 
authenticity or accuracy. UFO skeptics have claimed that this characteristic is 
not limited to the “astronaut UFO sightings.” The topic is not one to which 
some UFO specialists can point with pride in their own behavior and standards 
of reliability. 

Nevertheless it is still commonly claimed that there exists some sort of 
“cover-up” by NASA of secret photographs and/or voice transcripts from space. 
In fact, every photograph taken by NASA in space is available for publication 
and can be inspected by accredited news media representatives (there are tens 
of thousands of photos and no way to arrange public viewing). Volumes and 
volumes of voice transcripts are readily available at NASA/Houston. 

Astronauts are often quoted about UFOs. Sometimes the “quotations” are 
completely fictitious! Only one astronaut claims to have seen a UFO in space; 
and that is James McDivitt, who stipulates that his definition of a UFO covers 
the probability that his object was some other man-made satellite which has not 
been identified. He does not think it was an alien space vehicle or any such 
similar “real UFO” manifestation. 

—James E. Oberg 

atomic bomb and UFOs Imagine a U.S. government project involving many 
of the world’s top scientists developing a fantastic new technology, requiring 
the services of thousands of workers in three separate locations, yet a project so 
secret that not even the Vice President knew about it. “Area 51” perhaps? No, it 
was the Manhattan Project, which developed the atomic bomb. 

Of course there was a war on, so the secrecy that surrounded the Manhattan 
Project was easier to maintain and more acceptable to the public. Still, it was 
extraordinary. The people who lived around Los Alamos, New Mexico (the 
scientific center for the project) knew that something was going on at “the Hill” 
behind all that barbed wire—they just didn’t know what. The government 
deliberately and successfully spread false rumors about project. 

Even the test of the first atomic bomb at the Trinity site in New Mexico on 
July 16, 1945, the largest man-made explosion ever (at the time), was kept 
secret. The test site was remote, but thousands of unauthorized people saw the 
explosion. The cover story was that a large ammunition magazine had blown 
up. Local newspapers were pressured to not add any additional details or 
speculate about other explanations. 

A cub reporter for a Chicago newspaper got a call from a man who had been 
traveling through the area and told her, in great detail, about the crash of a huge 
meteorite. She wrote a short article about it. The next day she found herself 
being grilled by FBI agents and as a result promised to write no more about 
“the meteorite.” 

A few weeks later, after atom bombs had been dropped on Japan, and the 
war came to an end, information about what had been accomplished, and how, 
began to come out—though the full story would not be revealed for years. 

It was the birth of the Atomic Age in 1945—even more than the birth of the 
Space Age—more than a dozen years later, that profoundly influenced the 
development of UFO beliefs. 

People realized that the government was capable of covering up even such 
an enormous development. Then there was the psychological impact of “the 
Bomb” itself. After the initial “we won the war” euphoria was over, the reality 
that humanity had developed the power with which to destroy itself set in. 
When flying saucer reports began in 1947, there was much speculation that it 
was the atomic explosions themselves that had attracted the attention of the 

There was also a widespread belief that nuclear war was inevitable, that the 
human race did not have the ability to save itself, and could only be saved by 
extraterrestrial intervention. That was the theme of much early UFO science 
fiction, like the film The Day the Earth Stood Still (1951) and of many of the 
early contactee tales of the “Space Brothers.” 

This connection—between the atomic bomb and UFOs—was reinforced by 
the fact that a large number of the most important UFO cases took place in the 

same desert southwest where the Bomb was developed and tested. There was 
Roswell, of course, and the variety of other “flying saucer crashes” that were 
supposed to have taken place in the same general area. There were many UFO 
reports from the area of the Alamogordo Bombing Range, where the Trinity 
site was located. Later there was the well publicized Socorro, New Mexico, 
case; Socorro being one of the population centers closest to Los Alamos. 

—Daniel Cohen 

Aveley (England) abduction On a Sunday evening, the Avis family was 
driving home after a visit with relatives at Harold Hill, when they experienced, 
first, a UFO sighting, then, a green mist that enveloped their car and a “time 
loss” (apparent amnesia) of about three hours. Three years following the 
alleged events, timeregression hypnosis was used to “unlock” memories of an 
apparent abduction of the Avis family (involving teleportation of their car) by 
strange creatures on board the UFO. 

The story concerns John and Elaine Avis (pseudonyms), a young married 
couple with three children. They had been visiting some relatives at Harold 
Hill, Essex (near London), on October 27, 1974, but had been delayed longer 
than they had expected. (John had wanted to be home by 10:20 p.m. to see a 
particular television program.) The family left at 9:50 p.m. for the normal 
twenty-minute drive back to the quiet village of Aveley; and no problems were 
anticipated. Karen and Stuart, the two younger children, were asleep on the 
back seat, and seven-year-old Kevin was awake, listening to the local radio 

Kevin was the first to spot a pale blue, oval light traveling alongside the car 
over the open fields. Elaine and John discussed possibilities, but none seemed 
to fit properly. They watched for some minutes, as it was intermittently 
obscured by trees and scattered houses, alongside the road. They came to 
accept the object as a UFO, but thought no more of it than that. As the car 
entered some very dark and lonely stretches of road on the outskirts of Aveley, 
they saw the light pass across the road in front of them and disappear. 

The Avises drove on for about a mile, and were quite close to home. The 
time was about 10:10 p.m. Suddenly, the couple was overcome by a feeling that 
something was wrong; all sounds in their car seemed to vanish. The radio 
started to crackle and smoke, and with an instinctive reaction, John ripped out 
the wiring. Then the headlights went out, but not before they had caught sight 
of an eerie block of green mist enveloping the road in front of them. The car 

jerked as it entered the mist. There was silence and a strange coldness. Then, 
within what seemed like about a second, they left the mist with another jerk, 
and things apparently returned to normal. 

What happened when the car came out of the mist is uncertain. John recalled 
only the car being a half mile farther along the road, and feeling as if he were 
alone. The car was functioning normally. Elaine’s memory returned yet another 
half-mile farther. Kevin was awake, but the other children were still asleep. 
Within a few minutes, the family had reached home. 

Thinking that there were still several minutes before the TV show he had 
planned to watch, John rewired the radio quickly and checked the lighting 
system of the car. Elaine took the children up to bed and checked the clock. She 
was amazed to find that it was 1 a.m.; almost three hours had vanished. 

The next day, Elaine told her mother about the green mist and the strange 
light but not about the time loss. They also decided it would be best to forget it. 
Apart from a deep weariness the next day, there were no ill effects felt at the 

However, over the next three years, the lifestyle of the Avis family 
underwent a dramatic change. John had a nervous breakdown, for no apparent 
reason, within months. Both he and Elaine then began to gain enormously in 
self-confidence. Kevin, who was a backward reader at school, suddenly shot 
ahead in leaps and bounds. Within months, the whole family except Stuart 
stopped eating meat. In fact, they could not even stand the smell of it. Smoking 
and alcohol were also cut out. (John had previously smoked sixty to seventy 
cigarettes per day.) Eventually, the couple began to link their behavior change 
to the UFO, the green mist, and whatever happened during the missing three 
hours. They wanted to find out if there could be a connection, and in mid-1977, 
they reported the incident to local UFO investigators. 

Andy Coffins and Barry King pursued the investigation for the British 
Flying Saucer Review and found that both John and Elaine (Kevin was not 
involved in the investigation by mutual agreement) had suffered peculiar 
dreams since the experience (which, according to their testimony, were not 
discussed with one another until questioned by investigators). The dreams were 
about weird creatures and examinations in operating, theater-type rooms. 

A qualified hypnotist, Dr. Leonard Wilder, a dental surgeon by profession, 
was brought into the case and apparently released memories that had heretofore 
been buried in the Avises subconscious minds. After only two sessions with the 
hypnotist, John and Elaine began remembering details from that “missing 

period” on their own. 

A graphic account of the “missing three hours” was obtained. It seemed that, 
when inside the green mist, the car (with the Avis family in it) had been 
teleported up a column of light into a very large “craft.” John, Elaine, and 
Kevin were separated (the other two children remained asleep) and given 
“medical examinations” by four-foot-tall creatures looking something like 
birds. In contrast to these beings were some tall entities (over six and a half feet 
tall) wearing “lurex” suits, and balaclava helmets, who gave John and Elaine a 
tour around the ship. The tour included an explanation of the ship’s propulsion 
system, and John was even shown a holographic “map” of a section of the 
“universe” (galaxy?), which included the aliens’ home planet. (John believes 
that visual information was implanted into his brain, to be triggered at a later 
date) The Avises were eventually returned to their car, which, in turn, was 
teleported back down to a spot on the road, about a half-mile beyond where 
they were abducted. 

The true nature of this case is difficult to determine or to comprehend. There 
is no proof for or against an actual encounter with alien beings, even though, 
perhaps, the “abductees” firmly believe that to be the answer. Regardless of the 
final outcome of this case, if an explanation is forthcoming, be it from a 
physical or psychological perspective, that explanation should add to our 
knowledge in one of those two general areas. 

—Jenny Randles 

Avensa airline hoax This photo was originally submitted to the Aerial 
Phenomena Research Organization (APRO) by a Mr. Delio Ribas, of Valera, 
State of Trujillo, Venezuela, in October 1966. Only the print was available for 
analysis, as the negative remained in the possession of the pilot who took the 

In his letter, Mr. Ribas said the photograph was taken sometime in 1965 by a 
pilot friend of his employed by the Avensa Airline, while they were on a flight 
between the city of Barcelona and the international Maiquetia Airport. He 
stated that “...the airline pilot who took the photograph and myself are 
absolutely certain that the object is one of the so-called ‘flying Saucers.’ The 
pilot does not wish to speak much on the subject because he has been the object 
of ridicule by some of his Venezuelan fellow pilots and also certain pilot 
friends in the USAF....” 

Mr. Fernando de Calvet, a professional topographer and geometrician, made 

a study of the position of the shadows and demonstrated mathematically that all 
of the objects and details in the photograph have a self-consistent geometry. 
Also, Mr. Konrad Honeck, an electronics engineer and Mr. Miguel Sapowsky, 
another engineer in charge of the technical department of a large Caracas 
television station, substantiated de Cal vet’s explanation. 

In 1971, the photo was studied by APRO consultant Dr. B. Roy Frieden of 
the University of Arizona’s Optical Sciences Center. Dr. Frieden noted that the 
“UFO” seemed too sharp to be a large distant object, and then determined that 
its shadow was far less dense than the shadow of the plane, indicating that it 
had been drawn in. Finally, an engineer in Caracas, Venezuela, confessed to 
hoaxing the photo. His motive: revenge against “UFO buffs” who had ridiculed 
him for not believing in “flying saucers.” 

He did it by placing a photo of a button onto an enlargement of the aerial 
shot, which was then rephotographed; he then “burned” in the “UFO” shadow, 
when the print was made. 


This “flying saucer” turned out to be a button superimposed on the background scene. 


B-57 bomber photo Originally intended as merely a promotional shot of the 
Martin (Canberra) B-57 bomber, the photograph—which seems to clearly show 
more than one aeroform—found its way to NICAP (the National Investigations 
Committee on Aerial Phenomena) and subsequently became a UFO-photo 
classic. It was taken near Edwards Air Force Base in California about 1954. 

According to Mr. Ralph Rankow, who analyzed the photo for NICAP: “No 
one actually reported seeing, with their own eyes, the saucerlike object in the 
upper right portion of the picture. Even so, the object evoked such curiosity that 
another flight was reportedly made over the same area to look for ground 
reflections that might have caused it-although I understand none were 

Photo of B-57 bomber with apparent UFO (upper-right corner) 

Close-up of UFO 

“A close scrutiny of the B-57 photo shows the trees, bushes, and houses all 
casting long shadows, but the object throws no shadows on the ground 
whatsoever. Moreover (and this point is very important), the dark parts of the 
object are much too strong to be so far away. As the trees, bushes, and houses 
get farther away, the haze cuts down their intensity and contrast. And the 
wooded area in the distance directly behind the object is fuzzy and weak by 
comparison with the strong high- lights and shadows on the UFO itself. 

“In my analysis report to NICAP, I also pointed out that the object obviously 
had dimension. Its pattern of light and shadow is consistent with the rest of the 
picture, with the sun low and coming from the left. The object is also 
symmetrically shaped and contains all tones of gray, from white to black.” 

The Martin Aircraft Company never could satisfactorily explain what the 
second image was. It appeared to be following their B-57 plane in flight, 
although they tried to persuade UFO investigators that it was merely a 
“scratch” or “rub” on the film. The curious photo underwent a series of 
unexplained “touch up” jobs by the Martin Company during the course of their 
supplying prints to different UFO investigators. 

Three different versions of the photo exist: (1) the original (which is 
reproduced here), (2) one with a scratch across the UFO (producing a jagged 
appearance), and (3) one with the UFO nearly blotted out. No one could ever 
supply a satisfactory reason for the touch-ups, nor a solution to the mystery of 
the UFO in the original picture. 

Ronald D. Story 

Baker, Robert A., Jr. (b. 1921). A native Kentuckian and World War 11 
veteran, Dr. Baker received his B.S. and M.S. degrees from the University of 
Kentucky and his Ph.D. degree in psychology from Stanford in 1952. Following 
employment as an MIT Research Psychologist and a similar position with the 
U.S. Army, Baker also worked as a clinical and forensic psychologist before 
teaching and doing research at the University of Kentucky from 1970 to 1990. 

Robert A. Baker 

Dr. Baker has published over 100 professional journal articles, is editor of 
several collections of scientific humor (as well as a history of the American 
detective story) and had edited several textbooks. He has also written They Call 
It Hypnosis (1990), Missing Pieces (with Joe Nickell), Hidden Memories 
(1995), Mind Games (1996), and most recently, he has edited Child Sexual 
Abuse and False Memory Syndrome (1999). He is also a Fellow of the 
American Psychological Association as well as CSICOP (Committee for the 
Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal) and a regular contributor 
to The Skeptical Inquirer and Skeptical Briefs regarding UFOs, aliens and 
alleged abductees. 


3495 Castleton Hill 
Lexington, KY 40517 
U.S. A. 

POSITION STATEMENT: My conviction is that historians of future generations 
will look at the current ET hypothesis, with its UFOs and alien abductions, as the 
greatest mass delusion of the 20th century—equivalent in all respects to the 19th 

century’s Age of Spiritualism with its ghosts, mediums, and seances. What is 
truly mind-boggling is the ease with which a few zealous salesmen of the 
supernatural convinced millions there was something to their nonsense. Raised 
on a steady diet of Star Wars, Star Trek, and The X-Files, and aided by wishful 
thinking, pseudo-science and pop-psychology, the average citizen was ready to 
be persuaded that the truth was, indeed, “out there” and that an evil and 
conspiratorial government was denying him and her their “right to know.” Future 
students of the behavioral sciences will, literally, “have a ball” dissecting this 
massive irrationality. 

—Robert A. Baker 

Balwyn (Australia) photo Said to have been taken by a prominent Melbourne 
businessman on April 2, 1966, the Balwyn photo has ap- peared in numerous 
.books and films, and is always represented as a “genuine UFO.” 

According to the story, at 2:20 p.m. the man was in his garden using up the 
remaining film in his Polaroid camera. Suddenly, he said, a bright reflection 
caught his eye. As he looked up, he saw a bell-shaped object hovering, on its 
side, over a house. The man snapped the photo, whereupon the object 
accelerated at great speed and took off in a northerly direction. He estimated 
the object was about 20 to 25 feet in diameter and at an altitude of about 150 

However, when the photo was examined by Aerial Phenomena Research 
Organization consultant Dr. B. Roy Frieden, Professor of Optical Sciences at 
the University of Arizona, he found that the chimney in the lower part of the 
photo was more blurred than the alleged UFO, which prompted him to examine 
the photo more closely. He then found a jagged line of discontinuity running 
across the center of the photo, through the cloud field, which suggests that there 
are actually two separate photos joined together and rephotographed to make 
the one. 


Balwyn, Australia, “UFO 

Behind the Flying Saucers (Henry Holt, 1950). Variety columnist Frank 
Scully wrote this book based on a series of 1949 columns he wrote for the show 
business tabloid describing how two informants revealed to him details of a 
U.S. Air Force retrieval, somewhere east of Aztec, New Mexico, of a crashed 
flying saucer and its crew of sixteen aliens. Though Scully’s account was 
convincingly undermined by other journalists, especially the credibility of his 
two witnesses, this tale helped inspire later variations on the story culminating 
in the Roswell crashed saucer stories of the 1980s and 90s. 

—Randall Fitzgerald 

Belgian UFO wave of 1989-90 Over the weekend of November 25-26, 1989, 
alarmed citizens from the Dutch-speaking part of Belgium reported seeing a 
strange luminous disk circling their homes. Later it turned out that the sightings 
had been caused by a light show of a disco in Halen (province of Limbourg). 
The owner had been trying to attract youngsters by projecting a rotating xenon 
lamp onto the cloud-deck. Despite the fact that a local UFO group had 
identified the culprit, the light-show continued to spark off UFO reports in the 
area until December 16 th when, after the Belgian Air Force had sent two F-16 
fighter planes into the air in an attempt to identify the mysterious disk, the 
Public Prosecutor’s Office ordered the disco manager to switch off his 


The Coming of the Triangles 

Meanwhile, another UFO incident had occurred 70 km southeast of Halen. 
This time the events were to create waves far beyond the borders of the small 
Belgian state. From 5:24 p.m. until 8:39 p.m. on November 29, 1989, two 
members of the gendarmerie, driving their patrol car just south of the city of 
Eupen (the German- speaking part of Belgium), found themselves entangled in 
a cat and mouse game with an unknown flying object. 

The policemen described what they had seen as “a dark solid mass in the 
shape of an isosceles triangle.” According to their statements, it carried “three 
blinding white lights in each corner and a pulsating red light in the centre.” In 
the course of the events, the two men had also spotted “a white ball of light” 
over the watchtower of the lake of Gileppe with “what looked like beams of red 
light shooting out in opposite directions” (investigators later found that Venus 
was probably responsible for this phase of the sightings). 

Throughout the three-hour incident, the policemen had been in constant 
contact with their headquarters in Eupen. Greatly to their relief, the dispatch 
officer informed them that he too had seen the triangular object and that 
additional sightings were being reported by patrols in nearby communities. 
Several witnesses—out of 150 eyewitness accounts that were gathered that 
night—mentioned a distinct sound that reminded them of a ventilator. One 
policeman reported that he had also noticed “something at the back of the craft 
that was turning round, like a turbine.” 

SOBEPS Comes into Play 

The next day the story of the Eupen “triangle” was highlighted in the press 
and on various Belgian television stations. During the first week of December 
1989, members of the Societe Beige d’Etude des Phenomenes Spatiaux 
(Belgian Society for the Study of Space Phenomena), Belgian’s largest UFO 
group, visited the region in search for additional witnesses. It marked the 
beginning of the group’s monopoly over the events that were to follow. 

The “Beligian Triangle” as sketched by one of the gendarmes who spotted the “craft” over Eupen 

on November 29, 1989 

December 11-12, 1989 was another memorable day for the Belgian 
UFOlogists. That night numerous people in the regions around the cities of 
Liege and Namur were baffled by a mysterious illuminated contraption that 
sailed over their homes. The sightings came to a strange end when, shortly after 
2 a.m., a man in Jupille-sur-Meuse, was awakened by a deep, pulsating sound, 
and saw an egg-shaped object that seemed to be stuck in a spruce-fir. The 
object carried three bright spotlights underneath and something that looked like 
a rudder at the back. On the hull there was a logo reminiscent of classic 
symbols that represent the orbits of electrons. It took a few seconds before it 
managed to tear itself loose, after which it headed towards the witness, flew 
over his house, and finally disappeared in the distance. According to the 
witness, the next day Army officers were searching the area. 

On December 21, 1989, the Belgian Minister of Defense issued a statement 
telling the public that the Army had no idea what was causing the UFO reports. 
With no convincing explanations coming from the scientific community either, 
speculation and imagination were given free play, and it did not take long 
before almost any bright light in the sky was labelled a UFO. 

As UFO reports kept pouring in for more than a year and a half, the 
popularity of SOBEPS increased at an equivalent pace. New volunteer 
investigators were recruited and interviews with members of the group were 
published in almost every newspaper and magazine in the country. In two years 
time, SOBEPS collected approximately 2,000 eye-witness accounts, some 450 
of which were investigated. Most of these cases were regarded as unexplained. 
They are detailed in two large books. 

The majority of the sightings occurred within an area of about 200 by 100 
kilometers in size. While the first series of reports originated from the Dutch- 
and German speaking areas in the east of the country, the wave had shifted to 
the French speaking part of Belgium in a matter of days. To skeptics, this 
illustrated how socio-cultural factors, such as language, population and the 
location of UFO investigators, had strongly influenced the reporting process. 

They further pointed to the lack of experience of some of the new recruits and 
to the fact that SOBEP’s predisposition to promote an extraterrestrial origin for 
the events, had diverted the investigators’ attention from looking for down-to- 
earth explanations. 

The Air Force Closes Ranks 

Despite the criticism, SOBEPS managed to earn respect from both 
UFOlogists and non-UFOlogists, including the Belgian Air Force. During the 
first weeks of the wave, the BAF had been swamped with telephone calls. With 
an already chockfull agenda on his hands, Fieutenant-Colonel Wilfried 
Debrouwer, later promoted to Major-General, decided to call in SOBEPS. This 
marked the beginning of a short but intense relationship which reached its peak 
during the Easter days of 1990. During this prolonged holiday weekend of 
April 14-17, a Hawker Siddeley and a Brittan Norman reconnaissance airplane 
were put at stand-by during a sky watch organized by SOBEPS. The code-name 
of this historical collaboration was “Operation Identification Ovni.” Military 
men, civilians, investigators and newsmen took part. The only absentees were 
the UFOs themselves. 

The Evidence 

On July 11, 1990, De Brouwer held a remarkable press-conference at the 
NATO headquarters at Evere, Brussels. In the presence of a considerable press 
crowd he acknowledged that, on the night of March 30-31, 1990, two F-16 
fighters had been scrambled to identify a number of inexplicable lights reported 
by a group of gendarmes. Although the pilots never had visual contact with 
anything unusual, one of them had managed to videotape the jet’s radar display. 
Analysis of the tape by scientists, military experts and skeptics revealed that the 
freakish radar returns had been caused by an unusual meteorological condition 
in combination with a malfunction of the radar’s electronics. The lights that had 
been seen just prior to the scramble were identified as bright stars and planets. 

Coincidentally, only minutes after the F-16s had returned to base, a man in 
Brussels managed to capture “the flying triangle” on video. The images, shown 
on television in many countries, depict the well-known configuration of three 
white lights and a pulsating red light in the center. SOBEPS investigators later 
found that the witness had filmed an airliner preparing to land at Zaventem 

As in any modern UFO flap, several videos turned up, the majority of which 
showed not only aircraft lights but also bright stars or planets. In one instance 
the reflection of sunlight in distant windows was taken for a low hovering 
UFO. In another, it was a group of streetlamps that fooled the witnesses. 
Various reports were generated by imperfections in the autofocus system of 
early generation camcorders. Many of these early systems have problems 
focussing on a small point of light. This often resulted in optical oddities that 
can transform a bright star into a large—sometimes metallic looking—disk. 

One of the rare photographic documents that defied explanation was a color 
slide taken in early April 1990 by a young man from Petit-Rechain, not far 
from the city of Liege. The photo depicts a black triangle silhouetted against a 
dark bluish background. There are white blobs of light in each corner and a 
fourth light, surrounded by a reddish aura, in the center. While co-workers of 
SOBEPS claim that these lights were probably plasma jets that are part of the 
object’s propulsion system, skeptics point to glaring contradictions in the 
testimonies of the two witnesses and to the absence of background details in the 
picture (making it impossible to verify the object’s actual size and distance). 

Famous “Belgian Triangle” photo 

Markedly absent during the Belgian wave were reports of electromagnetic 
effects. As for traces on ground and vegetation, only four such cases were 
recorded for the 1989-1991 period. None of which constituted the slightest 
proof of any unusual event. 

In Search of Explanations 

Although many cases could be classified as misinterpretations, a 
considerable percentage remained puzzling, namely those incidents in which 
independent witnesses reported seeing a similar, unidentified object at close 
range, during the same night, and within a well-defined area. Three such peak 
days stand out: November 29, 1989, December 11-12, 1989 and March 12, 

Teleguided spherical balloon equipped with three spotlights. Some investigators suggested that a 
similar construction may have been responsible for at least some of the Belgian sightings. 

Researchers skeptical of an extraterrestrial interpretation argued that the 
objects described reminded them of ultra light motorized aircraft. This 
hypothesis was supported by a rumor that an Air Force pilot had flown a home- 
built ULM without the permission of his superiors. 

Others suspected that the Air Force was flying state-of-the-art experimental 
aircraft, presumably of U.S. design, and was taking advantage of the UFO 
excitement to draw public attention away from these secret test flights. The 
revolutionary concept of the first generation stealth planes still sparked the 
imagination in 1989-1990 and the newest trends in aviation design were also 
being reflected in the UFO descriptions. Skeptics scrutinized aviation 
magazines for the latest news on obscureBlack Projects. After all, the much 
reported configuration of three white lights and a red flashing light was 
consistent with standard lighting configuration for aircraft. What they failed to 
take into account was that these presumed wonder planes were supposed to be 

fast aircraft, not capable of hovering close to the ground, making sharp turns 
and producing no down-draft, but only a soft humming sound, as was described 
in the best-documented cases. 

Several investigators, troubled by these unusual flight characteristics, sought 
salvation in the blimp hypothesis, pointing to the “accident” with the blimp- 
type object in Jupille-sur-Meuse and to the November 29 sightings. With regard 
to the latter they pointed out that, earlier that same day, several independent 
witnesses had spotted, in broad daylight, an oval- or cigar-shaped object 
traveling slowly south of the lake of Gileppe. Moreover, they discovered that 
teleguided blimps, equipped with bright spotlights and a camera, had indeed 
been tested in Belgium in late 1989. The owner of these craft turned out to be 
an eccentric Hungarian who rented his contraptions for publicity purposes and 
was hoping to gather a few orders from the military as well. It appeared that he 
had actually contacted not only Major-General De Brouwer, but also the 
country’s intelligence services, claiming that he himself had single-handedly 
started the Belgian UFO wave and that he would be willing to prove this in 
exchange for a big amount of money. 

Both the Air Force and the intelligence services gave little credence to the 
story and turned the offer down. Surprisingly, the inventor later denied having 
ever flown his radio-controlled balloons outdoors, causing even more 
confusion. In the end, the only thing that remained certain was that the Belgian 
UFOs were an important factor in transforming the traditional nuts-and-bolts 
image of the flying saucer into a new high-tech UFO that pops up almost 
exclusively at night, looks like a dark, angular structure and carries a panoply 
of multicolored lights. 

—Wim Van Utrecht 

Bender mystery (“Men in Black”) In September 1953, Albert K. Bender, 
then director of the International Flying Saucer Bureau (IFSB), reported that 
three men dressed in black suits had called on him at his Bridgeport, 
Connecticut, home and revealed to him the frightening answer to the UFO 
mystery. Bender confided to IFSB associates soon afterward that the men, 
whose manner had been threatening, had warned him he would be thrown into 
jail if he repeated any of the information they had given him. 

Gray Barker, Dominick Lucchesi, and August Roberts called on Bender 
shortly after the supposed incident and were able to draw a few more details out 
of him. He said the three men in black had told him that for the past two years 

the United States Government had known the secret of the UFOs. They 
claimed, according to Bender, that this secret would be revealed in either five 
months or four years. Shortly after the original visit, one of the strangers 
returned and imparted additional insight into the mystery, which, Bender said 
later, tended to ease some of the fear Bender had experienced during and after 
the first meeting. 

Apparently the men, or at least the agency they represented, continued to 
monitor Bender’s activities. He alleged that once, after he had made a “bad 
slip” during a longdistance telephone conversation with another saucer buff, a 
call came from Washington, D.C., and a voice warned him to be more careful 
in the future. 

Soon afterward Bender closed down the 1FSB. In the last issue of the 
organization’s publication, Space Review, he wrote cryptically, in his first 
public allusion to the episode, “STATEMENT OF IMPORTANCE: The 
mystery of the flying saucer is no longer a mystery. The source is already 
known, but any information about this is being withheld by orders from a 
higher source. We would like to print the full story in Space Review, but 
because of the nature of the information we are very sorry that we have been 
advised in the negative. 

“We advise those engaged in saucer work to please be very cautious.” 

Bender withdrew from the UFO field and resisted pressure to discuss the 
matter further. Although serious UFOlogists viewed his claims with 
considerable skepticism, occult- and contactee-oriented saucerians specu- lated 
endlessly about the possible identity of the “Three Men,” as they came to be 
called. The Three Men were variously held to be CIA operatives, space people, 
evil astral entities, demons, agents of an international Nazi conspiracy, or 
agents of an international Jewish conspiracy. 

Bender’s former associate Gray Barker, a Clarksburg, West Virginia, 
publisher, tirelessly promoted the mystery and started a small industry 
specializing in Bender-related materials. Barker’s They Knew Too Much About 
Flying Saucers (1956) is an entertaining excursion into the outer reaches of 
UFOlogical paranoia which recounted the Bender affair and other similar 
alleged silencings of UFO researchers in Canada, New Zealand, and Australia. 

In 1962, Bender suddenly announced he was ready to tell all and did so in a 
volume published that year by Barker’s Saucerian Books. The eagerly awaited 
Flying Saucers and the Three Men proved a disappointing climax to the nine- 
year-old controversy. Even Barker conceded privately that he could not 

swallow Bender’s fantastic tale of abduction to the South Pole by monstrous 
space beings. Practically everyone who read it, even those ordinarily 
predisposed to unbridled credulity, dismissed the book as a work of conscious 
or unconscious fiction. Ben- der himself showed minimal enthusiasm for it and 
did little to promote it. Soon afterward he moved to Los Angeles and secured 
an unlisted telephone number. 

But Three Men does shed some light on the background of the Bender 
Mystery and points (albeit unintentionally) to the likely solution. It reveals 
Bender’s long-time obsession with science fiction, horror movies, and the 
occult. Bender, at the time of the alleged visitation a bachelor living with his 
stepfather, had converted his section of the house into a “chamber of horrors,” 
with paintings of monsters on the walls and shrunken heads and artificial bats 
on the tables and shelves. Reading the book one cannot resist an obvious 
conclusion—that Bender was ripe for what might euphemistically be termed a 
“psychological experience.” 

In 1976, Bender, now the director of an organization seeking to perpetuate 
the music of film composer Max Steiner, wrote, replying to a letter from a 
UFOlogist, “In 1977 something spectacular will take place involving space.” In 
this, as in his 1953 prediction that the truth about UFOs would be known in five 
months or four years, Bender proved to be a poor prophet. 

—Jerome Clark 

Bermuda Triangle-UFO link A popular explanation for the disappearances of 
ships and planes in the so-called “Bermuda Triangle” is the “UFO-capture 
theory.” Upon close inspection, however, the supposed UFO link is found to be 
merely a literary creation without basis in fact. 

Over the past half-century, more than a hundred ships and planes, with over 
a thousand persons on board, have supposedly disappeared-some say 
“mysteriously, without a trace”—in an area variously dubbed “the Bermuda 
Triangle,” “the Devil’s Triangle,” “the Hoodoo Sea,” “the Triangle of Death,” 
and “the Graveyard of the Atlantic.” It is actually a large area of undefinable 
shape around, and including, the triangle formed by Florida, Bermuda, and 
Puerto Rico, where sea and air traffic is said to be the greatest. For reasons 
which are to follow, some writers have “theorized” a UFO-connection to 
explain the “strange” disappearances. 

The Bermuda Triangle-UFO link, to missing vessels was perhaps first hinted 
at in the 1930s by Charles Fort (1874-1932), who, as his biographer Loren 

Gross writes for this encyclopedia, “played with the notion that mysterious 
vanishments of ocean vessels and their crews...may be due to wanton seizures 
by spacemen.” Two decades later, astronomer Morris K. Jessup (1900-59), in 
his book The Case for the UFO (1955), wrote: “To attempt to postulate motive 
for space inhabitants kidnapping crews from in the realm of pure 
speculation. On the other hand...our space friends would want to know what 
has happened to us since they left, or what has happened to us since they put us 
down here. Again, there is always the possibility that the open seas provide an 
easy catching place. ” 

More recently, author Charles Berlitz capitalized on the “Triangle” and a 
possible UFO-connection by quoting, in his best-selling book The Bermuda 
Triangle (1974), his friend J. Manson Valentine, who reported several UFO 
sightings in the area. Berlitz also quoted a reporter by the name of Art Ford, 
who claimed that a final radio transmission, picked up by a ham operator from 
one of the doomed pilots (in this case, Lieutenant Charles Taylor, flight leader 
of the five Navy torpedo bombers that disappeared on December 5, 1945), 
contained the warning: “Don’t come after me....They look like they are from 
outer space.” (According to a transcript from the Navy Inquiry Board, what 
Taylor actually said was: “I know where I am now. I’m at 2,300 feet. Don’t 
come after me.”) 

Also, there are claims of unusual electromagnetic effects occurring in the 
Triangle, a common feature of many UFO reports. Actually, none of the 
“magnetic anomalies” claimed about the area are true. Reports of compass 
needles spinning crazily have never been substantiated. The fact that the 
compass points to true north from the Triangle does not cause confusion, but 
rather, simplifies navigation. (The compass points to true north from many 
other places in the world. The only part of the Triangle from which it does point 
directly north is at the southern tip of Florida.) Those who claim that the north¬ 
pointing compass is strange or confusing lack even the most fundamental 
knowledge of magnetism, compasses, or navigation. The presence of a 
“Space/Time warp” (whatever that means) is, again, unsubstantiated, to say the 

Popular author John Wallace Spencer, in a revised version of his book Limbo 
of the Lost (1973), offered a provocative theory: He reasoned that: “Since a 
575-foot vessel with 39 crew members disappearing 50 miles offshore in the 
Gulf of Mexico, and commercial airliners disappearing while coming in for a 
landing cannot happen according to earthly standards and yet are happening, I 

am forced to conclude that they are actually being taken away from our planet 
for a variety of reasons.” 

In a 1975 version of the book, retitled Limbo of the Lost — Today, Spencer 
modified his UFO theory so that the extraterrestrials were no longer carting the 
captives away from Earth but were taking them to hidden underwater facilities, 
where the ETs conducted experiments on the earthlings and their machinery. 
But Spencer offered no evidence that UFOs had been present or were even 
sighted in conjunction with any of the incidents he described. In other words, it 
seems that some authors are apparently dressing up their accounts by including 
UFOs in order to attempt to make a bigger story. 

The UFO-capture theme was again used in the 1977 movie Close 
Encounters of the Third Kind. It turned out that five Navy torpedo bombers that 
disappeared in 1945 were taken aboard a gigantic “Mother Ship”; and all of its 
captives (who had not aged over the years) were released at the end of the 
movie to help demonstrate that the extraterrestrials are indeed friendly after all. 

In reality, the “Bermuda Triangle Mystery” has been shown, in The Bermuda 
Triangle Mystery — Solved, by Larry Kusche (1975), to be a sham—an 
accumulation of careless research, misconceptions, sensationalism, and 
downright falsification of data—and is so regarded by most leading UFO 
researchers. For example, the 575-foot ship that Spencer claimed had 
disappeared was found within two weeks, sunken in shallow water. Volatile 
fumes in the holds had exploded, nearly tearing the ship in two. The airliner 
that Spencer said had disappeared while on a landing approach was a chartered 
DC-3 that lost its way at night in 1948, out of sight of land, because of radio 
navigational problems. Thorough investigations of other incidents by Kusche 
led to similar “down to earth” explanations. 

According to the April 1978 issue of J. Allen Hynek’s International UFO 
Reporter: “The Bermuda Trian gle stories...are NOT relayed by the pilots or 
sailors who experience them; they are the fraudulent literary distortions of a 
small handful of authors. All Triangle mysteries so far have been easily 
explainable once the actual records have been examined. Would that the more 
baffling UFOs (which are themselves the mysteries) were so easily resolved.” 

—Ronald D. Story 

Bethurum, Truman (1898-1969). Truman Bethurum was one of the five major 
“contactees” of the 1950s. He claimed to have met Space People on numerous 
occasions. He said that the “captain” gave him information about the workings 

of “flying saucers” and life on the planet Clarion. Bethurum offered no 
evidence to substantiate these claims, and most UFO researchers regard him as 
a charlatan. 

Truman Bethurum 

Bethurum became famous in 1954 with the publication of his book, Aboard 
a Flying Saucer. In it, Bethurum claimed that he encountered a landed flying 
saucer in the Mojave Desert, where he was laying asphalt for a construction 
company. Invited aboard the flying saucer, he said, he met the crew and its 
female captain, Aura Rhanes. She explained to Bethurum that she had come 
form an idyllic society on the planet Clarion, where there was no war, divorce, 
or taxes. Clarion could not be seen from Earth because it was always behind the 

Bethurum struck up a friendship with Aura Rhanes. After the first encounter, 
he met with her ten more times at lunch counters and other such mundane 
places. During these meetings, she gave more information about Clarion, and 
she explained the composition of her “saucer.” Once she tried to aid Bethurum 
by predicting what would happen on his job. Eventually, Rhanes invited 
Bethurum and some of his guests to take a ride in the flying saucer; but when 
the time came, Aura Rhanes and the saucer did not show up, and Bethurum 
never saw her again. 

Drawing of the lady captain, Aura Rhanes 

All but the most desperate contactee advocates have considered Bethurum’s 
book to be a hoax. Bethurum stuck by the story and capitalized on it by 
appearing on television and radio shows and giving lectures at contactee- 
oriented UFO conventions. He was friends with “Professor” George Adamski 
and other contactees of the period, and his claims were similar to those of 
Adamski, Fry, and Angelucci. 

In 1969, Edward U. Condon used nearly two pages of his Condon Rerport to 
prove that Clarion could not possibly exist. For Condon, Clarion was evidence 
of the gullibility of UFO “believers.” 

Bethurum died on May 21, 1969, in Landers, California. The following year, 
Timothy Green Beckley pub- lished some previously unpublished material by 
Bethurum which rehashed the story in his 1954 book and gave additional 
details about the planet Clarion. Bethurum’s Aboard a Flying Saucer is now 
considered a relic of the 1950s, a time when contactees were “media events.” 
Its main importance is as an example of how individuals have tried to exploit 
the UFO phenomenon for their own gain. 

—David M. Jacobs 

POSTSCRIPT: As with the other “contactees,” to regard Bethurum as a simple 
charlatan is to miss much of the point. Like the stories of the other contactees, 
Bethurum’s classic book, Aboard a Flying Saucer, is rich in metaphors. Take for 
example the lady captain, Aura Rhanes, or “Aura Rains”—as we would spell her 
name if we thought about what she signifies. Indeed, Bethurum was quite 

“taken” by her. She was everything his own wife was not. When one reads the 
details in Bethurum’s book about his own life, it is no wonder he required this 
kind of fantasy to escape his world of loneliness and uncaring people. A utopian 
dream was precisely what he needed. 

The flying saucer (called the “Admiral Scow”) as described by Bethurum 

When the alien crew brought Bethurum aboard the saucer, he found the 
ravishing captain seated at a desk in her cabin. He described her as having short 
black hair “brushed into an upward curl at the ends,” and wearing a “black and 
red beret” tilted on one side of her head. Her blouse “looked like black velvet, 
with short sleeves decorated with a small red ribbon bow”; and she wore a red 
skirt that “looked like wool and was set all round in small flat pleats.” 
Bethurum remarked that “Her eyes...seemed as if they saw and understood 
everything, including the questions 1 was about to ask even before I was able to 
get them out.” (Bethurum, 1954) 

Mrs. Rhanes (who was said to have two grandchildren back on the planet 
Clarion) explained to Bethurum that the Clarionites had come to Earth only for 
their own education (which means for our education, if they are teaching by 
example, reading the account metaphorically). But she also mentioned that 
other space people might be watching us as well: “you have taken such an 
interest in atomic power, some of them might be surveying you. If you blow up 
your own planet, it would cause considerable confusion in the Space around 

As for life on Clarion, Captain Rhanes described an idyllic existence: She 
told Bethurum that on Clarion there were no such things as prisons, lawyers, 
guards at banks, and child delinquency; no divorce or adultery; no illnesses or 
doctors, no traffic problems, and definitely no politicians. “That’s what’s cleft 

your world through,” she said. Nor was there any use of liquor or tobacco. The 
Clarionites were said to be very religious—“Christians” in fact—who “worship 
a Supreme Deity who sees, knows, and controls all.”(Bethurum, 1954) 

As in the case of Adamski and the other contactees, Bethurum’s account is 
shot through with technological metaphors. When he asked Captain Rhanes 
about the greatest problem the Clariorites had to solve, he was given this 
answer: “It was, of course, learning how to control magnetic force. You know 
that we have solved it, both pro and anti of course, or we wouldn’t be here 
tonight.” In other words, they have learned the secret of the reconciliation of 
opposites. Throughout all the contactee accounts, “magnetic force” 
symboblizes primal psychic energy (or libido), which is precisely what man 
must learn to control if he is to achieve psyhic balance (and thus survival). 

Everything associated with the Clariorites was a model of perfection. The 
little men were described as having “masklike faces, without scar or 
blemish....” Aura Rhanes, the “queen of women” was rated “tops in shapeliness 
and beauty”; She “wore no makeup” because she “needed none,” and couldn’t 
be smarter or more capable. The beautiful 300-foot diameter saucer “was 
smooth and symmetrical,” magically floating several feet above the ground, 
and produced “no noise of any kind at...take-off.” In a word, we are talking 
about “Utopia.” 

Sociologist David Stupple was the first, I believe, to point out that the 
contactees were essentially “ Utopians ,” who envisioned a better world, and 
came to believe their own fantasies in pursuit of that goal. “In contactee 
parlance a ‘Space Brother’ is not an entity who drops by and gives nonsense 
information,” Stupple says, “a Space Brother is a being who visits a contactee 
and imparts some special knowledge” so that “by using that information the 
contactee can then go forth and help humanity.” (Stupple, 1980) (And for those 
who are familiar with the ideas of Carl Jung and Joseph Campbell, that, of 
course, is the archetypal pattern of the “hero’s journey.”) 

And speaking of classic examples, I would be amiss if I did not point out the 
perfect example of the anima archetype in Aura Rhanes. That she is Truman 
Bethurum’s ideal woman goes without saying. What is more subtle, and more 
in need of an explanation, is why the feminine aspect of this fantasy requires 
such intense projection. I think it is clear in all of the contactee accounts that 
the world is in desparate need of more balance between matriarchal and 
patriarchal qualities. And what we are missing, of course, is the necessary 
addition of more feminine aspects, such as: unconditional love, understanding, 

and compassion. 

At the request of Aura Rhanes, Bethurum later established a “Sanctuary of 
Thought,” dedicated to world peace, understanding, and universal brotherhood. 

—Ronald D. Story 


Bethurum, Truman. Aboard a Flying Saucer (DeVorss & Co., 1954). 

_. Messages from the People of the Planet Clarion: The True Experiences of Truman Bethurum. 

Beckley, Timothy Green, ed. (Inner Light Publications, 1995). 

Gibbons, Gavin. They Rode in Space Ships (The Citadel Press, 1957). 

Stupple, David. Quoted in Proceedings of the First International UFO Congress. Fuller, Curtis G., ed. 

(Warner Books, 1980). 

Bible and Flying Saucers, The (Lippincott, 1968). Presbyterian pastor 
Barry H. Downing argues that Biblical events and teachings were deliberately 
inspired by visiting extraterrestrial “angels.” His interpretation of the scriptures 
indicates that Jesus’ resurrection occurred as he was spirited away by a flying 

The same sort of space vehicle led the Israelites across the Red Sea by 
parting it, spoke to Moses from a cloud, and emitted radiation which produced 
the plagues described in Exodus. In other words, Downing substitutes 
supertechnology for the supernatural. 

—Randall Fitzgerald 

Biblical miracles as super-technology Biblical miracles have generally 
been explained in one of three ways: they are seen as 1) mythology, 2) as 
misunderstood or rare natural phenomena, or 3) they are supernatural. (Note 
that interpretation of modern UFOs have followed similar lines.) Connecting 
Biblical miracles with UFOs offers a fourth interpretation: super-technology or 
more specifically, extraterrestrial science. 

The general academic/scientific view of UFOs and Biblical miracles is that 
they are mythology. Perhaps driven by unconscious Jungian archetypes, 
mythologists argue that stories like the parting of the Red Sea were invented by 
humans to comfort and inspire them in what appears to be a godless world. 

Then there are those who have taken many of the stories in the Exodus, for 
example, to be historical facts—although misidentifications of natural 
phenomena. Scientists John Marr and Curtis Mulloy have argued that the 
plagues during the Exodus were caused by a “toxic algal bloom.” The late 

Harvard astronomer Donald Menzel has argued that the burning bush seen by 
Moses was St. Elmos’s fire. Immanuel Velikovsky, in his book Worlds in 
Collision (1950), argued that the “pillar of cloud and of fire” (the Exodus UFO) 
was the planet Venus making a near pass at the Earth with its gravity causing 
the parting of the Red Sea. Those making these kinds of arguments say that the 
Biblical people were involved in natural events, which due to their lack of 
scientific understanding they called the work of God. 

The supernatural explanation of the parting of the Red Sea and other Exodus 
miracles is simply this: God can do anything. The miracles are supernatural 
events and thus not explainable in logical terms. 

Each of the above theories treats the historicity of the story differently. 
Those advocating the mythological theory do not require that the parting of the 
Red Sea, or any other reported Biblical event, actually occurred. 

Those advocating naturalistic explanations accept many of the reported 
events as described (the plagues, the burning bush, the parting of the Red Sea), 
but see them as fortuitous natural events (for good or ill). For them, God was 
not involved. 

The supernatural theory, on the other hand, assumes that the reported events 
occurred and were also caused by the supernatural power of God. 

Those who support the mythological, naturalistic, or supernatural points of 
view do not usually welcome the UFO interpretation of the Exodus. However, 
the UFO interpretation supposes that the Biblical reports must be given serious 
factual consideration; something the mythological view does not do. 

The UFO interpretation takes the Biblical reports as seriously as either the 
naturalistic or the supernatural interpretation, but it has an advantage over the 
naturalistic view by giving coherence to the reported facts while also making 
scientific sense, which the supernatural interpretation makes no attempt to do. 

In my book The Bible and Flying Saucers (1968, 1997), I have explored the 
Exodus in detail. The Bible says that during the forty-year wilderness journey, 
something described as a “pillar of cloud by day and a pillar of fire by night” 
(Exodus 13:21,22) was constantly present. One might suppose with Velikovsky 
that this was the planet Venus or a comet making a near pass at the Earth. 

Or one might suppose with Dr. Menzel that the burning bush was St. Elmo’s 
fire. But what about the voice Moses heard? (Exodus 3:4) The naturalists 
suppose the voice is mythology. But suppose that a UFO landed in a clump of 
bushes. Modern UFOs have been reported to cause bushes to glow. And when 
modern persons have close encounters, they often report hearing a voice. 

One of the most compelling stories that might link the Bible and UFOs is the 
story of the parting of the Red Sea. 

Copyright © 2000 by Monarca Lynn Merrifield 

Could this have been the scene at the parting of the Red Sea? 

(Painting by Monarca Lynn Merrifield) 

According to the Bible, when the pillar of cloud hovered over the Red Sea, 
the voice of God or an angel of God was in frequent voice contact with Moses. 
The main point of the Exodus is that Moses was in constant contact with an 
intelligent being connected with a UFO, which was cloud-like during the day 
and glowing like fire in the dark. It may have been cylindrical in shape like 
modern “cloud-cigar” UFOs. This UFO then landed on Mt. Sinai and gave 
Moses the commandments for the Jewish religion in verbal and written form. 

I believe that a UFO used its power system—some kind of force field—to 
part the Red Sea, and when the Egyptians tried to drive their chariots under the 
force field, they were knocked flat. 

For those who are committed to the Biblical religion, what does this mean? 

Were the Biblical miracles carried out by super-technological—rather than 
supernatural—beings? If so, how would this effect our religious beliefs? These 
questions have yet to be debated in the halls of theology. 

The approach 1 have taken to UFOs and Christianity is this: we need to 
wonder a lot more and not shut ourselves off from possibilities. 


Biblical UFOs Strange objects are reported throughout the Bible. In fact, so 
many references to UFOs in the Bible exist that a complete list is impossible 
here. Most Biblical UFOs can be divided into two categories: (1) those that 
seem to be connected with what we might call psychic phenomena and (2) 
those that we would now call “multiple witness” sightings. The question of 
whether Biblical UFOs and modern UFOs are directly connected has of course 
not yet been answered. 

Abraham, while in a “deep sleep,” had some kind of UFO experience. 
“When the sun had gone down and it was dark, behold a smoking fire pot and a 
flaming torch passed between these pieces” (Gen. 15:17). Jacob, while 
sleeping, had a well-known dream that the angels of God were ascending and 
descending on a ladder leading to heaven (Gen. 28:12). These experiences have 
traditionally been viewed as spiritual or psychic rather than “objectively real,” 
as this phrase is usually understood in modem science. In the modern UFO 
field, it must be remembered, however, that some of the most important UFO 
research is done by placing persons who have experienced close encounters of 
the third kind under a hypnotic trance in order to recover a UFO experience 
which someone experienced, apparently in a trance. Thus the modern trance 
experience has its twin in the Bible. Whether the famous wheels of Ezekiel 
belong in this category is not clear. Ezekiel describes his experience as a 
“vision,” which most have assumed means trance, but the former NASA 
engineer, Josef Blumrich, in his book The Spaceships of Ezekiel (1974), argues 
for the objective reality of Ezekiel’s experience. 

Copyright © 2000 by Monarca Lynn Merrifield 

“And the angel of the Lord appeared to him in a flame of fire out of the midst of a bush; and he 
looked, and lo, the bush was burning, yet it was not consumed.” (Ex. 3:2) 

There are important “multiple-witness sightings” in both the Old and New 
Testaments. The most important in the Old Testament is the Exodus UFO. 
“And the Lord went before them by day in a pillar of cloud to lead them along 
the way, and by night in a pillar of fire to give them light, that they might travel 
by day and by night” (Ex. 13:21). This UFO, similar to “cloud cigars” 
described today, was present during the forty-year Exodus of the Israelites from 
Egypt under the leadership of Moses. It is understood to be the same reality 
which met Moses in the “burning bush” (Ex. 3:2). 

CoDvriaht© 2000 bv Vlonarca Lvnr Merrifield 

“And as they still went on a talked, behold a chariot of fire and horses of fire separated the two of 
them. Elijah went up by a whirlwind into heaven.” (II Kings 2:11) 

The Exodus UFO is given different names, sometimes called “the cloud,” 
sometimes “the glory” of the Lord, sometimes called “the Presence.” It 
apparently leads the Israelites to Mount Sinai, descends on Mount Sinai (see 
Ex. 19), gives Moses the commandments of the Jewish religion, and dictates 
the building of the Tabernacle. Finally, it leads the way to the Promised Land. 
Some have argued that the “pillar of cloud and fire” caused the parting of the 
Red Sea with its propulsion system and that it dropped the manna for food 
during the Exodus. The “pillar of cloud” is called a multiple-witness sighting 
because it is understood to have been seen by all the Israelites during all of the 
Exodus. (Downing, 1968) 

Another famous Old Testament multiple-witness sighting involves the 
ascension of Elijah in a “chariot of fire” (II Kings 2). The Bible reports that 
about fifty priests witnessed this event. 

Multiple-witness sightings in the New Testament include: the shepherds who 
saw the angels and the bright “glory” of the Lord at the birth of Christ (Luke 
2:9); the “bright cloud” seen by Peter, James, and John during the 
transfiguration of Jesus (Matt. 17:18); several disciples witnessing the 
ascension of Jesus in a “cloud” (Acts 2:9) as angels explained the event; and 

the bright “light from heaven” which blinded the Apostle Paul and brought 
about his conversion on the Damascus Road (Acts 9:1-9). Angels are connected 
with the “clouds of heaven” in the New Testament, which seem to be 
understood as a heavenly form of transportation. 

What is the meaning of UFOs in the Bible? Some have suggested that UFOs 
in the Bible, like modern UFOs, are mainly an expression of man’s unconscious 
needs; that they are myth, creations of man’s mind. 

Copyright © 2000 by Monarca Lynn Merrifield 

“And it came to pass that at midnight the Lord smote all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from 
the firstborn of Pharaoh... [to] the firstborn of cattle.” (Ex. 12:29) 

Others have suggested that UFOs carried “ancient astronauts,” who may 
have contacted man for scientific purposes but who never intended to start 
religion as we know it. 

Another theory is that UFOs started the Biblical religion, either as a kind of 
giant interplanetary hoax or because UFOs are in fact a divine reality. This 
latter view would see UFOs as carrying the angels of God in the past to start the 
Biblical religion and, as still being seen today, shepherds watching over their 

—Barry H. Downing 


Downing, Barry. The Bible and Flying Saucers (Lippincott, 1968; Avon, 1970; Marlowe, 1997). 
Jessup, M. K. UFO and the Bible (The Cidadel Press, 1956). 

birth memories hypothesis The birth memories hypothesis (BMH) 
culminated a decade of research into hypnosis and CE-3 reports, including the 

Imaginary Abductee Study, which led my colleague Dr. W.C. McCall and me to 
a skeptical view of abduction claims. We concluded that abductions are non¬ 
physical, archetypal fantasies involving belief or deception in which the 
witness’ perinatal (pre- and post-natal) memories play a central role. 

Some basic assumptions of the BMH follow from recent brain research. The 
fetus, once described as incapable of thought and memory, is now seen as 
keenly responsive to its environment. Of the two memory systems in the brain, 
the verbal declarative memory in the hippocampus matures by age four, but the 
non-verbal emotional memory, located in the amygdala, is all but matured at 
birth. Daniel Goleman writes, “...many potent emotional memories date from 
the first few years of life, in the relationship between an infant and its 
caretakers. This is especially true of traumatic events, like beatings or outright 
neglect.” These “emotional lessons” are stored in the amygdala as “rough, 
wordless blueprints for emotional life” and are difficult for an adult to articulate 
exactly because they originated before words were there to help the infant 
understand experiences. It is our belief that this process typically starts long 
before birth, certainly by the tumultuous events of the last trimester of 
pregnancy, so that the earliest if not most intense emotional memories in 
everyone are prenatal. 

Perinatal memories show a strong connection with fantasy, which seems to 
encourage access to often-inexpressible emotional memories. For example, one 
can relive the ordeal of birth with the aid of hallucinogenic drugs, as 
psychiatrist Stanislav Grof has shown, but it can be done somewhat easier 
under hypnosis, or even while fantasizing an abduction scenario. Our 
hypnotized real and imaginary CE-3 witnesses were giving us figurative 
perinatal imagery long before I recognized it, and before I found that Grof’s 
birth narratives contain major parallels with abduction imagery. The relation 
also works in reverse: some of Grof’s subjects describe hallucinations 
involving flying saucers, aliens, and Star TrekWkc adventures. 

UFOs as flying saucers are rich and varied perinatal symbols, but witness 
descriptions are usually indirect and metaphorical. Accounts of entering or 
leaving a UFO may suggest a symbolic birth: abductees squeeze through small 
cervical doors into big rooms, a process clearly analogous to the newborn’s 
feelings of decompression at delivery. Or they may exit through a small 
passageway to the “big room” outside. Sometimes the birth reference is 
explicit, as with the abductee who said she had to twist her shoulders 90 
degrees to pass through a little doorway —an exact reliving of fetal rotation in 

birth. A few witnesses choose to be reborn repeatedly (as in the Andreasson 
case) by passing from one amniotic room to another, through narrow vaginal 
tunnels, elevators, exploding doorways, or cervical openings. 

Only about half of the CE-3 reports 1 have seen are substantive and coherent 
narratives, yet they all contain some perinatal imagery; many are dominated by 
it. The more detailed the narrative, the greater the total birth data—clear 
indication of an inherent birth/abduction connection. 

The birth memories hypothesis is significant because it is one of the few 
falsifiable theories ever proposed about abduction cases. There is no reason 
why an actual abduction should stimulate birth imagery in an abductee. On the 
contrary, the thought of umbilical pain or birth gore playing any role in 
confrontations between humans and alien beings is absurd in the extreme. Birth 
imagery is thus a marker showing that abduction claims are non-physical 
events. That knowledge gives investigators an evaluative tool of major 

We devised three falsifying tests of the BMH, as follows: 

BMH Falsification Test #1 

The birth memories hypothesis could be wholly or partially invalidated by 
any fully developed case narrative lacking substantive perinatal references. But 
1 know of no such CE-3 case. Below are some random abduction 
imagery/events and their probable perinatal connections that could rule out a 
claim of alien contact: 

• “alien genetics” procedures (overall perinatal experiences) 

• birth laboratory (womb & amniotic memories) 

• body probing, handling (post-natal exam) 

• body dismemberment (normal vaginal passage hallucinations) 

• body size change (normal vaginal pressure) 

• breathing problems (late stage placental hypoxia) 

• center-opening doors (the dilating cervix) 

• communication or message (bonding, loving contact) 

• fetal humanoid (womb/infant memories) 

• floating (fetus in amniotic suspension) 

• head, body pressure (normal vaginal birth) 

• humming (womb or maternal sounds) 

• paralysis (normal vaginal pressure, delivery room swaddling) 

• pulsing sensation (placental pulse or maternal heartbeat) 

• sense of abrupt motion (in womb as mother moves about) 

• tastes or odors (amniotic fluid, postnatal gore) 

• time loss, amnesia (emotional memories of perinatal events) 

• transparent walls, rooms (translucent amnion) 

• tubes of various size (umbilical/placental memories) 

• tunnel for boarding/exit (vaginal birth memories) 

BMH Falsification Test #2 

We propose that cesarean-born volunteers be hypnotized and given 
imaginary abductions. If any cesarean narratives contain explicit or figurative 
descriptions of head and body pressure or other tunnel and tube experiences, 
the BMH would be weakened or proved false. 

In the absence of fonnal replication attempts by other UFOlogists, Dr. 
McCall and 1 gave imaginary abductions under hypnosis to a group of persons 
who said they were born by cesarean section. We found statistical evidence that 
tunnel imagery in CE3 narratives relates to vaginal birth. Of eight cesarean 
subjects in the experiment, seven used no tunnel imagery in describing how 
they boarded or left the UFO, and there were few tunnel images throughout 
their narratives. The eighth subject exited via a body tube, but she had spent 
long hours in a contracting placenta previa (obstructed) womb before an 
emergency cesarean, perhaps enough time to imprint a tunnel/tube memory. 

BMH Falsification Test #3 

We propose that abduction narratives be studied for echoes of problem-birth 
witnesses’ birth histories. In the continuing absence of verification attempts by 
others, Dr. McCall and I also tested this proposal. Ten volunteers—two normal 
births and eight others who reported some birth problem (breech, forceps 
delivery, twin birth, etc.)—were hypnotized and given first an imaginary 
abduction and then a birth revivification (to avoid birth-CE3 cueing). 
Significant correlations emerged in several subjects, particularly when boarding 
or exiting the UFO. 

Birth images frequently dominate literary, cinematic, and other fantasies 
because it is the fantasizing process and not a particular book, film, or other 
work that evokes perinatal data. Since Occam’s relentless razor prefers the 
simplest alternative, reasonable people should conclude that birth imagery in a 

CE-3 report is evidence of perinatal fantasy. No one has read all 5,000 
abduction narratives (the current guesstimated number), but CE-3s without 
perinatal data seem about as scarce as aliens. 

Until one or the other appears, the debate over the reality of CE-3s favors 
probable birth fantasies over verified abductions by—more or less—5000 to 

—Alvin H. Lawson 

Book of the Damned, The (Boni & Liveright, 1919). Charles Fort produces 
the first book to chronicle eyewitness accounts in a range of unexplained 
phenomena from UFO sightings to rocks and other unusual objects falling from 
cloudless skies. 

He is the first author to speculate that humankind has been visited and may 
be owned by a race of super beings from other worlds who came and 
established colonies on Earth for “hunting, trading, replenishing harems, and 

—Randall Fitzgerald 

boundary deficit hypothesis Within the subject of UFOlogy, the boundary- 
deficit hypothesis is the proposition that the population of people claiming 
nightmare-like abduction experiences will include a statistically significant 
proportion of people who have the same psychological characteristics as people 
who have nightmares. It derives from studies by Ernest Hartmann who has 
shown that people who have frequent nightmares tend to share a large cluster of 
common psychological traits that seems to be organized around a central 
property of the brain’s predisposition to fuse and mix information and 
experience rather than separating such things into distinct categories. 
(Hartmann, 1984) 

Boundary theory begins with the axiom that as the mind matures, it 
categorizes experiences. It walls off experiences into sets with common 
properties. Boundaries are set up between what is self and non-self, between 
sleep and waking experiences, between fantasy and reality, passion and reason, 
right and wrong, masculine and feminine, and a large population of other 
experiential categories. This drive to categorize is subject to natural variation. 
The determinants of that drive appear to be biochemical and genetic and 
probably have no environmental component such as trauma. When the drive is 
weak, the boundaries between the categories are thinner, more permeable, or 

more fluid. When the boundaries become abnormally thin one sees 
psychopathologies like schizophrenia. When abnormally thick, the 
psychopathologies tend toward neurotic defensiveness. Hartmann discovered 
that individuals who suffer from nightmares have thin boundaries. From this 
central characteristic one can derive a large constellation of traits that set these 
people apart from the general population. 

From earliest childhood, people with thin boundaries are perceived as 
“different.” They are regarded as more sensitive than their peers. Thin character 
armor causes them to be more fragile and easily hurt. They are easily empathic, 
but dive into relationships too deeply and quickly. Recipients of their affection 
complain they are unusually close and clinging and thus frequently rejected. 
Experience with their vulnerability teaches them to be wary of entering into 
relationships with others. Adolescence tends to be stormy and difficult. Adult 
relationships—whether sexual, marital, or friendships—also tend to be 
unsettled and variable. Paranoia, as measured by the MMPI, has the highest 
correlation to thin boundaries. One-third will have contemplated or attempted 
suicide. (Hartmann, 1991) 

Experimentation with drugs tends to yield bad trips and is quickly 
abandoned. They are unusually alert to lights, sounds, and sensations. They 
tend to have fluid sexual identities. Bisexuals tend to be overrep-resented in the 
nightmare sufferers’ group and it is rare to find manly men or womanly women. 
They are not rule followers. Either they reject society or society rejects them. 
They are rebels and outsiders. There is a striking tendency for these people to 
find their way into fields involving artistic self-expression: musicians, poets, 
writers, art teachers, etc. Some develop their empathic talents and become 
therapists. Ordinary blue or white collar jobs are rare. 

Hartman believes the predominance of artists results from the fact that thin 
boundaries allow them to experience the world more directly and painfully than 
others. The ability to experience their inner life in a very direct fashion 
contributes to the authenticity of their creations. They become lost in 
daydreaming quite easily and may even experience daymares—a phenomenon 
people with thick boundaries won’t even realize exists. This trait of imaginative 
absorption was predicted to make nightmare sufferers good hypnotic subjects 
and later tests confirmed this. (Hartmann, 1991) Boundary deficits also 
contribute to fluid memories and a fluid time sense. 

Hartmann developed a psychological instrument called the Boundary 
Questionnaire that reliably discriminates this trait. (Hartmann, 1991) Use of it 

makes objective measure of the trait possible and propositions of correlation 
testable and falsifiable. 

The similarity of many abduction experiences to nightmares should be fairly 
obvious. The overarching theme of abduction narratives is powerlessness. This 
is manifest not in the mere sense of capture and involuntary scrutiny, but in the 
extraordinary variety of dramatic intrusions imposed on the abductee. Pain is 
ubiquitous and is reported in nearly every part of the body somewhere in the 
literature—head, neck, chest, back, leg, toes, hand, navel, genitalia. Needles, 
absurdly big at times, are used to penetrate a variety of points including the 
nose, the eye, the navel, penis, anus. Organs have been removed and replaced. 
One body is completely ripped apart and put back together. One abductee had 
her eye scraped with a knife. Some have their limbs pulled sharply, their hair 
pulled, even their heads pulled and squeezed by aliens. Abductees are subjected 
to rape, castration, impregnation, abortion, choking, drowning, freezing, 
profuse bleeding, temporary blinding, hand cramps, being stripped, and having 
their brains scrambled. One is confronted with his personal phobia. 

Abductees have also reported sensations of weakness, of hurtling or 
tumbling through space, of spinning, of being stuck, of being buried alive, and, 
once, of crashing to the ground with a saucer. Most of this is inflicted with no 
clear purpose and seems just plain bizarre. There is often detailing that frankly 
looks impossible. Aliens and abductees both pass though walls; a possible 
symbol of boundarylessness. Eyes are removed from sockets and left hanging 
out on the face for a time; anatomically nonsensical. A hocus pocus motion of 
the hand relieves the pain of a needle thrust into a navel. Needles go through 
the nose and tear into the brain, certain death one would think. Evil alien eyes 
paralyze people and overwhelm their souls. There is out-of-body travel and 
telepathy. And let’s not get started on all the apocalyptic visions, failed 
predictions, and misinformation that has come from abductions. 

Much of this parallels, sometimes precisely, sometimes in a more general 
way, what happens in nightmares. There are the basic childhood fears like 
completely dissolving or being destroyed; fear of mutilation, castration, loss of 
body parts, fear of isolation and abandonment; fear of loss of sustenance and 
love; and an inability to control the body. There are chases, capture, torture, 
imminent catastrophe, wild kinetic sensations, and eerie background scenes. 
Regarding the last, it is especially damning how fog often finds it way into 
abduction experiences, a detail common to horror stories and one seen 
endlessly in science fiction movies and TV programs with a lineage stretching 

back Lovecraft. 

Certain correlative features to abductions could readily be accounted for. So 
called “missing time” could result from a fluid time sense. Forgotten scars are 
reinterpreted due to a fluidity of memory. Dramatic reactions to mundane 
stimuli like lights leading to misinterpretations might reflect stimulus 
sensitivity and paranoia. Good hypnotizability would preferentially yield 
emotionally authentic behavior. When such correlates are used in a diagnostic 
fashion by abductologists, they may be screening away thick-boundaried 
people in favor of people with thin boundaries. 

The likelihood that abductees with such nightmare experiences shared the 
same psychological profile as nightmare sufferers was strongly suggested by 
several points of correspondence between thin boundary traits and an early 
psychological study of abductees. UFOlogists regarded the Slater psychological 
study of nine abductees as an experimentum crucis for the view that abductees 
are victims of real extraterrestrial intrusions. It affirmed not only the normality 
of abductees, but offered a hint of traumatisation in the finding that abductees 
showed a tendency to show distrust and interpersonal caution. Yet this was only 
part of the story. 

Slater found the abductees had rich inner lives, a relatively weak sense of 
identity, particularly a weak sexual identity; vulnerability; and an alertness 
characteristic of both perceptual sophistication and interpersonal caution. 
(Hopkins, 1984) She also volunteered the opinion that her test subjects did not 
represent an ordinary cross-section of the population. She found some were 
“downright eccentric or odd” and that the group as a whole was very 
distinctive, unusual, and interesting. “This last nicely paralleled Hartmann’s 
observation that those of the nightmare group are perceived as “different” from 
“normal” people. Indeed all four of the reported commonalities are 
parsimoniously accounted for by thin boundaries. 

By contrast, Slater had to multiply assumptions to account for weak sexual 
identities—she suggested forgotten involuntary surgical penetrations by aliens 
in childhood might have traumatised them. The uncertainties there are 
threefold: Did her nine subjects actually claim abduction experiences extending 
back to childhood? Should experiences that a person is unaware of affect one’s 
sexual identity? Should surgical experiences per se even weaken sexual 

Also favoring the hypothesis was the unusual proportion of creative artists 
and therapists evident in the abductee population. Virtually anyone can satisfy 

for themselves their ubiquitous presence in abductee literature; Whitley 
Strieber’s award-winning horror fiction and Betty Andreasson’s having won 
prizes in many art contests being prime examples. Hopkins reports many 
mental health professionals among his abductees: two psychiatrists, three PhD 
psychologists, and an unstated number of psychotherapists with Master’s in a 
population of 180 claimants. (Hopkins, 1988) This is demonstrably a hundred 
times greater than one could expect by chance based on government figures. A 
look at Mack’s first book shows eight of its thirteen subjects had artistic and 
therapeutic backgrounds. (Kottmeyer, 1994) 

There has been only one formal test of the hypothesis using Hartmann’s 
Boundary Questionnaire. David Ritchey, as part of a larger investigation into 
abductees being psychologically sensitive, included the questionnaire among 
several test instruments. The results were unambiguous. The average boundary 
score of the abductees was 305, which was thinner than average and consistent 
with the scores of Hartmann’s nightmare sufferers. (Ritchey, 1994) The obvious 
caveat to Ritchey’s study is that it involved only fourteen subjects; a small 
sample, though larger than Slater’s study. 

The main criticism to date of the general proposition has been by Stuart 
Appelle who argues that the test findings of Spanos are not fully consistent with 
the cluster of personality traits predicted. (Appelle, 1995-96). 

The Spanos study was not however limited to abductees with nightmarish 
experiences. Nine of thirty-one subjects with complex UFO experiences felt 
they had positive experiences and fifteen, just under half, rated their experience 
as negative. (Spanos, 1993) This renders application of boundary theory 
problematic. Other studies of the personalities of abductees have not directly 
addressed the boundary issue, but the consistent finding of paranoia scores 
higher than normal on standard MMPI tests points to sensitivities that look 
consistent with the thin boundary proposition. Further testing might resolve the 
issue more clearly in the future. 

—Martin S. Kottmeyer 


Appelle, Stuart. “The Abduction Experience: A Critical Evaluation of Theory and Evidence,” (Journal of 
UFO Studies, 1995/96). 

Hartmann, Ernest. Boundaries of the Mind: A New Psychology of Personality (BasicBooks, 1991). 

_. The Nightmare: The Psychology and Biology of Terrifying Dreams (Basic Books, 1984). 

Hopkins, Budd. “Abductees are ‘Normal’ People,” (International UFO Reporter, July/August 1984). 

_. “UFO Abductions—The Skeleton Key” in MUFON1988 International UFO Symposium 

Proceedings (MUFON, 1988). 

Kottmeyer, Martin. “Testing the Boundaries,” (Bulletin of Anomalous Experience, August 1994). 

Ritchey, David. “Elephantology—The Science of Limiting Perception to a Single Aspect of a Large 
Object, Parts II & III,” (Bulletin of Anomalous Experience, December 1994). 

Spanos, Nicolas, et. al. “Close Encounters: An Examination of UFO Experiences,” (Journal of Abnormal 
Psychology, 1993). 

Breakthrough (HarperCollins, 1995). Whitley Strieber concludes in this book 
that alien visitors compose a large number of familial groups who have become 
a part of the interior life of humans. He bases this conclusion on 139,914 letters 
he received between 1987 and 1994, in the aftermath of his Communion book, 
from persons describing their own alien encounters. These correspondents from 
all over the world gave a multitude of descriptions of their abductors ranging 
from insects and cat people to Greek gods and beams of light. 

—Randall Fitzgerald 

British UFO Research Association (BUFORA) Originating in 1959 as the 
London UFO Research Organization, what was once LUFORO became 
BUFORA in 1964. 

Today BUFORA is a nationwide network of about four hundred people who 
have a dedicated, non-cultist interest in understanding the UFO mystery. Within 
that membership are many active investigators and researchers working with 
the direct claims of witnesses to collate the data necessary to bring that 
understanding nearer. 

A loose federation of U.K. regional UFO groups called the British UFO 
Association was formed in 1962. Over the next two years many of these groups 
decided to amalgamate all their activities under the BUFOA banner; so the 
organization was renamed the British UFO Research Association in 1964. 

Benefits to members include BUFORA’s principal publication, which is the 
BUFORA Bulletin, a bi-monthly magazine of current interest articles. 

The three aims of BUFORA are: 

1. To encourage, promote and conduct unbiased scientific research of 
unidentified flying object (UFO) phenomena throughout the United 

2. To collect and disseminate evidence and data relating to unidentified flying 

3. To coordinate UFO research throughout the United Kingdom and to 
cooperate with others engaged in such research throughout the world 
Research and Investigation Activities. 

In pursuit of its aims, BUFORA supports active investigation and research 
teams. The investigation team carries out on site field investigation of cases, 
whilst the research team is involved in activities such as statistical research and 
technical support activities. 

There are approximately fifty investigators and trainee investigators spread 
around the country. Trainee investigators are expected to work with an 
experienced investigator and to undertake a postal training course. These are 
supplemented by guidance notes. Investigators are expected to work to a Code 
of Practice. 

BUFORA disseminates its findings and updates through several means: 

• A lecture programme. 

• UFO Telephone hotline. 

• Publications. 

• Internet. 

70 High Street 



Kent CT3 1BJ 



Web site: 

Buff Ledge (Vermont) abduction Located on the Vermont side of Lake 
Champlain, north of Burlington, Buff Ledge Camp for girls became the scene 
for a dual-witness UFO abduction episode on August 7, 1968. 

The Encounter 

Just after sunset “Michael Lapp” (a pseudonym), 16, who maintained the 
camp’s waterfront equipment, and “Janet Cornell,” 19, the water-skiing 
instructor, stood together on the end of the dock. Most of the campers and 
counselors were away on a two-day break 

As the two coworkers watched the western sky, a white cigar-shaped object 
appeared over the lake. Before departing, it released three small round objects 

which performed a series of acrobatic maneuvers. Then two of the satellite 
objects accelerated out of sight. 

The remaining UFO headed directly toward the amazed witnesses and 
stopped within about ten feet from the end of the dock. Michael, who retained 
more conscious recall of the whole experience than Janet, described a classic 
“flying saucer,” complete with transparent dome and revolving multicolored 
glowing rim. The object emitted a vibratory hum, he said. 

While the female witness appeared frozen in a trance, her associate reported 
two short entities behind the dome clothed in tight-fitting uniforms. They had 
large heads, big oval eyes, and a small mouth. Michael was told telepathically 
they were from a distant planet and that he would not be harmed. 

Next the craft moved overhead and a brilliant beam of light came on 
underneath, bathing the two in its glow. Michael, and presumably Janet, lost 

When the teens became aware again it was totally dark out, and they could 
hear the voices of campers returning from a swim meet. A tree-covered bluff 
and pavilion partially concealed the scene below on the dock. But Michael said 
two of the swimmers, “Susan” and “Barbara,” rushed down to the top of the 
bluff, perhaps attracted by the UFO’s glow, and must have seen the object at 
that moment as it angled upward and disappeared across the lake. 


Both primary witnesses felt extremely tired afterward and fell asleep in their 
separate quarters. Although Michael remembered the close encounter and the 
entities, Janet apparently recalled only moving lights in the sky. Not wishing to 
traumatize his friend, Michael said he decided not to discuss with her what had 
taken place. The camp closed and the two participants went their separate ways. 

Ten Years Later 

After ten years had passed, the male witness said he had come across Dr. 
Allen Hynek’s name and promptly called the Center for UFO Studies, which 
put him in touch with me. Thus began a five-year investigation into an 
experience—significant for its uncontaminated testimony; the two witnesses 
had never discussed with one another their shared encounter with the UFO. 

During separate hypnosis sessions, not only did Michael fill in his “missing 
time” with an abduction scenario, but so did his female counterpart. 

Similar Accounts Revealed 

There were remarkable similarities between their accounts. Both individuals 
recalled being inside the UFO’s dimly lit interior. Their captors were described 
similarly as having large elongated heads, big eyes, two nasal openings, and a 
mouth-slit. Each abductee had a “guide” who kept in telepathic contact with 
them throughout the experience. While Janet felt herself being probed and 
inspected by strange figures (she was instructed to keep her eyes closed), 
Michael stood nearby with his “guide” and watched the examination. He said 
this included taking blood and skin samples and extracting vaginal fluid 

Michael’s drawing of close-encounter UFO as seen from the dock. Two entities were visible 
through the dome. Glowing plasma-like energy moved around the furrowed rim. Square plates 
covered the UFO on both top and bottom surfaces. 

While two entities conducted the actual examination on Janet, a third figure 
monitored a console below an array of screens. The displays appeared to 
register various parts of the exam. Independent confirmation of this monitoring 
array by both witnesses provided strong evidence for a shared abduction 

Michael’s Journey 

Though Michael had no memory of the tests performed on him during his 
own physical examination, he apparently remained aware through much of the 
encounter, and consequently his overall experience was more detailed. During 
his hypnotic regressions, the male subject spoke of a journey he and his guide 
took through a “mother ship” into which the abduction craft had entered. 

His tour included riding a tube of light across a giant hangar, the placement 
of a helmet on his head which conveyed some sort of imagery to a curved 
screen, and the presentation of a park-like landscape where Janet joined him. 
After this, Michael sensed himself falling through space and then waking up on 
the dock next to his coworker. 

Supporting Witnesses? 

A persistent search turned up three possible supporting witnesses to both the 
UFO’s abduction departure and its final exit from the dock. They were the two 
swimmers “Susan” and “Barbara,” and the camp’s playhouse director “Elaine.” 
Unfortunately, the exact dates of their sightings could not be confirmed. 

Michael’s drawing of one of the aliens 

1 subjected the two abductees to extensive psychological tests, including the 
Psychological Stress Evaluator (voice analysis), and to background character 
checks. Both individuals appeared to be honest and credible. A hoax or some 
sort of shared hallucination was ruled out. 

—Walter N. Webb 

NOTE: For more information, see the full account in Walter Webb’s book 

Encounter at Buff Ledge: A UFO Case History (J. Allen Hynek Center for UFO 
Studies, 1994). 

Bullard, Thomas Eddie (b. 1949). Thomas Eddie Bullard was born in North 
Carolina and educated at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and 
Indiana University, where he received his Ph.D. in Folklore. A lifelong interest 
in UFOs led to a dissertation on UFOs as modern folklore and articles treating 
the same theme in the Journal of American Folklore, Magonia, International 
UFO Reporter , and the Journal of UFO Studies. 

Under sponsorship of the Fund for UFO Research, Dr. Bullard carried out a 
comparative study of abduction reports, UFO Abductions: The Measure of a 
Mystery (1987), and a comparative survey of abduction investigators, The 
Sympathetic Ear (1995). He participated in the Abduction Study Conference 
Held at M.I.T., while his articles on UFO waves and historical UFOlogy appear 
in Jerome Clark’s UFO Encyclopedia (1998). He serves on the boards of the 
Center for UFO Studies and the Fund for UFO Research. 

517 E. University St. #2 
Address: Bloomington, IN 47401 


Thomas Eddie Bullard 

POSITION STATEMENT: There is no question in my mind that people have 
seen strange objects in the sky and have undergone unusual experiences in the 
presence of these objects. I am also convinced that any hard and fast conclusions 
about the nature of these objects is premature. 

Only scientific investigation of reports and a better understanding of the 
witnesses, as well as the interaction between observation and belief or cultural 
expectation, will set conclusions on a solid foundation. Until then 1 will admit 
that some reports seem unlikely to evaporate into any conventional explanation, 
but the human mind is full of surprises, and human ability to err in observation 
appears boundless. All in all the best position to me seems one of speculative 
restraint and investigative vigor. 

—Thomas Eddie Bullard 


Case for the UFO, The (The Citadel Press, 1955). Astronomer Morris K. 
Jessup says in this book that UFOs have been present throughout human history 
and these visitors, operating from bases perhaps on our own Moon, are 
abducting human beings. 

Jessup beat Erich von Daniken by more than a decade in describing how 
megalithic structures worldwide, from the Nazca lines in Peru to the Easter 
Island statues, could be the calling cards of extraterrestrials. He also was the 
first author by fifteen years to describe “Bermuda Triangle” areas where ships 
and planes “vanished without a trace.” 

—Randall Fitzgerald 

Cash-Landrum UFO encounter Three Texans encountered a UFO while 
driving on a dark, lonely road near Huffman, Texas, on December 29, 1980. 
They suffered lifethreatening injuries as a result of the encounter. 

Betty Cash (51), Vickie Landrum (57) and Vickie’s grandson Colby (7), 
were driving on the Cleveland-Huffman Road on the way to their homes in 
Dayton, Texas, when they spotted the UFO. It was about 9 p.m. and the road 
was deserted. The first indication of something unusual was the presence of a 
very intense light several miles ahead just above the pine trees. Betty remarked 
about the unusual brightness, but temporarily lost sight of it due to the many 
trees along the road. 

Suddenly, hovering over the road only a short distance ahead was an 
enormous diamond-shaped object. “It was like a diamond of fire,” Vickie said. 
The glow was so intense they could barely stand to look at it. Vickie at first 
thought it was the fulfillment of biblical prophecy and expected Jesus to come 
out of the fire in the sky. 

In addition to lighting up the whole area like daytime, the UFO periodically 
belched flames downward. Fearing they would be burned alive, Betty stopped 
her 1980 Oldsmobile Cutlass without leaving the road. They all got out of the 

car to escape the heat and to get a better took at the UFO. Colby was terrified 
and dove back into the car, begging his grandma to get back in, too. Vickie 
quickly reentered the car and comforted Colby. 

illustration Courtesy of John Schuessler 

Artist’s depiction of the UFO 

Betty stood momentarily by the driver’s door and then walked forward to the 
front of the car. After much pleading by Vickie, Betty finally returned to the 
car; but the door handle was so hot he had to use her leather coat as a hot pad to 
open the door. Although the winter night air was only about 40 degrees, the 
heat from the UFO caused the witnesses to sweat and feel so uncomfortable 
that they turned on the car’s air conditioner. 

The sound from the UFO would increase each time it shot flames 
downward, but the intense glow never changed. In addition, the threesome 
heard an irregular beeping sound throughout the encounter. 

Finally, the flames stopped and the object rose to the southwest and was lost 
from sight. Vickie and Colby commented that they could also see several 
helicopters and they seemed to be following the UFO. Betty started the car and 
headed for Dayton. 

Betty was outside the car and directly exposed to emanations from the UFO 
for five to ten minutes. Vickie was outside for a much shorter time and Colby 
was exposed for only a minute or so. 

As Betty raced homeward bound, she turned right on to highway FM-2100. 
Five minutes had lapsed since the encounter and just ahead of the car they 
could see the UFO and a large number of helicopters. “The sky was full of 

helicopters,” Betty said. Some were near the object and others lagged behind. 
Betty pulled the car to the side of the road and waited for the entourage to get 
out of the way. It was then, they counted more than twenty helicopters, many of 
them with twin rotors on top. 

December 29 th was a turning point in their lives. Betty, an unusually 
energetic woman, had plans to open a new restaurant the following week. 

The sickness that followed the incident ruined those plans. Betty did not 
know it, but she would never work again. For the next four days, Betty’s health 
degenerated. Red blotches on her skin became blisters of clear fluid, her eyes 
swelled closed, and she was weak from dehydration. At the same time Vickie 
and Colby were experiencing similar ills, but to a slightly lesser extent than 

Betty was hospitalized for twelve days, went home briefly, but returned to 
the hospital for another fifteen days. The blisters caused a significant amount of 
skin loss and by the end of the third week she was losing a significant amount 
of her hair. Betty was also suffering from diarrhea, stomach distress, and severe 

Vickie treated Colby and herself with home remedies. She also lost some 
hair, suffered some eye-damage, had diarrhea, stomach distress, and headaches. 
Colby’s maladies were similar. 

Summary of Medical Effects 







Acute Photophthalmia 



Stomach pains 

Stomach pains 

Stomach pains 













Excessive hair loss 

Hair loss 

Minor hair loss 

Fingernail damage 

Fingernail damage 

Tooth decay 

Skin ulceration 

Skin ulceration 

Skin nodules 


Low red cell count 

Facial paralysis 

Photo Courtesy of John Schuessler 

Vickie, Betty, and Colby 

Although others also witnessed the UFO and the helicopter activity that 
same evening, various military agencies denied participating in the incident. 
With the help of Senators Bentsen and Towers, a meeting was arranged with 
U.S. Air Force attorneys at Bergstrom Air Force Base to get to the bottom of 
the situation. Other than a suggestion that Betty and Vickie might want to file a 
claim against the U.S. government, nothing else came from the meeting. 

With the assistance of private attorney Peter Gersten, they did file a claim 
against the government for damages, which was denied. Then they filed for 
damages in the U.S. District Court in Houston, Texas. After months of activity 
in the discovery process, the judge finally refused to hear the case and their 
hopes of medical or any other kind of help were squashed. 

Neither Betty nor Vickie ever worked again. Betty lost her businesses and 
moved to Alabama, where her family could care for her. She was hospitalized 
several times each year and many of those visits were in the Intensive Care 
Unit. Betty’s life ended on December 29, 1998, exactly 18 years after the UFO 
encounter. By the fifteenth anniversary of the event, Vickie’s health had slowly 

recovered. After several years, Colby overcame the physical and emotional 
impact of the event and became a productive adult. 

Betty and Vickie requested that the investigators of this case make it known 
as broadly as possible, so that others who might experience the same thing in 
the future would know what to expect. 

—John F. Schuessler 

For more information, see John Schuessler’s book, The Cash-Landrum UFO 
Incident (1998), available from MUFON (the Mutual UFO Network, P.O. Box 
369, Morrison, CO 80465 U.S.A.). 

categories of UFO reports The following classification system is now the 
most widely used among UFOlogists and popular journalists around the world: 

Relatively Distant Sightings 

1) Nocturnal Lights. These are sightings of well-defined lights in the night sky 
whose appearance and/or motions are not explainable in terms of conventional 
light sources. The lights appear most often as red, orange, or white. They 
represent the largest group of UFO reports. 

2) Daylight Disks. Daytime sightings are generally of oval or disk-shaped 
metallic-looking objects. They can appear high in the sky or close to the ground 
and are often reported to hover. They can seem to disappear with astounding 

3) Radar/Visuals. Of special significance are unidentified “blips” on radar 
screens that coincide with—and confirm—simultaneous visual sightings by the 
same or other witness(es). 

Relatively Close Sightings 
(within 200 yards) 

1) Close Encounters of the First Kind (CE-I). Though the witness observes a 
UFO nearby, there appears to be no interaction with either the witness or the 

2) Close Encounters of the Second Kind (CE-II). The encounters include 
details of interaction between the UFO and the environment, which may vary 

from interference with car ignition systems and electronic gear to imprints or 
bums on the ground and physical effects on plants, animals, and humans. 

3) Close Encounters of the Third Kind (CE-III). In this category, occupants 
from a UFO (entities of more or less humanlike appearance now referred to as 
“humanoids,” or nonhuman creatures) have been reported. There is usually no 
direct contact or communication with the witness, but there have been some 
reports, increasing in recent years, of incidents involving very close contact with, 
and even temporary detainment of, the witness(es). 

Since Dr. Hynek’s death in 1986, two more categories of close encounters 
have entered the UFO lexicon: 

4) Close Encounters of the Fourth Kind (CE-IV). This category makes the 
jump from mere sightings to kidnappings or abductions. In these cases, the UFO- 
related entities take the witness (or abductee) to another place, either mentally or 

5) Close Encounters of the Fifth Kind (CE-V). This category involves human- 
initiated contact with a UFO and/or its occupants. In these cases, the witness (or 
contactee) deliberately establishes contact with the UFO—via signaling or 
mental telepathy—and receives a like response. 

—J. Allen Hynek & Ronald D. Story 

Chalker, William C. (b. 1952). Bill Chalker is one of Australia’s most 
prominent UFO researchers and has written extensively on the subject. 

William Chalker 

Born in Grafton, New South Wales (NSW), Australia, Mr. Chalker was 
educated at the University of New England, graduating with an Honours 
Science Degree (B.Sc. Hons.) with majors in chemistry and mathematics. Since 
1975 he has worked as an industrial chemist, laboratory manager, and quality 
manager. He is also a contributing editor for the International UFO Reporter 
and coordinates the NSW UFO Investigation Centre (UFOIC). 

Chalker was the Australian representative for the Aerial Phenomena 
Research Organization (APRO) from 1978 to 1986 and NSW state 
representative for the Mutual UFO Network (MUFON) from 1976 to 1993. 

His first book, The OZ Files: the Australian UFO Story, was published in 


P. O. Box W42 


West Pennant Hills 
NSW, 2125, Australia 


POSITION STATEMENT: Although the UFO problem has been under scrutiny 
for several decades, only the last few years have seen any real major advances in 
the study of the subject. It is fast becoming a serious area of scientific study, and 
only recently has it started moving beyond the area of casual inspection. Even 
though civilian groups have conducted an often remarkable documentation 
program during the past few decades, only in the past few years has the UFO 
subject been worthy of legitimate scientific study. 

Clandestine inquiry has been replaced by serious open inquiry, and a solid 
data base has been established. It is this documented data that science should 
seriously examine. 

While the present data does not support any one clear hypothesis of origin 
and nature of the UFO, it certainly indicates without question the existence of a 
new empirical phenomenon. 

Localized flaps that are ongoing can bring UFO research under the scrutiny 
of direct experimentation, which can provide us with the repeatable phenomena 
that legitimate science accepts. Personal experience has shown that such 
research activity yields considerable data, and it is this sort of data that will 
thrust UFOs into the mainstream of scientific inquiry. 

—William C. Chalker 

channeling Considered to be a form of interdimensional communication in 
which a non-physical intelligent being—not necessarily but often 
extraterrestrial—speaks through a human being in some form of trance. 
Channeling is one form of telepathy, which is not a new phenomenon, although 
it does figure prominently in modern New Age literature. Instances of inspired 
revelation and spiritual communication can be found in the Christian Bible, as 
well as in the scriptures of almost all human religions, globally and historically. 

—Scott Mandelker 

Chariots of the Gods? (Econ-Verlag, 1968). Swiss hotelier Erich von 
Daniken, in this, his first and most widely circulated (reportedly 40 million 
copies) of many books on the ancient astronaut theme, seizes upon every 
megalith, every seemingly technological vestige of lost civilizations, practically 
every known myth or religious tale that mentions gods from heavens, to make a 
case that conventional theories of history and archaeology cannot explain the 
evolution of human intelligence. Though he doesn’t know who they were, or 
where they came from in space, those “gods of the distant past” who were 
extraterrestrial visitors “annihilated part of mankind” to produce Homo 
Sapiens. He gives partial credit for his findings to a rediscovery of “knowledge 
that was hidden in the libraries of secret societies,” groups he doesn’t name or 
mention again beyond the introduction. 

—Randall Fitzgerald 

chupacabras The anomalous entity known as el chupacabras —the 
“Goatsucker”—has been described by witnesses as standing between four and 

five feet tall and covered in greenish brown or blackish gray fur, with spindly 
arms ending in claws, powerful hind legs enabling it to jump over fences, a thin 
membrane under its arms that have been described as “wings,” and glowing red 
eyes. A proboscis emanating from the creature’s mouth, allegedly employed to 
suck its victims’ blood, has also been reported. 

Artist’s impression of el chupacabras , the “goatsucker” 

Mutilations had been reported on the island of Puerto Rico since the 1970s 
with the depredations of the notorious “Moca Vampire,” but it was not until 
March 1995 when the strange animal mutilations would replay themselves in a 
way that would attract media attention to the locality of Saltos Cabra outside 
Orocovis, Puerto Rico. A number of farm animals had turned up dead on the 
property of Enrique Barreto. 

Researchers found strange three-toed footprints covering the ground and 
ruled out an attack by a feral dog or cat, since canines and felines have four 
toes. Further analysis proved there was an 18-inch distance between footprints, 
suggesting that whatever creature they belonged to was bipedal rather than 
quadrupedal. Its weight was estimated at between 120 and 140 pounds. 

In August 1995, Madelyne Tolentino of the coastal town of Canovanas 
would have the distinction of being one of the first witnesses to the creature. 
Ms. Tolentino became aware that a strange creature was approaching the house 
at a moderate pace, allowing her to take a good, long look at the aberration. 
Whatever it was stood four feet tall and had a pelt covered in a mixture of 
colors ranging from brown to black and ashen gray, as if it had been burned. 

On September 29, 1995, the creature killed an assortment of rabbits, guinea 
hens, and chickens at a farm in Guaynabo, P.R. A week later eyewitnesses 
claimed to have seen a beast “hairy like a bear” in Canovanas again. On 

October 29 th , Canovanas mayor Jose “Chemo” Soto led a series of nightly hunts 
for the creature, equipping his posse with nets, tranquilizing dart guns, and 
other non-lethal means. It represented the first response against the 
bloodsucking visitor from anyone in an official capacity. The balance of 1995 
was filled with senseless animal deaths and a choking feeling of terror among 
rural residents. 

A case could perhaps be made for paying little attention to the chupacabras 
if it had remained circumscribed to the island of Puerto Rico. But in February 
1996, the chupacabras killed forty-two animals in Miami, Florida. 
Eyewitnesses in northwestern Miami reported seeing a creature walking erect 
and covered with thick matted hair at the scene of the attacks. The “Florida leg” 
of aberrant predatory activity ran from February through July 1996. 

Mexico’s turn would soon be next: in May 1996, Teodora Ayala Reyes, a 
resident of the village of Alfonso Genaro Calderon in Sinaloa, became the 
chupacabras’ first human victim, presenting what appeared to be “burn marks” 
on her back, exactly where the creature had clawed her. The seaside village was 
further wrenched out of obscurity after reports of a colossal bat-like creature 
stalking the area became widespread. All manner of farm animals were being 
found dead by their owners. 

Reports soon followed from Guatemala, Costa Rica, Honduras and as far 
south as the Amazon Basin. Guatemalan farmer Vicente Sosa thought he had 
seen a black dog with a long tail that suddenly increased in size, becoming a 
red-eyed beast with enormous eyes. Researchers visited the site of a 
chupacabras attack on chicken coops in the Estanzuela region, and remarked on 
the high radioactivity readings found in the area. 

The southern U.S. soon produced its very own chupacabras sightings. In 
mid-May 1996, Sylvia Ybarra went out to her backyard in the Texas town of 
Donna only to find that her pet goat had been killed by three inflamed puncture 
wounds to its throat. The animal had been felled near its shed. 

The events surrounding the chupacabras’ initial eruption into popular 
awareness are now many years behind us, allowing for a less heated 
atmosphere in which to debate its origin and even its existence. Skeptics 
refused to look at the evidence, offering the same tired explanations for the 
mutilations (feral dogs, apes, Satanists), but never explaining the face-to-face 
encounters with humans or the odd radiation signatures found in Puerto Rico 
and Central America. 

—Scott Corrales 

Clark, Jerome (b. 1946). Jerome Clark has been active in UFOlogy since the 
early 1960s and is a much-published writer on UFO and Fortean subjects. He is 
also a songwriter (with Robin and Linda Williams) whose compositions have 
been recorded by Emmylou Harris, Mary Chapin Carpenter, Tom T. Hall, and 
other country, folk, and bluegrass artists. He has a wide range of historical, 
cultural, and literary interests. 

Born in Canby, Minnesota, Clark attended South Dakota State University 
(Brookings) and Moorhead State University (Minnesota), majoring in English 
and political science. Between 1976 and 1989 he was an editor of Fate 
magazine. Since 1985 he has edited the International UFO Reporter, the 
magazine of the J. Allen Hynek Center for UFO Studies. He is the author of 
two editions of The UFO Encyclopedia. The first was published in three 
volumes between 1990 and 1996. The UFO Encyclopedia: The Phenomenon 
from the Beginning, the second edition, appeared in two volumes in 1998. Clark 
has won a dozen literary awards for his writings. In 1992 he won the Isabel L. 
Davis award, bestowed by the Fund for UFO Research, for his contributions to 
rationality in UFO study. He has written some fifteen books. 

In 1989, after years in the Chicago area, he moved back to his hometown, 
where he now lives and works. 

612 N. Oscar Ave. 

Address: Canby, MN 56220 



POSITION STATEMENT: After a lifetime in this subject, I have concluded that 
the extraterrestrial hypothesis is one reasonable tentative approach to putting the 
best-documented and most puzzling UFO reports into a scientifically defensible 
conceptual framework. By such reports I mean those with credible multiple or 
independent witnesses, instrumented observations, and physical evidence. 

In this context the most crucial cases are not the most exotic or scary, but 
those with which actual science can be accomplished—usually close 
encounters of the second kind. In that sense, a single well-investigated landing- 
trace case is worth a thousand intriguing but evidentially empty abduction 

I am also convinced that besides what might be called the “event 
phenomenon,” there is an “experience phenomenon” which bears only a 
superficial relationship to the former. We lack a good vocabulary for, or even 
any real understanding of, a class of human experience—call it “visionary” for 

want of a better word—in which ostensibly supernatural entities are 
encountered. All we know is that such experiences are not objectively “real” in 
any conventional sense of the term; they just seem that way, and vividly so, to 
those who undergo them, and thus, since they are unlike ordinary 
hallucinations, they are genuinely mysterious. They mirror the cultural 
moment’s notion of what a “supernatural experience” might be; thus, today the 
entities are extraterrestrials, whereas once they were fairies or demons or 

It is entirely likely, in my opinion, that daylight disks tracked on radar and 
exotic entity encounters experienced by individuals are two entirely separate, 
unrelated classes of phenomena. The first involves an event (it can be 
demonstrated that it happened in the world), and the second involves an 
experience (which can never be conclusively shown to have happened in the 

1 am in no way arguing for a paranormal hypothesis here. All 1 am saying is 
that certain sorts of human experiences are only dimly understood, if that; and 
that—where the UFO phenomenon is concerned—some of these contribute to 
the noise around the signal, which may be the intrusion of somebody else’s 
technology into our planetspace. 

—Jerome Clark 

Clear Intent (Prentice-Hall, 1984). Lawrence Fawcett and Barry Greenwood 
rely on 3,000 pages of previously classified documents, released under the 
Freedom of Information Act by eight military and civilian intelligence 
agencies, to construct a historical pattern of federal government involvement in 
UFO investigations. They also provide the first American version of an incident 
which occurred in 1980 at the Bentwaters Air Force Base in England involving 
an alleged night landing by a UFO witnessed by numerous U.S. Air Force 
security personnel. 

—Randall Fitzgerald 

Close Encounters of the Third Kind (Columbia Pictures, 1977; written and 
directed by Steven Spielberg.) A trend-setting UFO classic, starring Richard 
Dreyfuss, Melinda Dillon, Francois Truffaut, and Teri Garr. 

More than a classic, Spielberg’s monumental film is an exuberant rendering 
of contact with extraterrestrial visitors. It achieves an ingenious blend of 
“human interest” and sense of wonder that few can match. As reviewer Paul 

Clemens put it: “Close quite possibly the most important film 
of our time. The most important because it encompasses all. The entire human 
race, our planet, our universe...our destiny.” 

In the story, the protagonist (Roy Neary, played by Richard Dreyfuss) is 
confronted with the greatest mystery—culminating in the greatest imagined 
event—of our time, during the course of his mundane duties as a power 
company repairman. It turns out Neary’s quest (instilled telepathically, it seems, 
by the aliens) proceeds in parallel with a secret group of scientific and military 
types, who are also hot on the UFO trail. 

The film represents perfectly the symbiotic relationship between alleged 
science fact and science fiction. Spielberg even retained Dr. J. Allen Hynek 
(whose coined phrase served as the movie’s title) as a technical advisor on the 
film to authentic essential “facts” of UFO lore. Then, the film later had an 
apparent effect on what kind of “real” UFO-aliens were reported. 

It reshaped reports of short, big-headed aliens in two demonstrable ways: (1) 
Before the film, aliens with long, thin necks were nonexistent. After it, they 
became common. (2) Before the film, the eyes were of a generally human 
arrangement of pupil, iris, and white. Afterwards, they generally became totally 
black. The eyes tended to be more tilted and larger than before. 

Though it may be impossible to prove, the “Spielberg effect” is as real as 
any alien ever reported. 

—Martin S. Kottmeyer 
& Ronald D. Story 


Close Encounters of the Third Kind ’78 magazine (Warren Publishing, 1977). 

Clute, John, andNicholls, Peter. The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction (St. Martin’s/Griffin, 1993; 1995). 
Spielberg, Steven. Close Encounters of the Third Kind (Dell Books, 1977). 

Colony: Earth (Stein & Day, 1974). Richard Mooney proposes that humans 
arrived on Earth as colonists escaping the wreckage of a greater culture 
elsewhere in the galaxy. But another disaster befell this species in the form of 
the flood described in the Bible. Stonehenge, the pyramids of Egypt, and other 
megalithic structures were built to protect the ruling classes from future 
cataclysms and to determine the new orbital position of the planet and length of 
the year once the flood waters receded. 

—Randall Fitzgerald 

Coming of the Saucers, The (privately published by Ray Palmer, 1952). 
Pilot Kenneth Arnold, assisted by publisher Ray Palmer, recount Arnold’s 1947 
UFO sighting, which made worldwide headlines. The book includes Palmer’s 
subsequent investigation of other similar reports. Arnold had described the nine 
bright objects he spotted while flying near Mount Rainier as fluttering in 
formation, silver wings without fuselages, moving “like a saucer would if you 
skipped it across the water.” Newspaper reporters took that statement and 
turned it into “flying saucers,” creating a shape and an observational standard 
against which all future UFO reports would be compared. 

—Randall Fitzgerald 

Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the 
Paranormal (CSICOP) CSICOP is a leading independent organization of 
scientists and scholars formed in 1976 and active ever since in critically 
examining paranormal and fringe-science claims (including those concerning 
UFOs and alien contact) from a scientific point of view. It is based at the Center 
for Inquiry in Amherst, New York, and has been headed since its inception by 
founding chairman Paul Kurtz, professor emeritus of philosophy at the State 
University of New York at Buffalo. CSICOP’s more general mission is to 
promote science and scientific inquiry, critical thinking, science education, and 
reason. It publishes the Skeptical Inquirer (subtitled “The Magazine for Science 
and Reason”), a bimonthly journal that presents evaluative and investigative 
articles and information and perspective on a wide range of topics. Authors 
include scientists, scholars, and investigators worldwide; the need not be 
associated with CSICOP. It also holds national and international conferences, 
assists news media with finding scientific sources and scientifically credible 
information, sponsors workshops on skepticism, puts out a quarterly printed 
newsletter, disseminates electronic newsletters, and so on. CSICOP has been 
strongly critical of those who fail to use scientific rigor in investigating claims 
and of media that present credulous, unskeptical accounts of UFO claims and 
other unproved assertions about alien contact. Many scientists, writers, and 
investigators interested in extraterrestrial intelligence and active in examining 
claims of UFOs and alien contact have been associated with the CSICOP over 
the years, including astronomers Carl Sagan, George Abell, David Morrison, 
Alan Hale, and Edwin Krupp, UFO investigators Philip J. Klass, Robert 
Sheaffer, and James Oberg (Klass is chairman of CSICOP’s UFO 
subcommittee), writers Isaac Asimov and Martin Gardner, and many physicists, 

plus a number of psychologists and social scientists (among them Robert A. 
Baker, Susan Blackmore, and Robert Bartholomew) interested in the 
psychological and sociological aspects of these controversies. Robert Sheaffer 
frequently critically comments on the most recent bizarre claims about aliens 
and UFOs in his “Psychic Vibrations” Skeptical Inquirer column. 

Noteworthy investigative articles published in SI over the years include 
Klass’s series demonstrating that the Majestic-12 documents are probably hoax 
documents, David E. Thomas’s reports on the actual, very earthly origin of the 
1947 Roswell “crashed saucer” debris (a Project Mogul multiple-balloon 
launch), and investigations into other claims and hoaxes surrounding Roswell. 
Forty of these articles were collected recently in a book, The UFO Invasion 
(Prometheus, 1997). 

—Kendrick Frazier 

P.O. Box 703 

Address: Amherst, NY 14226 


Web site: 

Communication with Extraterrestrial Intelligence (The MIT Press, 1973) 
edited by Carl Sagan. In 1971 more than fifty American and Russian scientists 
and academicians met at a conference to debate the prospects for 
communicating with other life in the universe. Numerous unconventional 
theories for the evolution of intelligent life were offered: that life can exist at 
the level of elementary particles; that life can exist on planetary systems 
without suns; that comets could be a home for technological civilizations, and 
so we should be aiming our radio telescopes at both comets and stars. 

—Randall Fitzgerald 

Communion (William Morrow, 1987). Horror fiction novelist Whitley Strieber 
captapulted himself onto the top of the New York Times bestseller list with this 
book describing how he used hypnosis to uncover memories of having been 
abducted by aliens from childhood through adulthood. 

According to Strieber abductions are connected to the number three and a 
triangular shape, because the visitors often appear in threes wearing triangular 
shapes or devices. He ends the book on a cautionary note: “I cannot say, in all 
truth, that I am certain the visitors are present as entities entirely independent of 
their observers.” 

Randall Fitzgerald 

Communion Foundation The Communion Foundation was founded as a 
private foundation by Whitley and Anne Strieber in 1988. It remains a private 
foundation, supported only by contributions from the Striebers. 

By 1997, with the surgical removal of unexplained objects from the bodies 
of close encounter witnesses, innovations in memory research, and advances in 
video recording technology it has become clear that science now has the tools 
to make some clear determinations about the nature of both the close encounter 
experience and UFOs. 

The Foundation does not have any bias for or against the notion that contact 
with a nonhuman intelligence may be under way. Its bias is toward objectivity 
and its goal is to answer the questions correctly. 

However, a powerful prejudice has evolved within the culture of science 
against any research into this area at all. Without clear direction and a credible 
source of funding, genuine scientific progress will be impossible. The 
Foundation intends to work against this prejudice by educating scientists in the 
fact that there is a serious problem to be solved, there are interesting and useful 
discoveries to be made, and an obligation to replace public confusion with 
objective knowledge. 

Mission Statement 

It is the mission of the Communion Foundation to provide funding to 
established scientific institutions and credentialed professionals within the 
scientific and academic communities to accomplish the following objectives: 

1. To engage in research into brain function associated with memory, in order 
to determine the degree to which specific memories refer to experiences 
that the subject perceived as a physical event. 

2. To carry out sequential studies of close encounter witnesses in order to 
determine their profile within social and population groups. 

3. To study the tens of thousands of witness narratives archived by the 
foundation in the past ten years in order to construct a clear and correct 
picture of the close encounter phenomenon. This is expected to be vastly 
different from current preconceptions. 

4. To engage in the removal and examination of unknown objects from the 

bodies of close encounter witnesses and, if possible, a sample of subjects 
displaying the presence of such objects but reporting no close encounter 

5. To encourage and facilitate research into new propulsion technologies 
intended to replace heat, chemical reaction and atomic propulsion in order 
to provide mankind with an efficient means of expanding into the solar 
system and the farther cosmos on as broad a scale as possible. 

5928 Broadway 

Address: San Antonio, TX 78209 


Web site: 

Condon Study See University of Colorado UFO Project. 

Confederation of Planets in Service to the Infinite Creator A term used 
in classic channeled text, The RA Material (a.k.a. The Law of One series), as 
well as other channeled sources, beginning with the 1950s contactees. The term 
denotes an intergalactic collective of benevolently-oriented extraterrestrial 
races (comparable to the “Ashtar Command”), which aids human evolution on 
Earth, as the source for all “positively-oriented” ET contacts throughout the 
ages. It can be assumed this group goes by many different names; but 
regardless of name, it points to a unified association of ET races in our portion 
of the galaxy, serving to assist the development of consciousness. Many 
spiritually oriented teachers also believe that Earth will join this collective in 
the near future. 

—Scott Mandelker 

Contactees Shortly after the influx of UFO sightings in the early 1950s came a 
new phase of saucerism: the emergence of the “contactees.” Suddenly, it 
seemed, the Space People who piloted the heretofore unidentified craft were 
now introducing themselves to a select group of individuals, chosen, or self- 
appointed, to spread the wisdom of the “Space Brothers” to all mankind. 

The Space Brothers came from Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune, 
“Clarion,” and even from the Earth in times gone by. The contactee stories were 
deeply rooted in a strong religious tradition. More accurately, they were 
mystical “New Agers” who embraced the “mystery” religions of the East 
(especially Hinduism) as well as the Messianic traditions of the West. They 
were also Utopians. 

The Space People were described as idealized humans from idyllic societies 

whose message was one of love and peace. Obviously inspired by Cold War 
tensions and the resulting paranoia, the contactees were the “chosen ones” 
selected by the Space People to warn mankind of its folly. 

Among UFOlogists, the contactees were seen as distinct from witnesses 
merely reporting UFO occupants and UFO “kidnap” victims known as 
“abductees.” The typical occupant report involved a chance encounter in which 
the witness would just happen upon a landed craft and entities associated with 
it. Although this is sometimes the claim made by contactees concerning their 
initial encounter, once contact is made there is usually a long series of 
continued encounters that are planned rather than accidental. Furthermore, 
there are usually specially arranged meetings for instructional purposes. In 
these meetings, the Space People benevolently impart their secret, cosmic 
knowledge—and most importantly, “Cosmic Laws”—to the chosen ones. As 
such they become initiates and assume their mission on Earth, which is to 
promote cosmic awareness—sometimes by spearheading new religions. 

In recent years “abductees” have begun to serve as messengers for the same 
spiritual beliefs that were formerly associated with the contactees—hence 
blurring a sharp distinction that once existed. 

—Ronald D. Story 

Corrales, Scott (b. 1963). Scott Corrales is a writer and translator of UFO and 
paranormal subjects dealing with Latin America and Spain. His work has 
appeared in magazines in the U.S., U.K., Japan, Spain, and Italy. Corrales is 
also the author of Chupacabras and Other Mysteries (Greenleaf, 1997), 
Flashpoint: High Strangeness in Puerto Rico (Amarna, 1998) and Forbidden 
Mexico (1999). He lives in Pennsylvania, where he edits Inexplicata: The 
Journal of Hispanic Ufology. 

P.O. Box 228, 

Address: Derrick City, PA 16727 



Web Site: 

POSITION STATEMENT: The UFO phenomenon is undoubtedly real and 
represents one of humanity’s greatest concerns, yet one that it has steadily 
chosen to ignore over the years, largely out of complacency. 

In my opinion, the UFO phenomenon is interdimensional in origin, with 
“interdimensional” being understood as another level or plane of existence 
coequal to our own that serves as the home base of the UFO phenomenon and 

perhaps many others. 

Whether the UFO and its attendant phenomena manifest in our own reality 
by chance or design cannot be ascertained, but the sheer number of sightings 
and encounters with nonhuman entities leads me to think that their visits have 
always been deliberate. 

Curiously enough, humanity has always been in contact with these entities, 
which appear under a number of names and identities, but has only recently 
come to identify them as “UFO occupants,” “aliens,” “ultraterrestrials,” etc. 

General awareness of this fact would perhaps serve to heal the breach 
between the spiritual and the physical that has always existed in Western 
society, particularly since the rise of Scientism. 

—Scott Corrales 

Cosmic Consciousness This term was coined by the Canadian psychiatrist 
Richard Maurice Bucke, in 1899, to denote a higher level of spiritual 
awareness. “The prime characteristic of Cosmic Consciousness is, as its name 
implies, a consciousness of the cosmos, that is, of the life and order of the 
universe,” Bucke wrote. “In the evolution of the human mind simple 
consciousness was first produced; then self-consciousness; and lastly...Cosmic 
Consciousness.” (Bucke, 1901) 

This theoretical model of human awareness emphasizes those changes in 
human consciousness that occur as a result of UFO encounters, and the 
personal and social transformations that develop around the meaning and 
significance of UFO experiences. This model also contains the minor 
hypothesis that UFO investigators are themselves UFO contactees. 

This model is based on the work of Teilhard de Chardin, Julian Huxley, and 
the emerging theories of a holigraphic universe. (Ferguson, 1977; Wilbur, 

Ferguson quotes Ilya Prigogine with regard to social and cultural 
transformations: “Cultures are ‘perhaps the most coherent and strangest of 
dissipative structures.’ Some innovations succeed, but others are suppressed by 
the surrounding ‘medium,’ the dominant society. A critical number of advocates 
of change can create a ‘preferential direction’ like the ordering of a crystal or a 
magnet organizes the whole.” (Ferguson, 1979) 

Prigogine’s theory of cultural transformations may provide theoretical 
support for empirical evidence which has been obtained for the hypothesis of 
the “1% Effect”: 1 percent of persons in society, practicing daily meditation, 

can significantly lower levels of crime, sickness, accident rates, etc.; they can 
significantly increase the conditions for an ideal society (Zimmerman, 1979); 
and they can reduce significantly the crime rates in an urban area. (Arons and 
Arons, 1981) 

The UFO experience may be hypothesized as a program to increase the level 
of awareness and spiritual knowledge through the individual contactee. For 
example: A French physician, Dr. “X” experienced “healing” as a result of his 
UFO observation. (Michel, 1979) A 73-year-old Argentine gaucho, Ventura 
Maceiras, suddenly gained more philosophical and scientific knowledge after 
his UFO experience. (Romaniuk, 1973) A young woman, Betty Andreasson, 
with a fundamentalist religious faith, encountered humanoids whose food is 
“knowledge tried by fire.” (Fowler, 1979) 

Each of these UFO-related experiences seemed to be based on the views of 
reality that were held by the observer/experiencer, but each of these experiences 
apparently extended their views of reality, as well. In a holographic universe, a 
sophisticated observer can obtain many views of each hologram, and yet each 
“space-time” event contains all of the elements of the larger order of reality. 

So, each UFO experience can be hypothesized as a separate “space-time” 
display, and yet each UFO display can be viewed as a “lens” that allows the 
observer to gain a larger display: a glimpse of the universe, or Cosmic 
Consciousness Conditioning. (Sprinkle, 1976a) 

UFO Contactee Experiences 

In the opinion of the writer, the asinine, bizarre, and crazy aspects of 
UFO/alien activity can be hypothesized as the ABC’s of a Cosmic 
Consciousness Conditioning (CCC) program: to change humans from Planetary 
Persons to Cosmic Citizens. 

This CCC hypothesis may be wrong; certainly it is difficult to test. However, 
it is appropriate to explore, because many UFO contactees claim that it is the 
basis for their experiences and for the direction of their lives. So, we can learn 
something about the psychology and the sociology of UFO experiences, even if 
the claims of UFO contactees cannot be substantiated by current traditional 
scientific investigations. 

Since 1980, a group of interested persons in Laramie, Wyoming, have 
conducted the Rocky Mountain Conference on UFO Investigation. The main 
purpose of the “Contactee Conference,” as it is also called, is to provide a 

forum for private and/or public presentations by UFO contactees and UFO 
investigators, so they can become acquainted and share information. 

UFO contactees and UFO investigators are often suspicious of one another, 
in the same way that “mystics” and “skeptics” are often suspicious of one 
another and drawn together by their mutual need for one another! Some of us 
who participate in the Contactee Conference view ourselves as both UFO 
investigators and UFO contactees. 

We are willing to discuss our UFO experiences as well as our investigations. 
The writer views himself as biased in at least two ways: (1) As a “contactee,” 
who has described his UFO encounters of 1949 and 1956, and his 1980 
recollection (or fantasy or impression) of a fifth grade experience on board a 
space craft, with a tall man who said: “Leo, learn to read and write well; when 
you grow up, you can help other people learn more about their purpose in life.” 
(2) As a UFO investigator who has talked with hundreds of UFO witnesses, 
read thousands of reports, and spent many hours discussing various aspects of 
UFO experiences with other investigators and contactees, including hypnotic 
sessions with more than 500 UFO abductees. These biases, or course, influence 
the writer—positively and negatively—in his UFO investigations. However, 
these biases do not negate the UFO contactee phenomenon. 

As reported in the 1981 Proceedings of the Rocky Mountain Conference on 
UFO Investigation, the writer has worked with many persons who describe in 
hypnotic sessions their memories or impressions of abductions by UFO 
occupants or “UFOLKS.” 

These persons often express the fear of being crazy, or being ridiculed by 
relatives, friends, or neighbors. But they usually express relief upon learning 
that other participants have reported similar events: strange dreams, 
physiological symptoms such as bodily marks, poltergeist activity, apparitions, 
electromagnetic anomalies, and “mental messages” from entities who claim to 
come from outer space. 

Of course, many investigators express doubts about the use of hypnotic 
procedures for the evaluation of UFO experiences (e.g., Hendry, 1979; 
Lawson, 1976). However, the exploration of “loss of time” experiences, or 
amnesic periods during UFO sightings, can be enhanced. Later, perhaps, other 
evidence can be obtained which can be used to support, or refute, the 
information obtained in hypnotic sessions. 

Since 1976, the writer has been conducting a“Survey of Psychic Impressions 
of UFO Phenomena.” (Sprinkle, 1976b) Over 600 participants have completed 

a questionnaire. 

The majority of these persons present profiles of “normal” responses to 
psychological inventories, and yet they are puzzled by their UFO experiences 
and related changes in their lives. Many of these Persons (e.g., Fisher, (1981); 
Kannenberg, (1979); and McNames, 1981) have described their claims of 
verbal messages or mental communications which offer information about the 
purposes of UFO personalities. 

What follows is a summary of these claims about UFO experiences and 
related conditions: 

1. UFO contactees have been chosen; no UFO contact is accidental. 

2. Contactees are ordinary people, who exhibit a caring or a loving concern 
for all humankind. 

3. Contactees have an experience which can be viewed as a manifestation of 
their ideas of reality. 4. UFO experiences include paraphysical, 
parapsychological, and spiritual manifestations which are designed to influence 
the “world view” of contactees. 

5. Contactees receive information during, and after, their UFO experiences 
that is related to their life interests (e.g., natural sciences social sciences, music 
and art, ancient civilizations, psychic phenomena, reincarnation, metaphysical 
and spiritual knowledge, etc.). 

6. Contactees are gently coerced into studies and activities which blend with 
the ultimate purpose of UFO entities; they are not forced to be obedient to 

7. Contacts are initiated and maintained within the general framework of the 
contactees’ views of reality. (Thus, UFO contacts can be viewed as physical, 
face-to-face encounters with flesh and blood beings, or out-of-body 
experiences, or mental programming by UFOLKS; or UFO contacts can be 
viewed as dreams, fantasies, and/or subconscious ideas which are manifested 
consciously, without external stimulus.) 

8. Contactees are programmed for a variety of “future” activities, including 
awareness of their own contacts and desire to share their messages and 
knowledge with other contactees. 

9. The lives of contactees move in the direction of greater self-awareness, 
greater concern for the welfare of the planet Earth, and a greater sense of 
Cosmic Citizenship with other beings in the universe. 

10. The personal metamorphosis of UFO contactees is the forerunner of a 
social transformation in human consciousness, which now is leading to changes 

in the economic, educational, military, political, and religious institutions of 
nations of the Earth: the “New Age” of true science and spirituality 

Example of a UFO Contactee Experience 

Ann (Canary) Brooke (a.k.a. “Gloria Archer”) experienced some strange 
events, which for many long years caused her much distress. She is a bright, 
attractive, and perceptive person; however, she was raised in a family that 
valued family unity, nationalism, traditional views of “common sense” reality, 
and Christian fundamentalist beliefs. 

She was unable to talk with her family about her UFO experience, which 
included: the out-of-the body experience; near-death experience; abduction; 
bodily and sexual examination; and mental communication with UFO entities. 

Results of psychological inventories were in the normal range. Hypnotic 
suggestions to recall and relive her UFO experiences were helpful to her in 
recognizing that she had experienced direct contact with alien beings. Ann 
Brooke described the effects of her UFO experience as follows: 

After my experience 1 knew that 1 had been privileged with a glimpse at 
something infinitely wondrous and profound. My inner consciousness had 
undergone a complete and staggering metamorphosis. Those truths 1 had 
been taught through the years by my church, family, parents, and teachers 
no longer were valid to me. 

Those beliefs had been replaced by an understanding of the process we 
call creation and 1 know our Earth science and education were not yet 
beginning to suspect the Universal Faws that govern the creation of worlds 
within our universe. The following is a synopsis of the changes brought 
about in the inner me as a direct consequence of my experience: 

1. 1 have embraced a faith of cosmic conditions. 1 know the Creator as 
sexless and all creation as a material manifestation of mind extended into 

2. 1 no longer have allegiance to any particular form of earthly 
government, political system, race, economic or social structure My only 
allegiance is to my Creator and to the Cosmic Christ. 

3.1 have continued to be obsessed with an expanded desire for truth and 
understanding of Earth’s and man’s evolutionary progress 

4.1 have studied the mind and altered states of consciousness. 

5. 1 am a firm believer in reincarnation. All of us are immortal souls— 

and we are responsible for what our minds manifest around us. 

6. I have strived to balance myself: to evolve physically, mentally, and 
spiritually into a balanced human being. 

7. 1 have tried to live my principles and moral laws within myself. Man 
is his own ultimate judge and therefore metes out his own punishment. 

8.1 have vowed to serve the Universal Law. 1 try to live and feel the law 
of love for others. 

9. All life is one. 

We are part of the stars, oceans, all creation. 

10. 1 have no fear of death. Death is the laying aside of one’s physical 
body. Life is eternal—mind is eternal. 

11. My mission is to Earth’s citizens and environment; unless the 
consciousness of humankind is raised, we will ultimately destroy the work 
of eons, ourselves, and the present environment of our world. 

12. Man is facing a crucial period in his evolution as a species. 

13. 1 believe in a Father-Mother God, a balanced interchange between 
the creativity of both sexes. 

14. 1 have the knowledge that we are unknowing participants in a living 
universe. There are other life forms, other worlds, other dimensions. 

15. I am experiencing loss of interest in the accumulation of material 

16. Basically 1 have become a pacifist. War depletes—it does not enrich. 

17. 1 have the knowledge that the world’s fuel must be water. 1 feel a 
total disagreement with any society that pushes the use of nuclear fuel or 

18. Within myself, 1 experience the consummation of science with 

After many years, 1 now realize and know that my own transformation 
was not and is not a single experience here on Earth. There are literally 
hundreds if not thousands of people who are or have experienced this 
metamorphosis. Our numbers are growing yearly and we are beginning to 
locate and communicate with each other. 

An alien invasion has already occurred on Earth. The conquering power 
is not military or technological and economic superiority. It is a revolution 
in consciousness, and spiritual knowing that has been implanted within the 
minds of thousands of people all over the world. 

The future of this world is passing into the hands and minds of these 

people. Those of us who have been contacted no longer serve the old 
orders. We fear nothing—least of all the threat of death or physical 
deprivation. We are here — now\ 

We walk among you daily—we pass you on the streets, stand next to you 
in the elevators, and you see little of what is moving daily closer to 
completion. We are among you—and our force is the force of mind 
governed by a morality and an ethical code that upon Earth is 
incomprehensible. (Archer, 1979) 

“Hidden” UFO Contactee Experiences 

If these messages to UFO contactees are accurate, and if these messages are 
reported accurately, then the “alien invasion” has already occurred—and not as 
a conquering power, but as a revolution in consciousness. 

In other words, UFO activity could be viewed as a lesson plan, or an 
educational project, to transform us Earthlings into UFO observers, witnesses, 
and contactees: to change us Earthlings from Planetary Persons into Cosmic 

Then the scenario follows along these lines: the next generation of scientists 
can build space-time craft, or “flying saucers,” and Earth pilots can fly out in 
UFOs as UFO occupants, providing scientific and spiritual knowledge, or 
cosmic citizenship, to other planetary persons, etc. 

The New Age 

In support of the theme that a “new age” is dawning, three examples are 
summarized: (1) the effects on crime by groups of meditators; (2) the 
“hundredth monkey phenomenon”; and (3) the hypothesis of formative 

1. Arons and Arons presented a paper at the American Psychological 
Association meeting, in 1981, that demonstrated differences in police records 
for number of arrests in specified areas of Atlanta, Georgia, during those time 
periods when groups of meditators were meditating in those areas. The authors 
concluded that the data support the hypothesis that there are conditions under 
which small numbers of meditating individuals (at least if they are practicing 
the Transcendental Meditation technique) can create harmonious influences in a 
large social system, without face-to-face contact. 

2. Fyall Watson, an English biologist, surveys biological foundations for 

unconscious behavior, including the delightful story of the “hundredth 
monkey.” Watson described Imo, a female monkey, who learned to wash sand 
from sweet potatoes, which were provided by Japanese scientists who were 
observing monkeys on the island of Koshima. Imo taught her mother to wash 
her food; young monkeys were teaching their elders to wash their food; then, 
one day, an extraordinary event occurred, after an unspecified number of 
monkeys (about 100) had learned to wash their food, by nightfall of that day 
almost all of the monkeys were washing their food! Even more unusual, 
according to the unpublished notes of several scientists, other colonies of 
monkeys on other islands and on the mainland at Takasakiyama 
“spontaneously” began washing their food! (Watson, 1979) 

3. Rupert Sheldrake, an English biologist, has suggested that the hypothesis 
of “formative causation” can account for some changes in evolutionary 
development. (Sheldrake, 1981) The concept of “morphic reasonance” is used 
as a basis for observed changes in organisms that grow and evolve in unusual 
increments. For example, Sheldrake described the long range studies by 
McDougall and his associates. The results support the hypothesis that when 
groups of rats in one location learn to negotiate a particular maze, then other 
groups of rats in other locations learn to negotiate a similar maze in fewer 

These examples support the view that new learning can occur through 
“psychic” channels as well as “physical” channels of cause and effect. 


With this short survey of some references to “new” learning, what can we 
conclude about the New Age? we cannot conclude, necessarily, that any Earth 
changes will result in the total destruction of the Earth. On the other hand, the 
number of prophecies about change would suggest that external and/or internal 
forces are impelling humankind toward another level of physical, biological, 
psychosocial, and spiritual awareness. 

What we can conclude is that there is increasing evidence to support the 
hypothesis that a shift is occurring: a shift in thinking, or a change in human 
awareness, from a mechanistic model of the universe to a holographic model of 
the universe; to both “hardware” and “software”; science and spirituality. 

Furthermore, we can predict that this shift in awareness will continue at an 
ever increasing pace, especially if groups of people come together to share their 

own experiences and their new learning. If these networks of concerned 
persons continue to grow, then education will become more public and more 
psychic in form and in process. 

This writer has presented a view of human consciousness as a theoretical 
model for explaining UFO activity. The model suggests that UFO experiences 
are educational events that are presented to UFO observers, who become 
witnesses, who become contactees, who are impelled to learn more about the 
“outer” world and “inner” world, to share knowledge, and to become advocates 
for transformation in human awareness. 

If this hypothetical model of UFO activity has relevance, then UFO 
investigators can expect an increased number of reports of UFOs as physical 
craft and as psychic phenomena and increased awareness of messages being 
received by UFO contactees. If the messages are meaningful, then personal 
consciousness is changing and social institutions are changing. 

The major question remains a puzzle: Is UFO activity leading to the 
awareness, acceptance, and acknowledgment of the peaceful presence of alien 
intelligence? Or is UFO activity leading to the awareness, acceptance, and 
acknowledgment of “US FOLKS” as “UFOLKS” of the future? 

This model suggests that a possible explanation for one facet of the UFO 
puzzle is that we UFO investigators also are UFO contactees, and that our 
investigations are a small part of a huge operation: a plan by which human 
consciousness is being transformed from that of Planetary Persons to Cosmic 

—R. Leo Sprinkle 


Archer, G. Personal communication, June 9, 1979. 

Arons, A. and Arons, E. N. “Experimental Interventions of High Coherence Groups into Disorderly Social 
Systems” American Psychological Association Symposium, Los Angeles, August 27, 1982. 

Bucke, Richard Maurice. Cosmic Consciousness (Innes & Sons, 1901; E. P. Dutton, 1969). 

Ferguson, Marilyn. Brain/Mind Bullein Special Issue: 

“A New Perspective of Reality” (July 4, 1977). 

_. Brain/Mind Bullein Special Issue: “Prigogine’s Science of Becoming” (May 21, 1979). 

_. The Aquarian Conspiracy (J. P. Tarcher, 1980). 

Fisher, C. Personal communications, May 27, 1968 - March 16, 1981. 

Fowler, Raymond. The Andreasson Affair (Prentice-Hall, 1979). 

Haines, Richard F. UFO Phenomena and the Behavioral Scientist (Scarecrow Press, 1979). 

Hendry, Allan. The UFO Handbook (Doubleday, 1979). 

Huxley, Julian. Evolution in Action (Mentor/NAL, 1953). 

Kannenberg, Ida. Personal communication, April 27, 1979. 

_. “The Great Contactee Hoax,” Proceedings, Rocky Mountain Conference on UFO Investigation, 

Laramie, Wyoming, May 1981. 

Lawson, A. H. “Hypnotic Regression of Alleged CE-III Cases,” Flying Saucer Review (October 1976). 
McNames, L. Personal communications, April 2, 1973 -March 17, 1981. 

Michel, A. “The Strange Case of Dr. ‘X’,” Flying Saucer Review (August 1979). 

Romaniuk, P. “Rejuvenation Follows Close Encounter with UFO,” Flying Saucer Review (July-August 

Sheldrake, Rupert. A New Science of Life: The Hypothesis of Formative Causation (Tarcher, 1981). 
Sprinkle, R. Leo. “A Preliminary Report on the Investigation of an Alleged UFO Occupant Encounter,” 
Flying Saucer Review (November 1976). 

_. “UFO Activity: Cosmic Consciousness Conditioning?” UPIAR (Editecs, 1976). 

_. “Hypnotic and Psychic Implications in the Investigation of UFO Reports” in Lorenzen, Coral 

and James. Encounters with UFO Occupants (Berkley/NAF, 1976). 

_. “Using the Pendulum Technique in the Investigation of UFO Experiences” in UFO 

Phenomena: International Annual Review (Editecs, 1978). 

_. ed. Proceedings of Rocky Mountain Conference on UFO Investigation, Laramie, Wyoming, 

May 1980; May 1981. 

Teilhard de Chardin, Pierre. The Phenomenon of Man (Editions du Seuil, 1955; Harper & Row, 1959). 
Watson, Lyall. Lifetide: The Biology of the Unconscious (Simon & Schuster, 1979). Wilbur, K. The 
Holographic Paradigm and Other Paradoxes: Exploring the Leading Edge of Science (Shambala, 

Zimmerman, W. J. “Improved Quality of Life During the Rhode Island Ideal Society Campaign, Phase I, 
June 12, 1979 to September 12, 1979” ( Global Research Program, May 1979). 

cosmonauts, UFO sightings by Unlike their American colleagues, Russian 
cosmonauts speak openly about their UFO sightings. Several of them were 
interviewed by western UFO researchers Michael Hesemann from Germany 
and Giorgio Bongiovanni from Italy. 

Even the first man in space, Yuri Gagarin, was quoted by the Russian press 
as saying: “UFOs are a reality. They fly with incredible speeds and, if one will 
give me permission to do so, I will gladly tell you what I saw while in orbit 
around the Earth.” His colleague, Kosmonaut E.V. Khrunov, stated in the 
March 3, 1979, issue of the magazine Technique and Youth: “The UFO problem 
exists and is very serious. Thousands of people have seen UFOs, but it is not 
clear what they are.... It is quite possible that behind this question the problem 
of communication with an extraterrestrial civilization is hidden.” 

In 1978, Cosmonaut and Air Force General Pavel Romanovich Popovich 
had a sighting of a “white triangle” on a flight from Washington D.C. to 
Moscow at an altitude of 31,000 feet. It flew faster than the aircraft, going 
about 1000 miles per hour. 

On May 5, 1981, at about 6 p.m., Cosmonaut and Air Force General Vladimir 
Kovalyonok had a remarkable sighting in space, aboard the Salyut 6. When 
his space capsule passed Africa in the direction of the Indian Ocean, he saw 
through the porthole an object, which he described as “disk shaped, one half of 
it surrounded by a conical kind of fog.” It flew aside the Salyut, rotating in 
flight direction. Then, suddenly, it seemed to explode in a golden light. About 
two seconds later, a second explosion happened, and two spheres appeared, 
“two globes of the same color, golden, beautiful,” as Kovalyonok described 
them. They seemed to be connected by a kind of “white smoke.” A few minutes 
later, the spaceship entered the Earth’s shadow, and the object was not visible 
anymore. The cosmonaut is convinced that it was under intelligent control. 

On September 28, 1990, at 10:50 p.m., MIR Cosmonauts Gennadij Manakov 
and Gennadij Strekhalov saw “a big, iridescent silvery sphere.. .hovering above 
the Earth” after the Soviet Space Station had passed Newfoundland. After six 
or seven seconds, he stated, it disappeared. 

In March 1991, MIR cosmonaut Musa Manarov, when observing the 
approach of a space capsule, saw and filmed a cigar shaped object, surrounded 
by a rotating light, in some distance for several minutes. The film was released 
to the German researcher Michael Hesemann and published as part of his video 
collection “UFOs: The Footage Archives.” 

More video films, taken by the MIR crews, were released in 1999 to the 
Italian researcher Giorgio Bongiovanni. Although the Cosmonauts of these 
missions were not yet interviewed, the footage confirms further sightings by 
MIR cosmonauts Vladislav Volkov and Sergei Krikaliov in August 1991 and by 
MIR Cosmonauts Vladimir Soloviov and Nikolai Budarin on November 18, 

—Michael Hesemann 

Cowichan (Canada) encounter One morning Mrs. Doreen Kendall, a 
practical nurse at the Cowichan District Hospital, British Columbia, Canada, 
reportedly saw through a hospital window a circular UFO with a transparent 
dome hovering outside about forty feet away. She claims to have seen two 
figures inside the dome, operating levers. Although Mrs. Kendall was the sole 
witness of the occupants, several other nurses are said to have seen the UFO 

The following condensed account gives the essential details of the January 
5, 1970, sighting: 

Mrs. Kendall, a registered nurse, lived in Nanaimo and commuted to work at 
the Cowichan District Hospital. At midnight on New Year’s Eve, both she and 
Mrs. Frieda Wilson began the midnight to 8 a.m. shift on the second floor (east 
wing) of the hospital. At 5 a.m., they went into a four-bed ward to begin 
morning care. Nurse Wilson attended the patient whose bed was by the door, 
and Nurse Kendall attended the patient in the next bed, which was located next 
to the window. 

At this point, Nurse Kendall pulled the drapes open as is frequently done at 
that time in the morning. She stood looking out while nurse Wilson continued 
with her duties. What Doreen Kendall claims she saw is described as follows: 

A “saucer,” resembling a sphere, around which was a circular airfoil with 
lights on the rim, was hovering about sixty feet off the ground over a small 
patio. She estimated it to be about fifty feet in diameter, and that it was 
hovering at about the level of the third or children’s floor, at about sixty feet 
from the hospital wall. When first seen, it was tilted toward her position, so that 
she could see inside of the upper portion, which she felt was illumined from 
below rather than above. The top portion was transparent and the light on the 
bottom (which she saw later) was red. 

Inside the transparent “bubble” or “cupola,” she claimed to observe two 
human-appearing entities. At first, they were visible from the side and only 
from the waist up, but when the object tipped toward the hospital she saw their 
complete forms. Both were standing, one apparently behind the other, and each 
stood in front of a stool with a back on it. The occupant farthest to her right was 
facing what appeared to be a chrome instrument panel comprised of large and 
small “circles” (possibly dials), which were brilliantly lit. She felt that both of 
the “men” were over six feet tall and noted that they were both well built 

As the object hovered, the man on Mrs. Kendall’s left turned toward her, 
then extended his hand and touched the back of the man near the instrument 
panel, who reached down and grabbed a rodlike device with a ball on the top 
extremity, which protruded from the floor. She compared the latter to the joy 
stick of an airplane. The man moved the “stick” up, then down, at which time 
the disk tilted toward her, and she obtained a good view of the interior, 
including the men. 



The scene of the UFO encounter as described by Doreen Kendall (Artist: Brian James) 

She said that the hand of the man, who apparently alerted the other to her 
presence, was flesh-colored and human-appearing. Both wore dark clothing, 
and their features were concealed by some kind of headgear. The latter seemed 
to be similar to the material of the rest of their clothing. 

Up until this time, Nurse Kendall had been so entranced with what she was 
watching that she did not think to call anyone, but when the object began to 
move away, she realized no one would believe her, so she called to Nurse 
Wilson, who reportedly went to the window, and saw the strange object just 
outside. She said, “What on earth is that?” to which Mrs. Kendall replied: “1 
guess it’s a flying saucer.” 

The couple then dashed quickly to the nurse’s station, down the hall, and 
told what they had seen. They were not believed at first, but eventually two 
nurses, followed shortly by a third, came into the ward where they watched the 
lights of the disk-shaped craft. It was some distance away by then, but the lights 
were clearly seen by all. One of the nurses ran down the corridor to a bathroom 
and watched the object circle five or six times after which it took off “like a 
streak” to the northeast. 

Detail of UFO occupants as described by Doreen Kendall (Artist: Brian James) 

Mrs. Kendall later said that she had not been afraid, but just was very 
curious. She had the impression that the disk was having mechanical trouble. 

—Coral & Jim Lorenzen 


Lorenzen, Coral and Jim. Encounters with UFO Occupants (Berkley, 1976). 

Coyne (Mansfield, Ohio) helicopter case On October 18, 1973, the four- 
man crew of an Army Reserve UH-1 helicopter, based in Cleveland, Ohio, flew 
to Columbus, Ohio, for regularly scheduled physical exams. When finished, 
they left the medical facility at approminately 10:00 p.m., drove back to the 
airport (a distance of two miles), filed a flight plan, and took off for the return 
to Cleveland at approximately 10:30. 

The night was clear, calm, starry, and moonless; the temperature was 43 
degrees F., visibility 15 miles. The route was familiar and the men were 

The aircraft was commanded by Capt. Lawrence J. Coyne, 36, full-time 
commander of the 316 th Medivac Unit of the U.S. Army Reserve. Coyne was 
rated for helicopter, seaplane, and fixed-wing aircraft. The co-pilot was Lt. 
Arrigo Jezzi, 26, rated for helicopter flying only. Sgt. John Healey, 35, a 
detective in the Intelligence Unit of the Cleveland Police Department, was the 
flight medic. Spec. 5 Robert Yanacek, 23, was the crew chief. He had seen 
active duty in Vietnam as a helicopter crew chief. 

Jezzi was flying from the left-hand seat. The helicopter was cruising at 90 
kts. at an altitude of 2500 feet above sea level over mixed woods, farmland, and 

rolling hills averaging 1100 to 2300 feet elevation. 

Near Mansfield, Ohio, Healey, in the left rear seat, saw a single red light off 
to the left (west) heading south. It seemed brighter than a port wing light of a 
normal aircraft, but because it was not relevent traffic, he did not mention it. 

Approximately three to four minutes later, Yanacek, in the right rear seat, 
noticed a single steady red light on the eastern horizon. It appeared to be pacing 
the helicopter. After watching it for perhaps a minute, he reported it to Coyne, 
who instructed him to “keep an eye on it.” 

After about another 30 seconds, Yanacek announced that the light appeared 
to be closing on their craft. Coyne and Yanacek watched from their seats. Healy 
got up and stooped in the aisle to observe. Jezzi’s view was obstructed. 

The light continued its approach. Coyne grabbed the controls from Jezzi, 
began a powered descent of approximately 500 feet per minute, and contacted 
Mansfield control tower, requesting information on possible jet traffic. After 
initial radio contact, the radios malfunctioned on both UHF and VHF. 

The red light increased in intensity and appeared to be on a collision course 
at a speed estimated to be 600+ kts. Coyne increased the rate of descent to 2000 
f.p.m. The last altitude he noted was 1700 feet msl. 

As a collision appeared imminent, the light decelerated and assumed a 
hovering relationship above and in front of the helicopter. Coyne, Healy, and 
Yanacek reported that a cigar-shaped gray metallic object filled the entire front 
windshield. A red light was at the nose, a white light at the tail, and a 
distinctive green beam emanated from the lower part of the object. The green 
beam swung up over the helicopter nose, through the main windshield, and into 
the upper tinted window panels, bathing the cockpit in green light. Jezzi 
reported only a white light from the upper windows. No noise or turbulence 
from the object was noted. 

After a few seconds of hovering, the object accelerated and moved off to the 
west, showing only the white tail light. Coyne and Healey reported that the 
object made a decisive 45-degree course change to the right. Jezzi did not 
observe the course change. Yanacek’s view was partially obscured. 

While the object was still visible, Jezzi and Coyne noted that the altimeter 
read 3500 feet with a rate of climb of 1000 f.P.M. Coyne stated that the 
collective was still in the full down position from his evasive descent. The 
magnetic compass appeared to be malfunctioning. 

Coyne gingerly raised the collective. The helicopter climbed nearly another 
300 feet before positive control was regained. Then the crew felt a slight 

“bump.” Coyne descended to the previously assigned altitude of 2500 feet, 
radio contact with Akron/Canton airport was easily achieved, and the flight 
continued to Cleveland without further incident. 

The Ground Witnesses 

Mrs. Erma C. and four adolescents were driving south from Mansfield to 
their rural home on October 18, 1973 at about 11:00 p.m. when they noticed a 
single steady bright red light, flying south. This observation lasted about thirty 
seconds. Approimately five minutes later they had turned east on Route 430 
when they noticed two bright lights—red and green—descending rapidly from 
the east. They then became aware of the “beating sound, a lot of racket” from 
an approaching helicopter. Mrs. C. pulled over and parked. Two of the children, 
both aged 13, jumped from the car. They witnessed an unknown object “about 
the size of a blimp (or) a school bus” approaching from the east, and the 
helicopter approaching from the south-west. The unknown object assumed a 
hovering position over the helicopter and maintained this position as both 
aircraft, at very low altitude, crossed the road behind the auto. An intense green 
beam flared from the object, enveloping the helicopter and the environment. 
“The woods, the car, everything turned green,” the ground witnesses reported. 
As the helicopter continued toward the northeast, the hovering object was in 
retrograde motion, which was corroborated by the ground witnesses who 
reported it as a “zig-zag.” The crew was of course oblivious to this component 
of the object’s flight path. 

"*Dir«c\io* e-f 

Eyewitness sketch by National Guard helicopter pilot Larry Coyne 

The ground witnesses then observed the helicopter and object separate and 
the object proceed to the northwest, exhibiting only a white “tail” light, while 
the helicopter continued off to the northeast. 

A second set of ground witnesses was found in 1988. On October 18, 1973, 
Mrs. Jeanne Elias was in bed watching the 11:00 p.m. news when she heard the 
sound of a helicopter, unusually low and very near the house. The residence is 
south-east of Mansfield, less than six miles from the Mansfield runway and 
1.75 miles from the C. family’s position. Jeanne was used to close aircraft 
activity, but this time felt there was definite threat of a crash, and (she realized 
rather foolishly) hid her head under the pillow. Her son John, 14, called to her 
from his room. He reported that the helicopter noise had awakened him and he 
had observed a bright green light “coming so heavy into my room.” Neither 
Elias visually witnessed helicopter or object. 

The eleven witnesses (4 crew, 5 C. family, 2 Elias’) were interviewed on 
location, repeatedly, separately and at length. All reported that the object 

appeared solid, with no diffuse areas, no train or trail, no fuzzy outlines. It had 
precisely positioned lights (including a ‘maneuverable’ spotlight), which bore 
no relationship to standard FAA aircraft lighting requirements. It made decisive 
hard-angle turns. It may have affected the helicopter controls and instruments. 
Scrupulous analysis of the individual increments of the event indicate that the 
object was in continuous view for a minumum of 300 seconds. 

The identity of the object remains unknown. Clearly, with a duration of at 
least five minutes, it could not have been a meteor. 

—Jennie Zeidman 

Crash at Corona (Marlowe, 1992). Stanton Friedman and Don Berliner try to 
make a case that two separate extraterrestrial spacecraft crashed in New Mexico 
during 1947—one outside Roswell, the other 150 miles to the west. With this 
book they became the first authors to speculate that the military retrieval of this 
spacecraft debris produced technological spinoffs for human science, including 
solid-state electronics, an idea latched onto and made into a bestseller five 
years later by retired Army Colonel Philip Corso. 

—Randall Fitzgerald 

CUFOS See J. Allen Hynek Center For UFO Studies. 

crop circles In August 1980 near Westbury, Wiltshire, some roughly swirled 
circular patterns were found in fields of oats. This was in an area famous for 
UFO activity in the 1960s—where the “Warminster Thing” had been reported. 

The marks were studied by the Bristol UFO group, Probe (headed by lan 
Mrzyglod), because of tales that they were UFO “landing sites.” Probe 
consulted with a local physicist, Dr Terence Meaden, who convinced them that 
the patterns were the result of fair weather whirlwinds—a mild form of 
tornado. Although Britain has few destructive tornadoes, it has more wind 
vortices of this modest type per square mile than any other country on Earth. 
Meaden operates TORRO (the Tornado and Storm Research Organisation) and 
regularly advises on the sites of damage-sensitive projects such as power 

During the next few summers several more circles appeared—apparently 
consistent with this weather theory. Then, engineer and UFO enthusiast, Pat 
Delgado, discovered the phenomenon and alerted the media. By 1983 he, later 
with Colin Andrews, had ensured that the stranger possibilities for circles were 
very much in the public perception, via articles for Flying Saucer Review and 

press interviews. 

The 1983 circles came in a new complex form—several linked together in a 
geometric pattern. However, one was soon exposed to be a hoax by Mrzyglod, 
now working with BUFORA (British UFO Research Association). A national 
newspaper had tried to trap other media sources by paying a farmer to fake the 
“quintuplet” pattern. 

Faced with this challenge, Meaden attempted to modify his theory to involve 
electrified forces and multiple tornado funnels. This was possibly a step too far. 
Circle patterns got even more complicated and turned into “pictograms” that 
were of obviously intelligent origin. Alongside this escalation and the rising 
level of media attention—at first in the U.K. and then globally—a crop circle 
research community of several thousand people rapidly sprang up. Although 
more modest in size these days this community still exists. 

In 1986, BUFORA published the first-ever book on the subject, Mystery of 
the Circles, compiled by its Director of Investigations, Jenny Randles, and a 
Hampshire statistician, Paul Fuller. They reported the work of Mrzyglod (who 
quit UFOlogy in disgust at the lack of common sense), Meaden, and theories of 
Delgado and Andrews. 

The conclusion was that circles were a combination of hoaxing and weather 
effects. The report was issued to the serious media, and led to outrage in certain 
quarters of the UFO community who thought BUFORA were destructive 
skeptics. A public seminar was arranged by BUFORA in London at which—for 
the only time ever—all the key players in the story got together and had their 
say. A vote at the end by the audience overwhelmingly endorsed the BUFORA 

Undeterred, and with the circles becoming ever more “unnatural” in 
appearance (including by 1990 images of whales and spiders), Delgado and 
Andrews signed a major book deal. Circular Evidence — packed with 
spectacular aerial color photos—became a global bestseller, attracted huge 
media attention, and established the circle mystery for all time. 

Delgado and Andrews claimed that the circles were most likely the result of 
unknown energies—although the circle community was speculating much 
further. Talk of alien messages, cries to prevent the destruction of our planet, 
and more esoteric tales were soon incorporated. 

BUFORA fought back with a more indepth look, Controversy of the Circles 
(1989), again by Fuller and Randles, arguing in detail for the twin theory of 
hoaxing and wind vortices. They now had gathered a number of eye-witness 

accounts, where circles had been seen to be formed by what looked like the 
wind. However, their case was little heeded. In 1990 the BUFORA researchers 
greatly expanded their work as Crop Circles: A Mystery Solved?. This work 
emphasized the greater level of hoaxing, predicted that the hoaxers would 
create patterns of a sort that could not be windproduced, and also reported on 
research by Japanese scientists. This had established that the electrified vortex, 
proposed by Meaden, could be artificially generated in a laboratory and did 
leave simple circular aftereffects. These were also found in disused 
underground railway tunnels, where the combination of wind and electric fields 
provoked similar conditions. The BUFORA team also proposed that some 
UFOs might, in fact, be visible electrified vortices. 

In September 1991, two retired artists, Doug Bower and Dave Chorley, 
approached a national newspaper claiming responsibility for the circle hoax and 
successfully fooled Delgado under the watchful eyes of a newspaper. They said 
they had created the most publicized circles from 1980 onward, after seeing a 
circle in Australia in 1966, which they did not fake. Bower and Chorley added 
that they had deliberately escalated their activities to fake new amazing patterns 
in direct response to Meaden’s ever more convoluted theories. This was just as 
Randles and Fuller had predicted in their book the year before. 

After the tricksters quit in 1991, circles continued to appear in some numbers 
each summer. Between May and September, in crop fields all over the U.K., 
although mostly in south west England, a wide range still do appear. After the 
publicity blitz from 1989 onward, they were also found all over the world. 

While termed “crop circles,” because they mostly appear in cereal fields, 
they have, in fact, been reported in grass, reeds, sand, ice, and even on a wet 
road surface. They simply last longer in cereal crops, which are permanently 
deformed and so remain visible for days or weeks until discovery. Circles in 
grass, for example, tend to be blown out within hours and are much less 

Following the Bower and Chorley confessions, the media lost virtually all 
interest in circles—claiming everyone had been fooled by these two men and 
an army of copycat hoaxers that trailed in their wake. Meaden moved on to 
other research. The crop circle community, bruised but not defeated, continued 
to try to prove that there was a real mystery. BUFORA argued that they had 
solved the mystery. 

The key may be research by Fuller in the 1990s. He made a massive search 
for crop circles before the admitted activities of “Doug and Dave.” This search 

included scouring old records, scientific literature, and aerial survey 
photographs of the landscape taken decades ago. Randles, meanwhile, went to 
Queensland to investigate the genesis of the 1966 circle—said to have inspired 
these two hoaxers. 

This turned out to be one of many such patterns found for years in matted 
reeds in this poisonous snake infested swamp land south of Cairns. There is 
little prospect that these are hoaxes. Yet all were simple, single, oval shapes like 
the first ones seen in Britain. Moreover, Fuller found dozens of examples dating 
back into the 19th century, including eye witnesses who actually saw circles 
form. There were even some folk tales from as far back as the 16 th century that 
might relate to circles found then and ascribed to the devil. Yet in every case— 
and all modern eye-witness sightings—only single, simple circles appeared. 

The conclusion that one might reasonably draw from this is that simple 
circles can, and do, result from some kind of wind vortex. Throughout history 
this has produced occasional crop marks, and that led to the Queensland circles 
in 1966. 

This natural phenomenon then gave Bower and Chorley the idea to create a 
hoax back in England. Having faked only simple circles with limited impact, 
and seen that there were apparently some genuine cases of a similar nature, 
they moved on in response to Meaden and BUFORA’s rational ideas. The 
complex patterns, they thought, would prove that an intelligence must lay 
behind the marks and scupper Meaden’s theories for good. This happened, in so 
far as the media and public were concerned, but led instead to escalating wild 
ideas about alien forces. 

Once the mythology was in place, there were too many people who had 
invested time and effort—not to mention the tourist potential. Some farmers 
quickly learned they could earn more from faking a circle and charging 
entrance fees than from selling the same corn! 

The result is the confusion seen today where arguments rage back and forth. 
Yet still nobody has reliably seen or filmed a complex circle pattern being 
produced or found any solid evidence of a link with aliens. The case mooted by 
BUFORA in 1986 still stands up well to scrutiny. 

—Jenny Randles 


Andrews, Colin and Delgado, Pat. Circular Evidence, (Bloomsbury, 1989). 
Noyes, R., ed. The Crop Circle Enigma (Gateway, 1990). 

Fuller, Paul and Randles, Jenny. Mystery of the Circles (BUFORA, 1986). 

_. Controversy of the Circles (BUFORA, 1989). 

_. Crop Circles: A Mystery Solved? (Robert Hale, 1990; revised 1993). 


Davenport, Peter B. (b. 1948). Peter Davenport has been Director of the 
National UFO Reporting Center (NUFORC) since July 1994. Born in St. 
Louis, Missouri, he attended high school in St. Louis, Ethiopia, and New 
Hampshire. He received his undergraduate education at Stanford University in 
California, where he earned bachelor’s degrees in both Russian and biology, as 
well as a translator’s certificate in Russian translation. 

His graduate education was completed at the University of Washington in 
Seattle, where he earned an M.S. degree in the genetics and biochemistry of 
fish from the College of Fisheries, as well as an M.B.A. degree in finance and 
international business from the Graduate School of Business. 

Davenport has worked as a college instructor, a commercial fisherman, a 
Russian translator in the Soviet Union, a fisheries observer aboard Soviet 
fishing vessels, a flight instructor, and a businessman. He was the founding 
president of a Seattle-based biotechnology company, which currently employs 
over 300 scientists and technicians. 

In 1986, he was a candidate for the Washington State legislature, and in 
1992, he was a candidate for the U. S. House of Representatives. 

Davenport has had an active interest in the UFO phenomenon from his early 
boyhood. He experienced his first UFO sighting over the St. Louis municipal 
airport in the summer of 1954, and he investigated his first UFO case during 
the summer of 1965 in Exeter, New Hampshire. 

He has been witness to several anomalous events, possibly UFO-related, 
including a dramatic sighting over Baja, California, in February 1990, and 
several nighttime sightings over Washington State during 1992. 

In addition to being the Director of the National UFO Reporting Center, 
Davenport has served as the director of investigations for the Washington 
Chapter of the Mutual UFO Network. 


P.O. Box 45623 
University Station 

Seattle, WA 98145 


Peter Davenport 


Web site: 

(206) 722-3000 

Hotline: (8 a.m. to midnight 

Pacific Time preferred) 

POSITION STATEMENT: The issue of whether UFOs are both real and of 
extraterrestrial origin has been extant in the public forum since its first 
appearance in the 1940s. For over half a century, it has remained a subject of 
heated debate, with skeptics citing the fact that there is no “hard” evidence 
supporting the existence of UFOs. 

The proponents, on the other hand, offer up impressive quantities of 
principally eyewitness data, which although largely subjective and 
circumstantial in nature, is nevertheless quite intriguing. Despite the fact that 
most eyewitness reports are of low quality, many of the high-quality sighting 
reports involve certain objective aspects, which, to an open-minded bystander, 
are quite impressive. 

As a full-time, and serious-minded, UFO investigator, 1 strongly side with 
the proponents. It seems indisputable that the phenomenon is real, and that it 
falls outside the scope of “normal” human experience. 

Strong evidence suggests that we are dealing with a phenomenon that is 
being caused by palpable, solid objects whose characteristics are not of human 
design, and whose behavior is suggestive of intelligent control. 

As a scientist, however, I am quick to add that our understanding of UFOs is 
still quite limited, and that the proponents of the phenomenon, and of its 
unambiguous involvement with extraterrestrial intelligence, have not provided 
unambiguous proof in support of their position. However, that absence of 
incontrovertible evidence could change very quickly. 

—Peter Davenport 

Dawson encounter This event allegedly occurred on August 6, 1977, near 
Pelham, Georgia (20 miles north of Thomasville), in Mitchell County. At 10:30 
a.m., retired automobile salesman Tom Dawson (sixty-three years old, at the 
time) took a walk down to his favorite pond to see how it looked for fishing 
later that day. 

Just as he got inside the fence surrounding the pond, a circular space ship 
zipped right in between the trees and hovered just a few feet above the ground. 
At the same time he found himself, his two dogs and twenty head of cattle, 
frozen in place by an unseen force. 

Dawson said the craft was about 15 feet high and 50 feet in diameter. It had 
portholes all around and a dome on top. It made no sound and changed colors 
rapidly from one to another. Suddenly, a ramp came down and out came seven 
hairless, snowwhite beings, about 5 feet tall, with pointed ears and noses. 

Some had on tight fitting one-piece suits while others wore nothing. They 
talked in a high-pitched gibberish he could not understand. 

They conducted what he thought to be a medical exam of some kind. They 
placed a skullcap-like device on his head and a large hula hoop-shaped thing 
(connected to a box) around his midsection. After they had collected “some 
leaves and stuff,” they got back on the ship and were gone in the blink of an 

Once free, Mr. Dawson ran uphill (about 300 yards) to his trailer. He was 
having trouble breathing and talking, so he was taken to the Mitchell County 
Hospital, where the doctor said he had been shaken both mentally and 
physically from his encounter with the UFO and its occupants. He was treated 

for hysteria (given something to calm him down) and later released. Dawson 
said he believed that if he had been a younger man the extraterrestrials would 
have taken him away. 

—Billy J. Rachels 

Day After Roswell, The (Pocket Books, 1997). Retired U.S. Army Colonel 
Philip J. Corso claims in this book that he seeded alien technology harvested 
from the Roswell spacecraft crash to American defense contractors resulting in 
the development of night vision equipment, lasers, integrated circuit chips, and 
other breakthroughs. Though not present at the Roswell crash site in 1947, he 
describes what happened and who was there anyway, and says he saw firsthand 
one of the extraterrestrial bodies while it was being shipped by truck to Wright 
Field in Ohio. This “secret history of the United States since 1947,” as Corso 
calls it, culminated in President Reagan’s Strategic Defense Initiative, whose real 
target wasn’t Soviet ICBM missiles but rather alien spacecraft invading our 

—Randall Fitzgerald 

Drawing by Billy Norris as described by the witness in the “Dawson encounter.” 

Day the Earth Stood Still, The (20th Century Fox, 1951; directed by Robert 
Wise.) An historic “flying saucer” film of the Cold War era, starring Michael 

Rennie, Patricia Neal, and Hugh Marlowe. 

Unlike most alien-invasion films of the 1950s, the extraterrestrial in this one 
is not a monster, but a clean-cut human being who brings a message of love and 
peace—backed by enough firepower to annihilate any troublemakers. 
Accompanied by an 8-ft.-tall robot wielding an awesome death ray, this 
emissary from another planet lands his saucer in Washington, D.C., not far 
from the White House lawn. “Klaatu,” as he is called, has come to warn the 
people of Earth that those with whom we share the solar system will not 
tolerate our ignorant and evil ways. Worried about the atomic bomb in 
particular and our tendency toward violence in general, we are told that the 
Space People are fully prepared to reduce the Earth to a “burnt-out cinder,” if 
need be. 

As a demonstration of their power—in addition to the robot’s death ray— 
Klaatu arranges for all electrical equipment on Earth to stop, at a prearranged 
time, for one day; hence the title of the movie. 

As an allegory to Jesus Christ, Klaatu is shot dead by a soldier and 
subsequently resurrected by the robot, exercising advanced technology that is 
indistinguisable from magic. 

Obviously inspired by paranoiac fears of communist subversion, the film is 
also important as a prelude to the UFO “contactees” who echoed the same 
philosophy, in their best-selling books, a few years later. 

—Ronald D. Story & Martin S. Kottmeyer 

Delphos (Kansas) landing trace This case won the National Enquirers 
$5,000 prize for the UFO story “that supplied the most scientifically valuable 
evidence” (of extraterrestrial life) out of more than 1,000 entries submitted in 
1972. The selection was made by the Enquirers “Blue Ribbon Panel,” 
consisting of the late Dr. J. Allen Hynek, then an astronomer at Northwestern 
University; Dr. James A. Harder, professor of hydraulic engineering at the 
University of California at Berkeley; Dr R. Leo Sprinkle, then professor of 
counseling services (psychologist) at the University of Wyoming, Laramie; Dr. 
Frank B. Salisbury, professor of plant physiology at Utah State University, 
Logan; and Dr. Robert F. Creegan, professor of philosophy at the State 
University of New York, Albany (the one panel member who did not vote for 
the Delphos case). 

Here is the story: Shortly after sunset (about 7 p.m. CST), on November 2, 
1971, sixteen-year-old Ronnie Johnson was finishing his chores on his parents’ 

farm when he suddenly heard a loud “rumbling” sound in the direction of the 
hog house. Looking up, he suddenly saw a brilliantly lit “mushroom-shaped” 
object hovering about two feet above the ground, with a shaft of white light 
below and glowing with intensely bright multi-colored light (red, blue, orange, 
and yellow), “like the light of a welder’s arc.” 

After about five minutes, the nine-foot diameter “craft” suddenly ascended 
and started heading south. As it passed over the hog shed, about fifty feet from 
the witness, the boy said that the rumbling sound changed to a high pitch “like 
a jet,” at which time Ronnie said he was temporarily blinded and completely 
paralyzed. About fifteen minutes later (now 7:20 p.m.), his sight and mobility 
returned and he burst into the house to tell his parents, Durel, 54, and Erma 
Johnson, 49. They rushed out of the house (they were eating dinner at the 
time, and had called Ronnie in earlier) just in time to see a bright object 
receding to the south. (Apparently, the object was moving very slowly, since it 
required fifteen minutes to travel only about 200 feet, as later estimated by Mr. 
Johnson, and was close enough to be described by Mrs. Johnson as looking 
“like a giant washtub.”) 

The Johnsons then rushed over to the spot where the UFO had hovered, and 
found the extraordinary, eight foot-diameter-ring, which they said “glowed in 
the dark.” (The “ring” was actually shaped something like “an irregular 
horseshoe...with an open space to the northwest. The outer diameter was 
approximately 90 inches in a northsouth direction and 99 inches in an east-west 
direction. The thickness of the horseshoe/ring varied from 12 inches to 30 

Mr. Johnson quickly photographed the ring, using a Polaroid camera with a 
flashbulb —later claiming that the picture constituted proof that the ring 
glowed! The Johnsons further claimed that when they touched the strange, 
grayish-white substance of the ring their fingers went numb. The effect did not 
last long in the case of Mr. Johnson, but Mrs. Johnson claimed a long-term 
numbness in her thigh, where she rubbed her hand after touching the “glowing 

The site where sixteen-year-old Ronnie Johnson, of Delphos, Kansas, claimed to have seen a 

glowing, mushroom-shaped UFO. 

Curiously, instead of calling a doctor or reporting the extraordinary incident 
to proper authorities (such as the Department of Public Safety or the police), 
Durel Johnson got into his truck with his son (this was about 8 p.m.), and headed 
straight for the office of the local newspaper. When the Johnsons arrived at the 
Delphos Republican, they found the editor Willard Critchfield, who was 
apparently unimpressed with the story; he made an excuse why he couldn’t go 
to the farm that night and see for himself the evidence of an alleged UFO 
landing; nor would he send anyone else to check on the bizarre tale. 

Not one to be discouraged, Mr. Johnson drove into town with Ronnie the 
next morning, this time seeking to find Critchfield at the main restaurant in 
town where the editor usually ate. It happened that Critchfield was not there, 
but Johnson did find, instead, Mrs. Lester (Thaddia) Smith, a reporter on the 
Republican, who had already heard the UFO story from her boss, and who 
already knew the Johnsons. (She later wrote, in a signed testimonial, that: “The 
Johnson family having lived in the Delphos Community their entire life are 
respected, truthful, conscientious, trustworthy, and well thought of, typical 
hard-working Kansas farm family.”) 

Mrs. Smith was, therefore, quite willing to visit the Johnson farm (which she 
did, in the company of her husband and son-in-law) at around 11:30 a.m. on the 
3rd of November. Mrs. Smith apparently accepted the Johnsons’ story at face 
value, which she sought to help substantiate by collecting samples of the ring 
soil and some tree branches apparently broken off by the departing UFO. She, 
in turn, notified the Ottawa County sheriff, Ralph Enlow, who, with Kansas 
highway patrol trooper Kenneth Yager and undersheriff Harlan Enlow, arrived 
at the Johnson farm at about 2 p.m. also on 3 November. They talked to the 

Johnson family and inspected the “landing” site, taking photographs and soil 
samples. In addition, undersheriff Enlow stated in his report that: “We used a 
Civil Defense Radiological monitor to determine that the soil was not 

Ted Phillips arrived at the scene thirty-one days later, in the company of 
sheriff Enlow, for an on-site investigation at the request of Dr. Hynek, Director 
of the Center for UFO Studies. Phillips conducted a detailed investigation 
which included subsequent testing (by eighteen independent laboratories) of 
several soil samples (including comparisons between “ring soil” and “control 
soil”), but all the results were inconclusive. The upshot of Phillips’ 
investigation was: “no definitive conclusion.. .but, these traces in conjunction 
with over 1,000 physical trace reports from around the world do pose 
fascinating questions.” 

Most fascinating of all were the ring’s special properties. As stated in a 
sensational news story in the National Enquirer: 

.. .independent laboratory tests of the soil have shown that it: 

• Mysteriously resists water. 

• Retards plant growth. 

• Has a calcium content up to 10 times higher than the earth around it. 

• Contains a “white fibrous substance” that is not in nearby soil. 

What is so utterly amazing, however, is how these classic symptoms of the 
common fairy ring fungus, Marasmius oreades, had gone unrecognized after 
repeated analyses and “investigations” by so many “experts” and others who 
should have known better. 

Photo courtesy of The University of Arizona 

What may appear to be a UFO “landing trace” in this picture is actually none other than the”fairy 
ring” mushroom, a fungus known to botanists as Marasmius oreades. 

According to the Turf Pest Management Handbook: “Fairy rings are likely 
to appear if there is an abundance of organic matter in the soil. These fungi 
decompose organic matter to products which first stimulate growth of grass. 
Then fungus filaments either become so dense that the soil cannot be wetted 
and grass plants die from lack of moisture, or they excrete a toxic substance 
which inhibits growth of the grass.” 

In fact, there was abundant organic matter found in the ring soil (according 
to a report by Dr Harold H. Williams, a geochemist, who analyzed a sample 
sent to him at Sunwapta Minerals Ltd. of Canada by APRO, and confirmed by 
an independent analysis performed at the request of Kansas City lawyer—and 
part-time UFO investigator—the late Clancy D. Tull). 

In addition, there were other factors which normally contribute to the 
accelerated growth of the fairy ring fungus: recent heavy rains, leaves having 
fallen from the overhanging elm trees (creating a good humus), and animal 
urine in the soil (providing the necessary nitrogen for good fertilization). 

There is also the curious fact that the “white fibrous substance” had 
“penetrated” the soil to a depth of fourteen inches. Such deep growth is also 
typical of Marasmius, which can sometimes grow to a depth of seven feet. 
Many of the surrounding elm trees also show signs of disease (as can be seen in 
photographs taken within a few days of the supposed incident) which, again, 
figured in the Johnson’s report. (It was said that the bark of the trees facing the 
ring also glowed in the dark, just as the ring did.) Indeed, Marasmius happens 
to be known as a wood-rotting fungus of living trees (especially elm) that 
appears on the outer bark—as can be verified by consulting the Index of Plant 
Diseases in the United States, Agricultural Research Service Handbook No 

Another symptom is the accelerated growth of mushrooms (or “toadstools”) 
in the vicinity of the ring, which also occurred in due course. And, according to 
a letter dated 30 November 1972 (in APRO’s files), from Dr. Alexander H. 
Smith of the University of Michigan Herbarium, a sample sent to him by none 
other than Blue Ribbon Panel member and botanist Dr. Frank B. Salisbury was 
apparently identified as none other than Marasmius oreades, the common fairy 
ring mushroom! 

As for the associated UFO sighting, several factors tend to discredit the 
account given by the Johnson boy: all investigators agree that no evidence was 

ever found of soil-heating, as might be expected from a brilliantly-lit UFO 
“blasting off.” In fact, there is strong evidence that the ground (it is said) under 
the hovering UFO was not disturbed at all! As can be seen in photographs, 
taken within twenty-four hours of the supposed “landing” or “hovering” of the 
UFO, there were several small twigs resting directly on top of the whitish ring 
which showed no signs of being disturbed. If the object did indeed leave the 
“glowing ring” as evidence of its visit, one would logically expect that it would 
have at least deposited some of the same material on the overlying twigs, if not 
burning or blowing them completely away. 

To make matters worse, from the standpoint of witness credibility, Ronnie 
Johnson reported that the UFO returned on April 27, 1974, and he predicts it 
will return again a third time. Ronnie also claims to have acquired psychic 
powers since the first UFO incident, and to have observed other strange goings 
on. To wit, during the summer of 1973, he claims to have spotted, and chased, a 
creature dubbed the “Wolf Girl”—described “as having wild blonde hair, 
wearing a torn red dress of cloth, about three feet tall and standing with a stoop. 

“When it ran, it got down on all fours and ran away faster than anything 
human can run,” Ronnie said. 

—Ronald D. Story 

Demon-Haunted World, The (Random House, 1995). Astronomer Carl 
Sagan’s last major book, published before his death. Addressing pseudoscience 
issues, Sagan devotes a section to alien abduction accounts, which he explains 
as a type of sleep disturbance that gullible researcher-hypnotists have 
manipulated for profit. Nonetheless, the eminent astronomer believes there is 
“genuine scientific paydirt in UFOs and alien abductions”—only it has to do 
with brain physiology, the nature of hallucinations, the psychology of systems 
of manipulation and belief, and “perhaps even the origins of our religions.” 

—Randall Fitzgerald 

demonic theory of UFOs One explanation of UFOs is that they are demonic 
in nature; a logical theory in the sense that if they could be angels from God, 
they could also be the Devil and his demons, or a mixture of both in a classical 
religious dualism. (See Religion and UFOs) 

To ask if UFOs are demonic is to ask in the broadest sense if UFOs are evil, 
or at least, if their conduct toward man would be evil from man’s point of view. 
Much modern science fiction in books and movies has dealt with the theme that 

Earth might be “invaded” by evil powers from another world. This view is not 
too far from the view of Christian fundamentalism that there are evil powers, 
devils, and demons, beyond man’s control, which can invade this world. 

While most students of UFOs believe their nature and intention are “good,” 
the alternative must certainly be seriously considered. The “good” theories of 
UFOs see them either as benevolent scientific beings trying to make peaceful 
contact with our world (as in the 1977 film Close Encounters of the Third Kind) 
or as the angels of God, shepherds watching over their flocks of human sheep 
by night. 

But the idea that UFOs are “good” is not totally obvious. In UFO literature, 
the obvious fact is that UFOs, if they are operated by some higher intelligence, 
do not make overt contact with the human race. How can we trust a reality 
which insists on hiding from us? If the intentions of UFOs were honorable, the 
argument goes, wouldn’t they land openly? (The most obvious reply to this is: 
God is supposed to be good, but He is not too open about it either.) 

One of the difficulties about the UFO problem is knowing precisely which 
data is reliable. Reliable or not, there are reports of UFOs shooting down 
fighter planes (usually after being attacked first), of humanoids giving off 
strange sounds and smells, of UFOs or their occupants paralyzing humans with 
various types of weapons, and also of humans being kidnapped, and later 
released, often with severe psychological aftereffects, as in the Barney and 
Betty Hill abduction case . Furthermore, people who have been in contact with 
UFOs sometimes develop unusual psychic powers—gaining prophetic ability in 
visions and dreams. There have been rumors that UFO beings are vampirelike, 
draining blood from domestic animals. In some ways, UFO stories often border 
on spiritualism. 

How do we develop a consistent theory to explain the “unpleasant” data 
associated with UFOs? The most obvious way is to say that UFOs, from a 
human point of view, are evil. What is the nature of this evil? There are at least 
four categories of the evil or demon theory of UFOs: (1) the secular-scientific 
theory, (2) the secular-psychic theory, (3) the secular-supernatural theory, and 
(4) the religious-supernatural theory. Some of these theories are fairly well 
developed; others are very much in the embryo stage. 

(1) The secular-scientific theory of UFOs sees them as evil or demonic in 
the sense that they have been deceptive in the influence of our religious values 
and beliefs. One famous UFO sighting occurred at Fatima, Portugal, in 
1917. This sighting followed the vision of the Virgin Mary as reported by a 

group of children on the thirteenth day of several successive months, ending in 
a bright object in the sky witnessed by perhaps 70,000 people. Jacques Vallee, 
in his book Anatomy of a Phenomenon (1965), wonders with G. Inglefield if 
Fatima was really a religious miracle, or “a gesture of mocking”? In other 
words, was Fatima some kind of cosmic trick pulled on some gullible 

This view of religion is exemplified by the theory of R. L. Dione in his book 
God Drives a Flying Saucer (1969). Dione argues that God is really a 
spaceman who used an advanced technology to “fool” people into believing he 
had divine power. The miracles of Jesus were computerized tricks worked out 
on buttons pushed in a controlled spacecraft, which followed Jesus in his 
ministry and helped establish his divine reputation. In other words, the biblical 
religion is really a fraud, a scientific fraud perpetrated by beings from a higher 
technical civilization. Maybe Dione would not call these beings “demonic,” but 
the Devil could hardly have a better advocate. The biblical religion turns out, in 
Dione’s view, to be a big celestial joke. The reason UFOs don’t land is that we 
would discover the nature of the fraud. 

(2) The second theory of UFOs as demonic is what I call the secular-psychic 
theory. The origins of this theory go back to Carl Jung’s book, Flying Saucers: 
A Modern Myth of Things Seen in the Skies (1959), advances in historical 
content in Jacques Vallee’s Passport to Magonia (1970), and continues in 
Jerome Clark and Loren Coleman’s book The Unidentified, (1975). Another 
title for this theory might be “The Global Nervous Breakdown Theory.” 

Jung argued from the beginning that UFOs were psychological archetypes of 
the soul, round in shape, glowing in the dark. The old religions had died, and 
the world needed an image of a divine power flying to us from the heavens to 
save us. So, the human collective unconscious invented the UFO, a modern 
myth. Vallee shows how many UFO stories are Similar to folklore and fairy 
stories of old. Clark and Coleman carried this further and suggested that due to 
the stress of our scientific age, we may be having a kind of collective nervous 
breakdown. Our rational-scientific side has buried our unconscious (psychic) 
side, and the soul is fighting back with the UFO myth. 

The reason this theory takes on demonic dimensions is that there is concern 
that the unconscious may win the battle over the rational completely, and this 
would throw the human race back to the jungle—to the days of instinct and 
emotion without the control of reason. UFOs in this theory are a sign that the 
collective psyche of man is breaking down and, therefore, civilization is 

breaking down. We are destroying ourselves by an invisible power, our own 
unconscious minds. Jungians might not call this theory “demonic,” but it is 
hardly good news. 

(3) The third theory of UFOs as demonic is the secular-supernatural theory, 
developed almost entirely by John A. Keel in books such as UFOS: Operation 
Trojan Horse (1970) and The Mothman Prophecies (1975). Keel’s theory is that 
UFOs are a reality from another dimension—an almost supernatural dimension 
in the midst of our world. The UFO beings from this world Keel calls 

1 call Keel’s theory “secular-supernatural” because the UFO beings have 
what we would traditionally call supernatural power, but Keel tries to avoid 
making a religious connection with UFOs. From his point of view, UFOs come 
from a dimension right in the midst of us (much as 1 have argued in the chapter 
“Where Is Heaven?” in my 1968 book The Bible and Flying Saucers. Keel’s 
beings sometimes have a demonic nature, but much of the time they seem to fly 
into our world the way we go to the movies for entertainment. 

The Mothman Prophecies may be one of the most important (and least read) 
UFO books ever published. In it Keel explains his attempt to track down a 
UFO-related vision of impending doom, which turns out to be the collapse of 
the Silver Bridge at Point Pleasant, West Virginia. It seems clear to Keel that 
the UFO beings knew in advance of the collapse of the bridge, and they let him 
know of the impending disaster; enough so that he knew they knew, but not 
enough so he could avert it. Other unsettling aspects of KeePs book include his 
impression that the UFO beings knew his every move and every thought, in 
advance. Maybe they even controlled his mind. One reason Keel’s work may 
not have received much attention is that its implications are too unsettling. 

(4) The religious-supernatural theory of UFOs does not find John Keel’s 
work too unsettling at all. Christian fundamentalist millennialists love Keel’s 
theory, for it means that the Devil and his demons have been set loose on Earth 
in preparation for the end and the Second Coming of Christ. 

The religious-supernatural theory has been developed by Chfford Wilson in 
his book U.F.Os and Their Mission Impossible (1974), and by John Weldon 
with Zola Levitt in their work UFOs: What on Earth is Happening? (1975). 
These Christian fundamentalists argue that UFOs are just as bad as John Keel 
says (they draw from his work), and a lot worse. It is the Devil and his angels 
let loose to torment civilization, to lead us to repent and believe in Christ, 
before he comes to judge the Earth. Weldon is a student of the theology of Hal 

Lindsey (Late Great Planet Earth, 1970, and Satan Is Alive and Well on Planet 
Earth, 1972), and UFOs along with the atomic bomb are a sign the end is near. 

The weakness of the works of Wilson and Weldon is they support a religious 
dualism, of God and the Devil who are almost coequals fighting for the Earth. 
In traditional Christian theology, the Devil or Satan is only a “tester,” working 
under God’s direction. He has no authority except from God. In considering the 
religious nature of UFOs, “point of view” must be considered. Thus, as I have 
argued in The Bible and Flying Saucers, angels of God in the “pillar of cloud 
and fire” may have caused the parting of the Red Sea to save the Jews. This 
same power drowned the Egyptians. From the Jewish point of view, the pillar 
of cloud was an angel; from the Egyptian point of view, a demon. 

—Barry H. Downing 


Clark, Jerry, and Loren Coleman. The Unidentified (Warner Books, 1975). 

Dione, R. L. God Drives a Flying Saucer (Exposition Press, 1969; Bantam Books, 1973). 

Downing, Barry. The Bible and Flying Saucers (J. B. Lippincott, 1968; Avon, 1970; Sphere Books, 1973; 
Marlowe, 1997). 

Jung, C.G. Flying Saucers: A Modern Myth of Things Seen in the Skies (Routledge & Kegan 

Paul/Harcourt, Brace & Co. 1959; Signet/NAL, 1969; Princeton University Press, 1978). Original 
German language edition published in 1958. 

Keel, John A. The Eighth Tower (Saturday Review Press, 1975; Signet/NAL, 1977). 

_. Operation Trojan Horse (G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1970). 

_. The Mothman Prophecies (Signet/NAL, 1975). 

Lindsey, Hal. The Late Great Planet Earth (Zondervan Books, 1970). 

Norman, Eric. Gods, Demons and Space Chariots (Lancer Books, 1970). 

_. Gods and Devils From Outer Space (Lancer Books, 1973). 

Spielberg, Steven. Close Encounters of the Third Kind (Dell, 1977). 

Vallee, Jacques. Anatomy of a Phenomenon (Henry Regnery, 1965; Ace Books, 1966). 

_. Passport to Magnonia (Henry Regnery, 1969). 

Weldon, John, and Zola Levitt. UFOs: What On Earth is Happening? (Harvest House, 1975). 

Wilson, Clifford, and John Weldon. Close Encounters: A Better Explanation (Master Books, 1978). 

Wilson, Clifford. UFOs and Their Mission Impossible (Signet/NAL, 1974). 

densification A process whereby non-physical spiritual energies, ideas, and 
tendencies become anchored in the physical body and personality over time. 
This process is common for ET Walk-ins as they learn to integrate new spiritual 
and psychological qualities, associated with the new entering soul. 

—Scott Mandelker 

Dick, Steven J. (b. 1949). An astronomer and historian of science at the U. S. 
Naval Observatory since 1979, Steven Dick is best known as an historian of the 
extraterrestrial life debate. He obtained his B.S. in astrophysics (1971), and 
M.A. and Ph.D. (1977) in history and philosophy of science from Indiana 
University. His doctoral dissertation was subsequently published as Plurality oj 
Worlds: The Origins of the Extraterrestrial Life Debate from Democritus to 
Kant (1982). 

Steven Dick 

Dr. Dick tackled the entire scope of the twentieth century debate in The 
Biological Universe: The Twentieth Century Extraterrestrial Life Debate and 
the Limits of Science (1996), and its abridgement and update Life on Other 
Worlds (1998). The latter works argue that the idea of extraterrestrial life is a 
world view analogous to the Copernican theory, with widespread implications. 
Dick has written on these implications, notably in a volume he edited entitled 
Many Worlds: The New Universe, Extraterrestrial Life and the Theological 
Implications (2000). 

Dr. Dick has served as Chairman of the Historical Astronomy Division of 
the American Astronomical Society (1993-1994), and as President of the 
History of Astronomy Commission of the International Astronomical Union 


United States 
Naval Observatory 
Address: Code PAS 

3450 Massachusetts Ave. N.W. Washington, DC 20392 

POSITION STATEMENT: The vast majority of UFO cases have prosaic 
explanations, including the planet Venus, balloons, hoaxes, and so on. 

The question is what is the nature of the remaining few percent? In my view 
these few percent deserve further study, although it is unlikely they are 
extraterrestrial spacecraft for many reasons. They may be primarily a 
psychological or sociological phenomenon, but there is a chance they may be a 
physical phenomenon we do not yet understand. 

Nevertheless, seen in the broad context of the history of the extraterrestrial 
life debate, UFOs are one way (science fiction is another) that popular culture 
deals with the world view that extraterrestrial intelligence represents. Like so 
many other elements in the debate over life on other worlds, the resolution of 
the UFO question is deeply embedded in the problem of the nature of evidence 
and inference. 

These problems, as well as the fascinating history of the UFO debate, are 
discussed in my book The Biological Universe: The Twentieth Century 
Extraterrestrial Life Debate and the Limits of Science (1996) and its 
abridgement and update Life on Other Worlds (1998). 

The effect on humanity of contact with extraterrestrial intelligence depends 
very much on the contact scenario, especially whether it is remote contact by 
radio, or direct contact. 

If one accepts the premise that a universe filled with life is a world view, the 
best way to study the implications is by using historical analogues. One may 
study the trajectory of major world views such as the Copernican theory. 
Alternately, an appropriate analogue for remote contact would be the 
transmission of knowledge from ancient Greece to the Latin West via the Arabs 
in the 12 th century; this input of knowledge resulted in the Renaissance of 
Western civilization. 

—Steven J. Dick 

Did Spacemen Colonise the Earth? (Pelham Books, 1974). Robin Collyns 
of New Zealand who claims his ideas were shaped by Buddhist philosophy, 

believes Earth was established as a waystation for reincarnated souls from other 
parts of the universe, which explains our planet’s racial and linguistic diversity. 
Our own solar system is inhabited by extraterrestrials who have captured and 
even repaired satellites launched by humans. These beneficient aliens live on 
Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Neptune, but have remained invisible to us because 
they scramble or censor our satellite photos. 

—Randall Fitzgerald 

Downing, Barry H. (b. 1938). Barry Downing is an important proponent of the 
ancient astronaut theory as it applies to biblical interpretation. His book The 
Bible and Flying Saucers (1968), which deals primarily with the material in the 
Book of Exodus as it relates to possible descriptions of UFO intervention, is 
considered a classic. 

Dr. Downing is presently the pastor of Northminster Presbyterian Church in 
End-well, New York. He has been an advisor in theology to the Mutual UFO 
Network (MUFON) for more than twenty years, and is on the national board of 
directors of the Fund for UFO Research (FUFOR). He has published more than 
thirty articles and papers in the field of UFOs and religion. He is listed in Who s 
Who in Theology and Science. 

Barry Downing 

Born in Syracuse, New York, Downing received his elementary education in 

that state, and his B.A. degree in physics, from Hartwick College, Oneonta, 
New York. His other degrees are as follows: B.D. in theology, Princeton 
Theological Seminary, Princeton, New Jersey; and Ph.D. in philosophy of 
science and religion, University of Edinburgh, New College, Edinburgh, 
Scotland. Downing was ordained as a United Presbyterian clergyman on March 
5, 1967. 

P. O. Box 8655 

Address: Endwell, NY 13762 


POSITION STATEMENT: My main area of study has concerned the possible 
relation between UFOs and the biblical religion. My theory is that some, if not 
all modern UFOs are related to what has been called the “angelic reality” 
reported in the Bible. 

My theory, worked out in my book The Bible and Flying Saucers is that 
UFOs come from another dimension, a parallel universe “in the midst of us” as 
Jesus said (Luke 17:21). According to the Bible, God is invisible, but his angels 
can become visible if they need to, and so the reports of visible angels in the 
Bible. Furthermore, these angels often have forms of space transportation, 
reported as the “pillar of cloud and of fire” of the Exodus, the “chariot of fire” 
of Elijah, the “wheels” of Ezekiel, the bright “glory” hovering over the 
shepherds at the birth of Jesus, the “bright cloud” over Jesus at his 
transfiguration and ascension, and the “bright light” over the Apostle Paul on 
the Damascus Road. The angels were understood to travel on the “clouds of 
heaven,” a description parallel with many modern UFOs which often have a 
cloudlike appearance. 

I believe the Exodus UFO, the “pillar of cloud and of fire,” used its powers 
to split the waters of the Red Sea, and that this same UFO on the ground in a 
thicket caused the famous “burning bush” of Moses. 

Psalm 23 says “Me Lord is my shepherd,” and I believe the modern UFO 
reports indicate that the “angels of God” are still with us, doing their shepherd 
work—by night and day. 

—Barry H. Downing 

Drake Equation How can we estimate the number of technological 
civilizations that might exist among the stars? While working as a radio 
astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Green Bank, West 

Virginia, Dr. Frank Drake (now President of the SETI Institute) conceived an 
approach to quantify the factors involved in estimating the number of 
technological civilizations that may exist in our galaxy. 

The Drake Equation, as it has come to be known, was first presented by 
Drake in 1961 and identifies specific factors thought to play a role in the 
development of such civilizations. Although there is no unique solution to this 
equation, it is a generally accepted tool used by the scientific community to 
examine these factors. The equation is expressed as follows: 

N=R*-f//ne-f/ fpfc-L 

The number of civilizations in the Milky Wav Galaxy whose radio emissions are detectable. 

The rate of formation of suitable stars : The rate of formation of stars with a large enough “habitable 

The fraction of those stars with planets : The fraction of Sun-like stars with planets is currently 
unknown, but evidence indicates that planetary systems may be common for stars like the Sun. 

The number of “Earths” per planetary system : How many planets occupy a habitable zone where it 
would be able to maintain a temperature that would allow liquid water? A planet in the habitable zone 
could have the basic conditions for life as we know it. 

The fraction of those planets where life develops : Although a planet orbits in the habitable zone of a 
suitable star, other factors are necessary for life to arise. Thus, only a fraction of suitable planets will 
actually develop life. 

The fraction of life sites where intelligence develops : Life on Earth began over 3.5 billion years ago. 
Intelligence took a long time to develop. On other life-bearing planets it may happen faster, it may 
take longer, or it may not develop at all. 

The fraction of planets where technology develops : The fraction of planets with intelligent life that 
develop technological civilizations, i.e., technology that releases detectable signs of their existence 
into space. 

The “Lifetime” of communicating civilizations : 

The length of time such civilizations release detectable signals into space. 

Within the limits of our existing technology, any practical search for distant 
intelligent life must necessarily be a search for some manifestation of a distant 

A search for extraterrestrial radio signals has long been considered the most 
promising approach by the majority of the scientific community. 

Besides illuminating the factors involved in such a search, the Drake 
Equation is a simple, effective tool for stimulating intellectual curiosity about 
the universe around us, for helping us to understand that life as we know it is 
the end product of a natural, cosmic evolution and for making us realize how 
much we are a part of that universe. 









SETI Institute 

Drake, Frank (b. 1930). Widely known for his beliefs that life exists elsewhere 
in the universe, Frank Drake is a leading authority on methods for the possible 
detection of extraterrestrial intelligent signals. His pioneering efforts in this 
field are widely recognized and highly respected. Dr. Drake is currently 
Chairman of the Board at the SET1 Institute in Mountain View, California, and 
Professor of Astronomy and Astrophysics (since 1984) at the University of 
California at Santa Cruz. From 1984-1988, he was Dean of Natural Sciences, 
and from 1988-1990: President of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 

Dr. Drake shared in the discovery of the radiation belts of Jupiter (1959) and 
played an important role in the observational studies which led to the early 
understanding of pulsars. He received a B.A. in Engineering Physics from 
Cornell University in 1952, and an M.S. and Ph.D. in Astronomy from Harvard 
University in 1956 and 1958 respectively. Dr. Drake is a member of numerous 
professional societies and international organizations, including the prestigious 
National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 

From 1952-55, he was an electronics officer in the U. S. Navy. At Harvard, he 
was associated with the Agassiz Station Radio Astronomy Project, specializing 
in 21-cm research, and the development of infrared photometers. From 1958- 

1963, he was head of the Telescope Operations and Scientific Services Division 
at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Green Bank, West Virginia. 
While at Green Bank, he carried out planetary research as well as studies of 
cosmic radio sources, and conducted the first organized search for extraterrestrial 
intelligent radio signals, known as OZMA. In the fall of 1963, he became chief 
of the Lunar and Planetary Sciences Section of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 
California Institute of Technology. He joined the faculty at Cornell University in 

1964, first as an associate professor of Astronomy, then, from 1966-1984 as a 
full professor. 


Frank Drake 

From 1966-68, he was the director of the Arecibo Observatory, near 
Arecibo, Puerto Rico. From 1969-71, he was chairman of Cornell’s Astronomy 
Department, and was Director of the National Astronomy and Ionosphere 
Center (of which the Arecibo Observatory is part) from 1970 to 1981. 

Dr. Drake was among the first to show how interstellar messages could be 
constructed for easy radio transmission. In 1960, about the same time he 
conducted project OZMA, he pioneered in the development of binary coded 
messages from which a “picture” could be obtained after proper decryption of 
the codes. Dr. Drake constructed the first interstellar message ever transmitted 
via radio waves by our planet for the benefit of any extraterrestrial civilizations. 
This message is known as the “Arecibo Message of November 1974.” Three 
messages, utilizing the techniques and methods developed by Dr. Drake, have 
already been sent to outer space. They are the Pioneer 10 and 11 Plaques 
(designed by Drake, Sagan, and Sagan), the Voyager Record on board the 
Voyager spacecraft (conceived by Drake and compiled by a host of contributors 
in addition to Drake), and the Arecibo Message of 1974. 

Dr. Drake also devised an equation by which he gave an estimate of the 
number of communicative extraterrestrial civilizations we might find in our 
galaxy. Known as the Drake equation, N=R*-f/n e -f/ frf c -L is still valid and is 
regarded as the authority on the number of detectable civilizations. 

Dr. Drake is the author of Intelligent Life in Space (1962), a contributor to 
UFOs—A Scientific Debate, edited by Carl Sagan and Thornton Page (1972), 
“Communication with Other Intelligences” in Prospects for Man — 

Communication , edited by W. J. Megaw (1977), coauthor with Sagan et al. of 
Murmurs of Earth: The Voyager Interstellar Record (1978), and coauthor with 
Dava Sobel of Is Anyone Out There? (1992). 

2035 Landings Drive 

Address: Mountain View, CA 94043 


Web site: 

POSITION STATEMENT: There is no general explanation of the UFO 
phenomenon which is complete and accurate. The UFO phenomenon is very 
likely more than one phenomenon, including at least very rare natural events and 
misinterpretations of rare but spectacular natural events. There is no good 
evidence for further origins of the UFO phenomenon. 

The best hope for progress with UFOs is to obtain a variety of good 
quantitative observations of one of the more spectacular and “strange” cases. 
These observations should include high-quality photographs, calibrated, with 
good time references. Sound recordings, spectral information, and possibly 
radioactivity and magnetic activity recordings would be requirements. 
Unfortunately, 1 see no practical way to provide instrumentation in sufficient 
quantity to assure that such a set of observations win be made in the foreseeable 

—Frank Drake 

Drake, W. Raymond (1913-1989). British author Walter Raymond Drake was 
a pioneer in the ancient astronaut field. He published numerous articles on the 
topic, beginning in 1957, followed by his book, Gods or Spacemen? first 
published in 1964. 

W. Raymond Drake 

A retired customs official, Mr. Drake spent twenty-five years promoting the 
ancient astronaut theory, most notably in his nine books: Gods or Spacemen? 
(1964), Gods and Spacemen in the Ancient East (1968), Gods and Spacemen in 
the Ancient West (1974), Gods and Spacemen in the Ancient Past (1975), Gods 
and Spacemen Throughout History (1975), Gods and Spacemen in Greece and 
Rome (1976), Gods and Spacemen in Ancient Israel (1976), Messengers from 
the Stars (1977), and Cosmic Continents (1986). 

POSITION STATEMENT: Since 1957 I have given profound attention to the 
enigma of UFOs, which I consider the most baffling problem of the century. 

I support the theory of extraterrestrials from other planets although I do 
recognize the formidable arguments of UFOs from inner etherean realms; the 
inner-Earth; time-travelers from the past or future; of even ultraterrestrials 
sharing our planet, but existing in another space-time continuum. With the 
confused information at our disposal, it is impossible to make a definite 
appraisal regarding their true origin. Recent research seems to indicate psychic 
influence beyond our cognizance. Several cases of abduction of men and 
women, past and presents make us wonder. 

Many years ago, influenced by the Master Charles Fort, who collected 
unusual cosmic data for modern times in his wonderful books, I aspired to 
collect as many facts as possible from ancient literature to chronicle for the past 
what Charles Fort has so brilliantly done for the present century. I spent many 
years reading the classics and ancient histories in many languages, and in 1964 

published Gods or Spacemen?, the first of nine books,, wherein I detailed my 
researches covering most countries of the world, proving to my own 
satisfaction at least, that the gods of antiquity were spacemen, who landed and 
ruled our Earth in a Golden Age, bringing civilization to mankind. 

Can our word “God” have at least two meanings? The Absolute imagining 
the Universe, in Whom we live and move, and the local “Gods” of Space- 
Beings, who originate from some advanced planet and from time to time 
manifest themselves among men? This startling conception could prove the 
fundamental discovery of our century. Our ancestors believed the Gods, the 
Spacemen, inspired them. 

Gazing aloft in humility at those shining stars amid the dark, unfathomable 
infinitudes, we marvel at this magic, mysterious Universe and with sudden 
loneliness wonder who we are and why we find ourselves living now on 
ancient Earth. 

A wondrous Renaissance of cosmic wisdom slowly dawns, soon to shine in 
spiritual splendor inspiring us all to think as Earth-folk, people of a small but 
proud planet, eager to meet our fellow men from other worlds. Salvation may 
descend from the skies. To communicate with the Spacemen on their cultural 
level, we must soar beyond our earthly ethics and expand to Cosmic 
Consciousness attuning our souls to all Creation. 

—W. Raymond Drake 

Druffel, Ann (b. 1926). A California native, Ann Druffel received her B.A. 
degree in Sociology from Immaculate Heart College (Hollywood) and did 
graduate studies toward an M.A. in Social Case Work at the National Catholic 
School of Social Service (Catholic University, Washington D.C.). She worked 
for five years as a social caseworker for family- and child-welfare agencies. 
She retains a lifetime RSW (Registered Social Worker) in California. She 
married Charles K. Druffel in 1953. They have five daughters. 

Ann Druffel 

Her interest in UFOs stems from a personal sighting with another adult 
witness of a luminous daytime object over Long Beach, California in Summer 
1945. “Seemingly high above the Earth,” she says, this object released 
numerous small objects which reflected the sun and disappeared after departing 
on different paths up and out from the main object She has been a UFO 
researcher in the Southern California area since 1957, beginning as an 
investigator for NICAP, and subsequently for MUFON and CUFOS. 

Besides her investigative and research work, she was an associate editor of 
th q MUFON UFO Journal from 1977 through 1983, is presently a contributing 
editor for that journal, and is a consultant for Flying Saucer Review, published 
in England. 

She is Project Coordinator for Skynet, a public filter-center and tracking 
system, from 1965 to the present. This work has revealed certain correlative 
patterns in UFO activity on which Druffel has reported in UFO symposia and 

She has been a free-lance writer since 1969 with 100+ articles published in 
the areas of UFOs, psychic phenomena and other subjects, plus film credits 
(documentary and screenplay). She is the author, with D. Scott Rogo, of The 
Tujunga Canyon Contacts. 

She is currently with the Mobius Society in Los Angeles, assisting in 
psychic archaeology and intuitive criminology projects, and other experiments 
into the study of human consciousness. She is an accomplished remote viewer 
and certified hypnotist. 


257 Sycamore Glen 
Pasadena, CA 91105 

POSITION STATEMENT: UFOs present an urgent problem to the human race. 
For that reason, attitudes of secrecy and deliberate ridicule employed by world 
governments is dangerous and foolish. The mystery must be solved by physical 
and social scientists and other professional researchers, including philosophers 
and theologians. No facet of man’s knowledge should be overlooked in the 
attempt to unravel this enigma. 

UFOs apparently have been with us since prehistoric times; UFOs shapes 
found in Magdalenian cave art may be evidence that some unknown type of 
intelligence observed the human race’s evolutionary leap from Neanderthal to 
Cro-Magnon. UFOs, as described in the Old Testament, seemed instrumental in 
the formation of the first major monotheistic culture. Reports of “jinns” in 
Islam, and “incubi” and “succubae” which reportedly harassed humans in 
medieval times indicate that extradimensional intelligence beings have 
interacted with the human race; these reports have aspects in common with 
present-day UFO activity. They cannot explain all UFO reports, however; it is 
likely that UFOs are multi-sourced. The multisource hypothesis would include: 
(1) physical extraterrestrial visitors; (2) unknown life forms normally invisible 
to us but capable of penetrating into our space-time; (3) time travelers. 

There is little doubt, however, that the human race is currently under 
observation by unknown order of intelligence(s), interested in human 
technology, and having particular interest in human reproduction. No reliable 
communication has been received from UFO entities to date. “Messages” 
received by witnesses, even considering a multisource hypothesis, are vague, 
contradictory, and therefore suspect. UFO entities involved in “abduction 
scenarios” seem to bode ill for the race; however, a growing body of evidence 
indicates that some closeencounter witnesses have successfully used various 
metaphysical and mental techniques against them. Intensive research to 
discover if unwelcome contacts can be fended off should proceed without 

—Ann Druffel 


“Earth Chronicles” The “Earth Chronicles” are a series of books by Zecharia 
Sitchin that, beginning with The 12th Planet in 1976, combine ancient 
cuneiform texts, the Hebrew Bible, and recent scientific discoveries to present a 
cohesive tale of how a renegade planet (Nibiru) became the twelfth member 
(sun, moon and ten, not nine, planets) of our own solar system, and how its 
inhabitants, the Anunnaki, began to come and go between their planet and ours 
some 450,000 years ago. 

Coming initially to obtain gold needed to protect the dwindling atmosphere 
of Nibiru, they ended up creating the “Adam,” a species of primitive workers, 
by combining their genes with those of the hominids who had evolved on 
Earth. The events that ensued are echoed in the biblical tales of the Garden of 
Eden, the Deluge, and the Tower of Babel. 

Sitchin’s writings bring to life not only the incredibly advanced civilization 
of Sumer that blossomed out 6,000 years ago in Mesopotamia, but also the 
Anunnaki themselves: Their first leader Ea, also known as Enki; his half- 
brother the commander Enlil, and their half-sister Ninharsag who was the chief 
medical officer 

The Chronicles follow the tangled tale of gods and men through the 
millennia, until in 2024 b.c. one clan of Anunnaki used nuclear weapons to 
deprive another of the spaceport in the Sinai peninsula. 

The six books, together with the two companion volumes, Genesis Revisited 
(1990) and Divine Encounters (1996), throw new light on the enigmas of Mars 
(what appears to have existed on it and why spacecraft keep getting lost there), 
the true builders of the Pyramids and Sphinx at Giza and their purpose, and the 
identity of the Divine Architect of the enigmatic colossal stone structures in 
both the Old and New Worlds. 

—ETEP Staff 


Sitchin, Zecharia. The 12 ,h Planet (Stein & Day, 1976; Avon, 1978). 

_. The Stairway to Heaven (St. Martin’s Press, 1980; Avon, 1981). 

_. The Wars of Gods and Men (Avon, 1985). 

_. The Lost Realms (Avon, 1990). 

_. Genesis Revisited (Avon, 1990). 

_. When Time Began (Avon, 1993). 

_. Divine Encounters (Avon, 1996). 

_. The Cosmic Code (Avon, 1999). 

Edge of Reality, The (Henry Regnery, 1975). Two pioneers in the UFO 
investigative field, J. Allen Hynek and Jacques Vallee, together offer a progress 
report on research and scenarios for resolution of the extraterrestrial visitation 
question. Neither of these scientists sees much hope in radio telescope attempts 
to contact advanced civilizations. They offer seven scenarios on resolving the 
UFO enigma, ranging from extraterrestrial invasion to surrealistic holograms 
projected by a cabal of clever scientists. 

—Randall Fitzgerald 

Eighth Tower, The (Saturday Review Press, 1975). John A. Keel speculates 
that a superspectrum of energies encompassing gravity, the magnetic field, and 
infrasonic sound, control our observation of UFOs, Men in Black, ghosts, 
Bigfoot, and evil itself. This single intelligent force accounts for all religious, 
occult, and unexplained phenomena by blindly recording all the electrical 
impulses of human minds. 

—Randall Fitzgerald 

Elk abduction At approximately 11:58 a.m., on Thursday, February 25, 1999, 
three forestry workers, located approximately 20 miles west of Mt. St. Helens 
in Washington State, suddenly noticed a bizarre object—shaped somewhat like 
the heel of a man’s shoe—drifting slowly toward them. It first appeared over a 
nearby ridge and was traveling in a northeastly direction. As it approached, the 
strange “craft” seemed to hug the contour of the terrain below it, and seemed to 
witnesses to be “flying” in a purposeful manner. 

The three workers at first thought the object was some kind of parachute that 
was drifting and descending, but they quickly realized that their initial 
impression was wrong. One of the three immediately shouted to the eleven 
other coworkers nearby; then all fourteen members of the work crew stood on 
the hillside and watched for an estimated 5 to 10 minutes, as a remarkable 
chain of events unfolded in the valley below them. 

Within seconds of their first observation of the craft, the witnesses realized 
that it appeared to be moving in the direction of a herd of elk that the crew had 
been watching all morning. They continued to watch as the object proceeded 
directly toward the herd, and succeeded in getting quite close to the animals. 
The animals apparently remained unaware of the object’s presence until it was 
within a very short distance of the herd. 

White dot marks location where elk was abducted in Washington State 

Suddenly, the animals became startled and bolted for cover—most of them 
running up the slope to the east toward a densely wooded area. However, one 
adult animal was seen by the witnesses to separate itself from the herd and trot 
generally to the north, along a nearby unused logging road. 

The witnesses reported that at this point, the object quickly moved directly 
above the lone elk and seemed to “pluck” it off the ground, although no visible 
means of support of the animal was evident to the observers. 

The witnesses added that immediately upon lifting the elk off the ground, 
the object seemed to begin to “wobble” to an even greater degree than it had 
exhibited earlier. Also, as the object appeared to increase its altitude, the elk, 
which was suspended upright directly below it, rotated slowly beneath it, with 
its head apparently in contact with the ventral surface of the craft. 

With the elk suspended below, the object began to ascend slowly up a clear- 
cut slope to the north, wobbling slowly as moved almost directly away from the 
witnesses. However, when it reached a stand of tall trees at the end of the clear- 
cut, it appeared to brush the lower branches of the trees, at which point the 
object stopped, backed up, and began to rise almost vertically. At this point, the 
object appeared to wobble back and forth, i.e. begin a rolling motion from left 
to right, at an even more rapid rate. 

It appeared to rise vertically over the trees and continued its “flight” to the 
north, apparently hugging the contour of the hill below it as it moved. When it 
crested the top of the rise, it descended into the neighboring valley to the north, 
and disappeared from the sight of the witnesses for a few seconds. Moments 
later, they last witnessed the object rising at a steep angle, and at high speed. It 
continued rising until it simply disappeared from their sight in the northern sky. 

The witnesses stated that once the craft had reached the clear-cut to the 
north, they no longer could see the animal suspended below it. Their 
presumption was that the elk had somehow been taken into the object, although 
they never saw any kind of “door” or aperture through which the animal might 
have been conveyed into the craft. 

Although there were slight discrepancies between the witnesses with regard 
to the appearance of the peculiar object, they agreed that it was relatively small, 
perhaps not too much longer than the elk itself. Its shape was reminiscent of the 
heel of a man’s shoe, i.e., roughly U-shaped, and slightly tapered toward the aft 
end. Also, they agreed that it seemed to exhibit two “stripes,” or patches, 
running longitudinally along its dorsal side, one of which appeared red, the 
other white. 

The witnesses also stated that following the incident, the herd of elk 
remained in the same general area, although they remained more closely 
huddled together than had been the case earlier in the morning. The workers 
added that they, too, had remained closer to one another during the remainder 
of the work day, feeling ill at ease about what they had been witness to earlier 
in the day. 

The case was first investigated jointly by Peter B. Davenport, Director of the 
National UFO Reporting Center, and Robert A. Fairfax, Director of 
Investigations in Washington State for the Mutual UFO Network. They traveled 
to the site of the incident on March 5, 1999, examined the body of an adult 
female elk found to the north of the initial abduction site by the land owner, and 
interviewed several of the witnesses. The investigation was continued over 
subsequent months. 

The witnesses were deemed by the investigators to be reliable and sober- 
minded, with little to gain from the event. Some of them had been working for 
the same company for many years, and were described by their employer to be 
excellent employees. The witnesses refused all suggestions that they speak with 
the press, or go public in any way, about the alleged incident. 

—Peter B. Davenport 

Ellwood, Robert S., Jr. (b. 1933). Dr. Ellwood is retired from the University 
of Southern California, where he was Professor Emeritus of Religion. A 
specialist in the history of religions, Ellwood has written more than twenty 
books; the most important of which are Religious and Spiritual Groups in 
Modern America (1973), which contains a section on UFO groups, and Many 
Peoples, Many Faiths (1976), an introductory textbook in world religions, and 
Alternative Altars—Unconventional and Eastern Spirituality in America (1979). 


997 Athens Street 
Altadena, CA91001 



robert ellwood 

Web site: 


POSITION STATEMENT: 1 have no public position on the physical science 
aspects of UFOs, since 1 do not have appropriate competence. 1 do, however, 
have an open mind and lively interest in the matter. My professional concern is 
UFO-inspired religious movements. 1 do not say that they or any other religion 
are false; the ultimate origin and meaning of all of humankind's religious 
experience and conceptual systems remain too full of mystery for final 
pronouncements, and in any case, a religious experience and belief can have rich 
subjective validity for a person regardless of what the facts are about its 
objective referent. My chief touchstone of interpretation for the evaluation of 
UFO religious movements would be Carl lung's concept of the UFO as, for its 
religious believers, a “technological angel.” 

Humanity’s immemorial spiritual quest, and the symbol systems which 
express its findings, change in outer form as world-views and perceptions of 
appropriate guises for the transcendent change. UFO religious movements are 
interesting and worthy of a certain respect as innovative discoveries of the 
transcendent in a form congruous with a scientific and technological age. They 
accept and rejoice in the vast universe of space travel and possible 
extraterrestrials are given us by modem science rather than compartmentalizing 
it off as does so much older religion. In this respect the UFO religionists are 
spiritual adventurers and pioneers—people willing to deal with the profound 
modem spiritual crisis engendered by our living in the scientific world on the 
one hand, while remaining creatures with deep needs for subjective meaning 
and identity on the other. By making sacred the UFO, they have resolved the 
crisis in one possible way: In their “technological angels” they have given us 

striking symbols reconciling the universe of modem cosmology and the human 
need for transcendent points of reference. Like any pioneers, they can take false 
steps, rush to premature conclusions about the terrain they are exploring, and 
even lose their bearings altogether. But they have faced a crisis that many chose 
to ignore. They have dealt with it in their own way even at the cost of being 
called fools and worse by those who prefer not to perceive that, whether or not 
their space contacts are real, the modern spiritual conundrum to which the 
contact answers and to which the contactee is alive is real and must be faced 
before our culture slips into collective schizophrenia. 

—Robert Ellwood 

Elohim The Hebrew word for deity; a plural form translated as “gods” by 
Hebrew scholars and UFO theorists alike, thus giving rise to the notion that 
extraterrestrials were involved in humanity’s creation. 

The UFO-ET interpretation was first suggested in 1960 by UFOlogist 
Brinsley Fe Poer Trench in his book, The Sky People. Trench, who was called 
“the evangelist and top theologian of what amounts to a new galactic religion,” 
claimed that the Hebrew version of the Old Testament refers to the Sky People 
when it uses the word Elohim; translated as “God” (where it should say “gods”) 
in the English Bible. He, and Erich von Daniken after him, called attention to 
certain passages in the English version of the Bible that retain the plural form, 
particularly Gen. 1: 26: “And God said, Let us make man in our image, after 
our likeness.” “Why does God speak in the plural?” asks von Daniken. One 
would think that the one and only God ought to address mankind in the 
singular, not in the plural.” (Von Daniken, 1970). 

According to Vergilius Ferm’s An Encyclopedia of Religion: “Usually 
Hebrew writers speak of gods (elohim) and Yahweh (their god) before the exile 
but God (elohim) thereafter.” (Ferm, 1945) However, certain passages of the 
English version have retained the plural form, such as the passage (1:26) 
quoted above, and the phrase “Behold the man is become as one of us.” (Gen. 

More recently, the concept of the Elohim as extraterrestrial creators has been 
adopted by Zecharia Sitchin in his “Earth Chronicles” series of books and by 
the Raelian Religion of Claude Vorilhon (a.k.a. “Rael”). 

—Ronald D. Story 


Ferm, Vergilius, ed.. An Encyclopedia of Religion (Philosophical Library, 1945). 

Rael. The True Face of God (The Raelian Foundation, 1998). 

Sitchin, Zecharia. The 12 ,h Planet (Avon, 1976). 

_. The Stairway to Heaven (Avon, 1980). 

_. The Wars of Gods and ;Men ( Avon, 1985). 

_. The Lost Realms (Avon, 1990). 

_. Genesis Revisited (Avon, 1990). 

_. When Time Began (Avon, 1993). 

_. Divine Encounters (Avon, 1996). 

_. The Cosmic Code (Avon, 1999). 

Story, Ronald D. The Space-Gods Revealed (Harper & Row/New English Library, 1976). 

_. Guardians of the Universe? (New English Library/St. Martin’s Press, 1980). 

Trench, Brinsley LePoer. The Sky People (Neville Spearman, 1960). 

Von Daniken, Erich. Chariots of the Gods? (G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1970; Bantam Books, 1971). 

Elohim of Peace Comparable to “Cosmic Christ,” this term indicates a 
transcendent spiritual being or universal principle of peace and harmony, which 
can overshadow or inspire those individuals who are sufficiently evolved, and 
who seek to be used in the service of cosmic evolution on Earth. 

—Scott Mandelker 

Encyclopedia of UFOs, The (Doubleday/New English Library, 1980). 
Compiled and edited by Ronald Story, this was the first UFO encyclopedia ever 
produced and remains a standard reference on the subject. 

Former Fate magazine editor Jerome Clark stated in his review: “ any 
standard Encyclopedia is a magnificent achievement. It is, as all of us who 
awaited its appearance hoped it would be, the essential UFO reference work.” 
Clark subsequently produced his own UFO Encyclopedia (Apogee Books, 
1990; Omnigraphics, 1998). 

When combined with the present work (The Encyclopedia of 
Extraterrestrial Encounters), readers will have a balanced set of books from 
which to draw their own conclusions. 

—Randall Fitzgerald 

Ether Ship and Its Solution, The (Borderland Sciences, 1950). Meade 
Layne has the distinction of being the first author to combine ancient astronaut 
theory speculations with a clearly metaphysical explanation for UFOs. From 
the etheric plane, seemingly empty space, these craft and their etheric pilots 
have materialized for thousands of years to help accelerate the evolution of 

human consciousness. Nine years before Carl Jung tried to tailor (in print) the 
UFO phenomenon to his theories of the collective unconscious, Layne was 
using a Jungian approach by explaining how these manifestations from the 
etheric realm could be thought forms produced by the human unconscious 

—Randall Fitzgerald 

Evans, Hilary (b.1929) Hilary Evans is a prolific writer/researcher and a 
leading proponent of the psychosocial approach to the UFO mystery. He works 
as a picture librarian, assisting his wife who is the proprietor of the Mary Evans 
Picture Library. 

Born in Shrewsbury, England, Evans was educated at Cambridge and 
Birmingham Universities, where he received his B.A. and M.A. degrees in 
English literature in 1951 and 1953, respectively. His early writings— UFOs, 
the Greatest Mystery (1979) and The Evidence for UFOs (1982)—were 
straightforward assessments of the UFO phenomenon. In 1987 he devised and 
edited, with John Spencer, the international compilation UFOs 1947-1987, and 
in turn assisted Spencer on another compilation: Phenomenon (1988); both on 
behalf of BUFORA, on whose Council both serve. His more individual 
researches are embodied in three books: Visions, Apparitions, Alien Visitors 
(1984) ; Gods, Spirits, Cosmic Guardians (1987); and Alternate States (1989). 
Though none of these is a UFO book as such, they are relevant to UFO research 
in that they are largely concerned with alleged encounters with otherworldly 

Hilary Evans 

Evans is a frequent contributor to many UFO publications and lectures 
widely in North America and Europe. His most recent books include: Almanac 
of the Uncanny (1995), UFOs: 1947-1997 (ed. with Dennis Stacy), and From 
Other Worlds (1998). 

59 Tranquil Vale 

Address: London SE3 OBS 



POS1TON STATEMENT: Of course there are objects flying about which we 
can’t identify, and to that extent UFOs exist. But so long as the evidence for 
physical UFOs—let alone extraterrestrial visitation—rests on witness testimony, 
so long will it be subject to the reservations with which all such testimony must 
be received. Psychological and sociological findings show that we cannot set any 
limits to what the subconscious mind can devise and impose upon the conscious 
mind; so until 1 see convincing evidence for an external source, I find it easier to 
believe that it is to the subconscious mind of the individual that we must look for 
the most probable origin of most UFO reports. 

While this can be seen as a form of debunking, 1 prefer to see it rather as a 
shift of interpretation. Simply because we cannot take an encounter experience 
at face value does not mean that it is has no other value. Those who claim 
abduction experiences, for example, are for the most part neither charlatans nor 

pathological cases; rather, they are people whose personal circumstances have 
interacted with the cultural ambiance to confuse fantasy with reality 
Approached on this level, the UFO experience can tell us a great deal about 
human behavior, both individual and social. Findings such as those of Alvin 
Lawson, and speculations such as those of Jacques Vallee and Mark Moravec 
should therefore be of the greatest interest to the behavioral scientist. At the 
same time it is clear that many UFO cases involve physical phenomena of an 
extremely interesting kind. Consequently, 1 find the work of Persinger, 
Rutkowski, Long, and others, and the fieldwork of Harley Rutledge and Project 
Hessdalen, to be of great potential value to our knowledge of the world around 

—Hilary Evans 

Exeter (New Hampshire) sightings The Exeter case represents one of the 
most spectacular and best-corroborated UFO close encounters of all time. 

About half past midnight on Friday, September 3, 1965, Officer Eugene F. 
Bertrand, of the Exeter (New Hamsphire), Police Department, was on routine 
patrol on the outskirts of Exeter when he spotted an automobile parked beside 
the road on Route 101. He stopped his patrol car to investigate, and upon 
approaching the vehicle, he found a lone woman in the car who appeared to be 
extremely upset. When Officer Bertrand inquired what the difficulty was, the 
woman replied that she had been chased approximately 12 miles along Route 
101, from Epping to Exeter, by a very unusual looking, disk-shaped object, 
surrounded by a “halo” of bright red light. She reported that the object had 
made several swooping “dives” or “passes” at her car. 

Officer Bertrand attempted to calm the woman, and asked her whether she 
could still see the object. She responded by pointing to what appeared to the 
officer to be nothing more than a star located close to the horizon. After several 
minutes of conversation with the woman, he returned to his cruiser and drove 
off, not bothering to record her name. 

Officer Bertrand had no way of knowing that he had just been introduced to 
the first episode of what would very soon become known as the “Incident at 
Exeter.” Based on subsequent events that morning, the case might better have 
been titled “Incident at Kensington” (New Hampshire), since most of the 
dramatic aspects of the case occurred in the latter township, located a few miles 
south of Exeter. 

At approximately 1:00 a.m., some thirty minutes after Officer Bertrand’s 

conversation with the woman, an 18-year old man, Norman J. Muscarello, was 
hitchhiking along Route 150 in Kensington, while returning from his 
girlfriend’s home in Amesbury (Massachusetts), to his home in Exeter. Mr. 
Muscarello had arranged to have his father pick him up in Amesbury and drive 
him home, but that rendezvous had not occurred, and he was making his own 
way home on foot and by catching rides with passing vehicles. As he hiked 
along the roadway on Shaw’s Hill, Muscarello was alarmed by the sudden 
appearance of a very bizarre looking object, which looked somewhat like a 
rugby ball viewed from the side, with five very bright, pulsating red lights or 
“windows” along its side. It apparently had risen out of a heavily wooded area 
several hundred yards to the north of the roadway, and it proceeded to approach 
Muscarello’s location, passing over a nearby field and horse corral belonging to 
a Mr. Carl Dining. 

In very short order, the object was hovering directly above the home of Mr. 
Clyde Russell, located some fifty feet north of the roadway, where it bathed the 
house and surrounding area in a “pool” of bright red light. At this time, it was 
not more than 80 feet from Muscarello, who later estimated its width at 
approximately 80-90 feet, considerably larger than the house located directly 
below it. He also reported that the object made no sound at all. 

Artist’s conception of the Exeter/Kensington UFO 

Muscarello at first crouched beside a low stone fence in front of the Russell 
home, hoping to be able to take cover from the bizarre object. Then, as soon as 
the object had moved away from the house, he knocked on the front door, 
hoping to raise its occupants. Although his pounding was heard by Mr. and 
Mrs. Russell, they elected not to answer the door, thinking the individual was 
possibly drunk or somehow deranged. 

Muscarello then proceeded on foot west along the roadway, hoping to catch 

a ride into Exeter. He was picked up by a passing motorist, who took him to the 
center of Exeter, where he entered the police station at approximately 1:45 a.m. 

The desk officer on duty that night was Officer Reginald “Scratch” Towland, 
who later reported that Muscarello was obviously quite agitated, so much so 
that his complexion was visibly pale, and he was barely able to stand. Based on 
this observation, together with the young man’s story, Officer Towland radioed 
the information to all units. Officer Bertrand immediately returned to the 
station, picked up Muscarello, and requested that he direct the officer back to 
the location where the young man had last seen the object on Shaw’s Hill. 

When they first arrived at the location on Route 150, the two sat in the 
cruiser for a short period of time, at first witnessing nothing. Officer Bertrand 
made a radio broadcast to the police station, indicating that fact. They then 
exited the cruiser and proceeded into the field adjacent to the Russell home. For 
several minutes, they continued to see nothing unusual, but suddenly 
Muscarello witnessed the same object rise from behind dense trees at the end of 
the field, several hundred yards away. He shouted a warning to Bertrand, who 
wheeled around to face the object, now in the northern sky. At that moment, 
Bertrand considered drawing his service revolver to protect them both, but he 
quickly changed his mind. The two ran back to the cruiser, where Bertrand 
quickly radioed police headquarters about the sighting now in progress. 

Within a few minutes, a second Exeter police cruiser, driven by Officer 
David R. Hunt arrived at the scene. Officer Hunt sat in his cruiser, while 
Bertrand and Muscarello sat in the other, and the three of them continued 
watching the object move around the area for an estimated five to ten minutes. 
Officer Bertrand later described how the object was capable of moving from 
one area of the sky to another, accelerating and stopping faster than the 
witnesses were able to track its movement visually. 

All of the witnesses later reported that the object was extraordinarily bright, 
and that it was painful to look at it because of its brilliance. In addition, the five 
lights, or “window,” on its side would pulse, or “flash,” in a repeating 
sequence, such that four were illuminated at any given moment, and the fifth 
was not illuminated. 

Moreover, the three agreed that the lights were so bright that it was difficult 
to perceive the precise outline of the larger body, which remained indistinct to 
the observers. The light formed a distinct haloeffect around the object, as well. 

The bizarre object proceeded to float around the nearby field, at one time 
passing within 100 feet of the three witnesses, they estimated. Slowly, it moved 

away from the three observers, passing to the southeast, over the roadway, and 
generally to the southeast. It passed over a tree line approximately 500 yards to 
the south, and disappeared over the top of Shaw’s Hill, headed toward the New 
Hampshire shoreline. As it moved away, the object appeared to rock slowly 
from side to side. 

Later the same morning, at approximately 3:30 a.m., Officer Hunt witnessed 
what he presumed to be the same object, located at a considerable distance 
from his location at the time on Route 85-101 Bypass. 

Making the case even more intriguing is a report from a telephone operator 
in nearby Hampton, NH. She reported receiving a call from a man calling from 
a pay telephone, who urgently requested that he be connected with a local 
police department. He told her that he had just been chased by a “flying 
saucer.” Suddenly, before the operator could get the man’s name or identify the 
pay telephone he was calling from, the line went dead. Neither the caller, nor 
the pay telephone, was ever traced. 

Hours after the incident on Shaw’s Hill, the Exeter Police contacted nearby 
Pease Air Force Base, near Portsmouth, NH, which dispatched at least two 
officers, a major and a lieutenant, to investigate. One of the officers, who gave 
his name as Lt. Alan B. Brandt, was interviewed at Pease AFB by The Derry 
News, shortly after the two military officers had conducted their investigation. 
Ft. Brandt reported during the interview that the officers had traveled to the site 
on Shaw’s Hill, and that they had interviewed both police officers involved in 
the sighting, as well as Mr. Muscarello. The officer added that they had 
checked the area near Shaw’s Hill, where the object presumably had been 
resting on the ground, for radioactivity, but had detected none. Ft. Brandt stated 
to the reporter during the interview that, whereas he had been a skeptic 
regarding UFO’s prior to this case, the evidence he had witnessed related to the 
Exeter case had forced him to reconsider his opinion on the matter. 

Mrs. Muscarello, the mother of the witness, later reported to UFO 
investigators that the officers had come to her home and asked her questions 
about her son and the alleged incident. She reported that she thought the name 
of one of the officers was “Brant.” 

The case attracted immediate attention in the New England press, being 
reported by the Manchester Union Leader, The Derry News, The Haverhill 
(MA) Gazette, and perhaps by other local and regional newspapers, as well. In 
addition, the case was investigated by noted UFO investigator, Raymond E. 
Fowler, and by the Boston columnist, John G. Fuller, who authored the book 

entitled Incident at Exeter (first published in 1966). 

There are other aspects of the case that have been alleged, but which remain 
unconfirmed. One of the assertions by a resident of Kensington suggested that 
an officer from the U. S. Air Force had attempted to purchase all the copies of 
the ManchesterUnion Leader that had a major article about the sighting. The 
same source, who worked as a nurse, stated that the Hampton Police 
Department had contacted the Exeter Hospital to inquire whether a man 
suffering from shock might have been admitted there. 

The bottom line is that the Exeter case remains as one of the best- 
documented UFO encounters on record. 

—Peter B. Davenport 
& Peter Geremia 

extra-celestial Coined by a group of spiritual teachers associated with the “ET 
Earth Mission,” this term denotes an ET Walk-in soul transfer which incarnates 
from the Angelic Kingdom into the Human Kingdom, taking over the life of a 
human being, to better serve the spiritual evolution of humanity. 

—Scott Mandelker 

ESP (Extra-Sensory Perception) This term is used to describe a range of 
non-ordinary powers and abilities which suggest the use of sensory faculties 
which transcend the range and powers of the standard five physical senses. This 
type of power is responsible for telepathy and the range of ET channeling, and 
figures prominently in some of the more spiritually-oriented ET contacts 

—Scott Mandelker 

ET (extraterrestrial) This term has been used for decades (equated with 
“Space Brothers” among the 1950s contactees), but was more recently 
popularized by the Hollywood movie of the same name. It is broadly used to 
describe individual beings and entire planetary races that originate from beyond 
the confines of the physical Earth, and are generally associated with other solar 
systems. ETs are linked to UFO phenomena, modern channeling, worldwide 
abductions, and New Age spiritual philosophy. Individuals who may be called 
“Wanderers, Walk-ins, or ET souls” are considered to be incarnated ET beings 
in human form, who by voluntary agreement, have chosen to enter human 
evolution to better serve planetary development. They agree also to forget and 
lose their higher dimensional powers and awareness, and during their series of 

human incarnations, are susceptible to all the same confusion and suffering as 
non-ET souls. 

—Scott Mandelker 

Extraterrestrial Civilizations Crown Publishers, 1979). Science fact and 
science fiction writer Isaac Asimov believes we are not alone, advanced 
civilizations are common, but they rarely come into contact with each other 
because of the vast distances between them. Using a series of variables in his 
own equation to calculate the numbers of extraterrestrial civilizations, Asimov 
predicts that 600 million planets in our galaxy are life-bearing, of which 
530,000 have produced a technological species which still exists. If these are 
spread evenly throughout the galaxy then 630 light-years separate every two 
neighboring civilizations, a distance sufficiently daunting so that visits may be 
out of the question. 

—Randall Fitzgerald 

Extraterrestrial Encounter David & Charles, 1979). British science writer 
Chris Boyce believes that alien probes or databanks may already be located on 
our planet or somewhere in our solar system. Sometime in the early 21st 
century humankind will obtain a piece of “hard irrefutable evidence” that other 
intelligent life exists, and we must begin preparing for the consequences this 
contact will have on us, challenging our culture, our religions, and all of our 
perceptions of ourselves as a species. 

—Randall Fitzgerald 

extraterrestrial hypothesis The most popular and appealing notion about 
UFOs is the extraterrestrial hypothesis (ETH), the idea that intelligent beings 
from other planets are visiting Earth. To some, it is more than a hypothesis and 
can best be described as a belief. To others, it is an impossibility that should not 
be seriously considered. Much emotion has predominated these debates since 
the late 1940s. 

The ETH hinges on a long list of variables related to stellar and planetary 
physics and chemistry, and evolutionary biology. Data acquired on other 
planets in the solar system since the 1960s, mainly through onsite 
instrumentation delivered by American and Russian space probes, have made 
very dismal the prospects of extraterrestrial life in the solar system, much less 
intelligent life. The Victorian image of advanced beings on Mars carefully 
nurturing scarce water resources supplied by annual melting polar caps has 

been totally discarded, and even the most active proponents of the ETH now 
accept the fact that if UFOs represent alien intelligence, we must look 
elsewhere; that is, outside the solar system to planets associated with other 

The closest stellar system to our Sun is Alpha Centauri A, B, and C—a 
triple-star system located 1.32 parsecs from the solar system, equivalent to 4.3 
light-years or 39.6 trillion kilometers. (A light-year represents the distance 
covered by electromagnetic radiation, such as light, in a one Earth-year period, 
at a speed of about 300,000 kilometers per second. A light-year is thus 
equivalent to almost 10 trillion kilometers, or 6.25 trillion miles.) 

Moving out to a radius of about five parsecs (16.7 light-years), there are 
about 40 more stars, some of which are good candidates for possessing life¬ 
bearing planets. All of these are located in a relatively provincial region of our 
Milky Way galaxy, which has been estimated to contain between 100 and 130 
billion stars. So, on the surface, it would appear that the UFO problem is 
resolved by the very large number of possible abodes for intelligent life in the 
galaxy. Beyond our own galaxy are many millions of other galaxies, reaching 
out to the edge of the observable universe. The number of potentially habitable 
planets in the entire universe is almost too awesome to contemplate, and most 
astronomers content themselves with speculating on the number of habitable 
planets in our own Milky Way galaxy. 

Several hundred galaxies are visible in this view of the universe, called the “Hubble Deep Field,” 

made with NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope. 

One Rand Corporation study, for example, produced a figure of 600 million 
planets in the galaxy capable of supporting intelligent life. More conservative 
analyses have produced a figure of 10 million habitable planets and a figure of 
4.5 million planets on which sufficient time has elapsed for life to have evolved 
to intelligence, and the late Cornell University planetary astronomer Carl Sagan 
calculated the number of advanced technical civilizations in the galaxy at one 

Astronomers have used various methods to arrive at these figures, usually 
for the purpose of estimating the number of possible sources of intelligent 
extraterrestrial signals. Since 1971, the study of this topic has become quite 
fashionable in astronomical circles and has been labeled the Search for 
Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI). Basically, the SETI-type analyses represent 
a process of elimination. Habitable planets should be affiliated with single-star 
systems, like our own, as binary- or triple-star systems would usually result in 
planets experiencing unstable orbits and periodically entering areas of intense 
heat or cold. At least half of the stars in the galaxy are thought to actually 
involve binary-, triple-, or even quadruple-star systems, and these are thus 
immediately eliminated from serious consideration. In a close study of the 123 
sunlike stars visible to the eye in the Northern Hemisphere (all within 85 light- 

years of Earth), astronomers Helmut A. Abt and Saul Levy found that 57 
percent did indeed have stellar companions. 

The parent star must also be of a certain mass, and it should be in its “calm 
phase,” allowing several billion years of stability for life to evolve. The mass of 
the planet itself is also important, as this will result in the retention or loss of 
numerous important chemical components necessary for carbon-based life. Its 
mass must be greater than 0.4 but less than 2.35 that of the Earth, and, in order 
to avoid overheating or overcooling, its period of rotation should be less than 
four Earth days. 

In making all these kinds of calculations, however, astronomers have 
generally ignored important evolutionary factors, and have proceeded on the 
basis that, once life begins, “intelligence” will sooner or later evolve. While 
there are some good reasons for believing this, related to the increase in 
physiological complexity up the phylogenetic scale observable on Earth, there 
is no actual proof to support this belief. 

A Miocene/Pliocene-ape lineage evolved into man only through a long 
series of chance and complex environmental, morphological, and social 
interactions occurring in unison at given places in given times. The probability 
of similar interactions occurring in unison elsewhere is not high. 

Even accepting the figure of one million civilizations proposed by Sagan, 
the problems related to an extraterrestrial origin of UFOs appear, on the 
surface, to be insoluble. Such civilizations would be spread randomly across 
the galaxy, which is about 100,000 light-years across and 30,000 light-years 
wide, and the average distances between them would be far too great for 
spacecraft to cross them on such a routine basis as implied by UFO reports. 

A good example of a first primitive effort is Pioneer X, launched in March 
1972, which will be the first man-made object to leave the solar system and 
penetrate interstellar space. At its relatively slow speed, it would take over 
100,000 years for Pioneer X to reach Alpha Centauri, our closest stellar 
neighbor, if it were moving in that direction, which it is not. In fact, it will take 
billions of years, perhaps even more time than the age of the galaxy itself, for 
Pioneer X to pass within less than 3 billion miles of another star, and the 
probability of such a star harboring advanced intelligent life (at that time) is 
almost absolute zero. 

It is these enormous interstellar distances which are difficult to reconcile 
with UFO reports, which sometimes give the impression that an operation the 
size of the Normandy landings is in progress. However, there are no physical 

laws prohibiting interstellar travel within human life-spans. The main obstacles, 
at least in our case, appear to be financial and, as a result, engineering. 

Several types of rocket propulsion systems besides the currently used 
chemical ones have been proposed over the years to surmount the problem of 
the vast interstellar distances: ion, nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, and photon. 
“Ideal” photon propulsion, which would convert all of its fuel into radiation 
and would have a very high exhaust velocity, has been called the most efficient, 
while another proposal called for a nuclear fusion-based interstellar ramjet 
which would scoop up interstellar gas as a source of energy. 

Others have proposed more efficient multistage nuclear systems which 
would permit travel to Alpha Centauri (4.3 light-years) in nine to fourteen years 
(Earth time) utilizing a fission rocket, and six to seven years (Earth time) 
utilizing a fusion rocket. Return trips (involving deceleration at Alpha 
Centauri), however, would involve sixty-six years (Earth time) with a fission 
rocket and twenty-nine years (Earth time) with a fusion rocket, barely within a 
human life-span. 

Another analysis has indicated that only photon rockets would have the 
capability for really long interstellar flights, nuclear fission and fusion systems 
permitting only short interstellar flights, and ion rockets being totally 

In the late 1970s, the British Interplanetary Society (BIS) proposed a fly-by 
of Barnard’s star, which is believed to possess one or two planets. The BIS 
concept involves a two-staged rocket, Daedalus, about 600 feet in length, which 
would be ready for launch by about the year 2075. Weighing 54,000 tons, the 
vehicle would accelerate up to almost one eighth the speed of light, but would 
take fifty years to travel the meager 5.9 light-years to its destination. 
Furthermore, Daedalus, powered by a nuclear fusion-based propulsion system, 
would be an unmanned vehicle. 

A major factor involving interstellar travel which is often overlooked is that 
of “time dilation.” An object, such as a spaceship, traveling at a relativistic 
speed (that is, close to the speed of light) would be subject to the effects 
predicted by Albert Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity. The passing of time 
on Earth, if it could be observed from the spaceship, would appear to be 
speeded up, and the passing of time on the spaceship relative to a percipient on 
Earth (or on any slower moving object) would appear to be comparatively slow. 
Thus, an astronaut returning to Earth following a relativistic flight could 
suddenly find that he is the same “age” as the son he left behind, or even much 

younger. In fact, depending on the speed at which he traveled, and the length of 
time he maintained that speed, he could find that hundreds, thousands, or even 
millions of years had transpired on Earth during his absence. It is important to 
note that the astronaut would not perceive time passing “slower” on the 
spaceship (as, indeed, it would not be), just as we do not perceive it passing 
“faster” on Earth. The astronaut would not live longer in the biological sense; 
his “absolute” life-span would be unaffected. What would permit him to 
survive millions of years “longer” relative to those still on “Earth time” is the 
peculiar and hard-to-understand concept of relativity theory, which goes 
beyond the more comprehensible laws of classical mechanics. 

The Special Theory of Relativity is not just a fanciful and esoteric idea 
which might or might not be valid. Like many of Einstein’s propositions, it has 
withstood the test of time and has been validated in numerous ways in many 
observations and experiments. Perhaps the most interesting was an experiment 
conducted by the U. S. Naval Observatory in October of 1971. Four atomic 
clocks were flown twice around the world (in opposite directions) at 
commercial jet speeds to determine the time differences they would experience 
relative to “control” clocks which remained at the observatory. 

Because the clocks at the Observatory were actually moving (due to the 
Earth’s rotation), Special Relativity predicted a loss of 40 (give or take 23) 
nanoseconds (billionths of a second) on the eastward trip (consistent with the 
Earth’s rotation), which lasted 41.2 hours, and a gain of 275 (give or take 21) 
nanoseconds on the westward trip (against the Earth’s rotation), which lasted 
48.6 hours. The experiment validated the prediction: On the eastward flight, the 
clocks lost about 59 nanoseconds (they “aged” slower), and on the westward 
flight they gained about 273 nanoseconds (they “aged” faster), thus 
demonstrating the reality of time dilation. 

The implications of the phenomenon of time dilation relative to interstellar 
travel, and UFOs, are enormous. The following figures represent the lengths of 
time a vehicle would take to reach certain destinations as perceived on Earth 
relative to the lengths of time it would take as perceived on the spaceship, 
assuming a constant acceleration of one Earth gravity (lg.) up to a high 
relativistic speed during the first half of the flight, and a constant deceleration 
of lg. during the second half. 

As can be seen, even travel to the known limits of the universe can be 
accomplished within a normal human life-span. Astronauts could travel to 
nearby stars, nearby galaxies, or even go “galaxy chasing,” all within fifty 

years spaceship time , although billions of years could have transpired on Earth. 
The main factor would be speed: so long as a high relativistic speed is attained 
and maintained, all this would be possible, but if the spaceship were to 
decelerate for any reason, such as to enable visitation to interesting places, the 
time dilation effect would dramatically lose its potency. 

The main argument which can be used against the time dilation effect for 
interstellar travel, particularly in regard to possible extraterrestrial UFOs, is that 
the astronauts would have to leave behind all their families and friends, never 
to see them again. It is also highly questionable whether a society, however 
technologically advanced, would be willing to finance such a venture when it 
would have absolutely no possibility of ever knowing the results. 

(one way only) 

Flight Duration 
(Earth time) 

Flight Duration 
(spaceship time) 

Alpha Centauri 

6 years 

3 years 

Center of Milky Way galaxy 

30,000 years 

19 years 

Andromeda galaxy 

750,000 years 

26 years 

Known limits of the universe 

30 billion years 

46 years 

The same argument can be used against the SETI signal approach, in that by 
the time another society received the message, the sending society may have 
radically altered its “state of mind” or even ceased to exist. 

To solve the “time-gap” problem in interstellar travel, Johns Hopkins 
astrophysicist Richard C. Henry has proposed that the astronauts “take their 
friends with them.” In other words, one could envision increasing colonization 
in the vicinity of a home planet, including the hollowing out of giant asteroids, 
and the eventual abandonment of the home star system and displacement across 
interstellar space. That is, the entire society, or a major segment of it, would 
become an interstellar one and could speed up and slow down at will, visiting 
whatever planetary systems, or even galaxies, it wished, without any subgroup 
experiencing time differences relative to the society as a whole. 

Other techniques which could improve even further the practicality of 
interstellar travel are biomagnetic levitation, suspended animation, and 
prolongevity. Biomagnetic levitation would permit the human body to 
withstand an acceleration much higher than lg. to attain relativistic speeds. The 
process would levitate a biological body in a strong inhomogeneous magnetic 

field to compensate for acceleration inertial forces on the body and could 
reduce flight duration times from years to months (spaceship time). 

Suspended animation would involve slowing down all bodily life support 
functions to a minimum, similar to hibernation in some mammals. Suspended 
animation (which would reduce unnecessary aging even during relativistic 
interstellar trips) combined with biomagnetic levitation and time dilation effects 
would vastly increase practical travel distance potentials in interstellar travel. 
As for prolongevity, UFOs, if interstellar in origin, could be controlled by 
beings with biologically longer life-spans, or such life-spans could have been 
artificially lengthened, or the aging process itself could have been eliminated. 
Research in these areas is actively being conducted in the United States, and 
major breakthroughs are expected within decades. Elimination of the aging 
process, now believed to be within man’s grasp by many biological scientists, 
would invalidate all “distance” arguments against the practicality of interstellar 
travel, or the interstellar origin of UFOs. 

Some have proposed that, in the course of time, extraterrestrials could also 
have learned to replace more and more of their body parts with artificial parts, 
as is happening with humans, until beings with more efficient and long-lasting 
“bodies” have resulted. It has even been suggested that biological-based 
intelligence is simply a stepping stone to a higher order of existence, first 
mechanical, and then possibly “psychic,” in which no central processing system 
is required at all. Such possibilities can only be speculated upon, but it should 
be emphasized that extraterrestrial intelligences, if they exist, would have 
enormous lead times over the human species. The statistcal probability of such 
intelligences being at (or even near) man’s current stage of development is 
extremely low. 

All of these possibilities are also assuming that the speed of light is not 
attainable or surpassable, as predicted by Einsteinian physics. Some writers 
have advocated that there may be means of bypassing this Einsteinian 
limitation (not necessarily invalidating it), so as to facilitate interstellar travel, 
and that such could only be accomplished by a society far in advance of our 
own. Carl Sagan, for example, once proposed that such supercivilizations may 
have discovered “new laws of physics” to reduce time intervals in radio 
communication; although, curiously, he did not propose such new laws to 
reduce the times of interstellar travel. 

In the 1970s, increasing interest centered on hypothetical particles named 
tachyons, which would exist in a state faster than the speed of light, although 

their existence has not been conclusively established. The fact is that we still 
understand relatively little of the processes occurring in the universe, and 
certain astrophysical phenomena have demonstrated this quite clearly. 

A colorful analogy has been proposed by University of Texas theoretical 
astrophysicist John Archibald Wheeler (fonnerly at Princeton University), who 
compared our understanding of the universe to what our understanding of an 
auto junkyard would be if all our knowledge of it were gained by viewing it 
through a small instrument lowered by an overhead crane; one would observe 
part of a dented hubcap here, a broken mirror there, but the engine would 
remain usually hidden. It would thus be a very long time indeed before we 
really understood the purpose of all the auto components and how they are 
integrated and work together. 

In the 1980s and 1990s, new theoretical thinking advanced the concept of 
“wormholes.” Such proposed cosmic “tunnels” would make possible spacetime 
short-cuts from one part of a galaxy to another, or even between different 
galaxies in different parts of the universe. The concept is that a wormhole 
would provide almost instant access by a spaceship to any desired location, and 
possibly any desired time, not by crossing space in the traditional method of 
classical physics, but by penetrating the fabric of spacetime in a way that is 
hard for the human mind—accustomed as it is to three-dimensional space—to 

The mathematics underlying the concept of wormholes is sound but 
extremely complex. Although wormholes were predicted early in the century 
by Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity, it was only in the 1980’s that the 
first serious theoretical postulations were made. These were initiated by 
astrophysicist Kip S. Thorne, at the California Institute of Technology, and he 
and other physicists and mathematicians are continuing with such theoretical 
studies. (Curiously, the idea for the initial research came from Carl Sagan, who 
asked Thorne to investigate the possibility of such a transportation gateway so 
that he could include it in his novel Contact, which was published in 1985 and 
produced as a motion picture in 1997. In the story, Sagan’s heroine is not only 
transported through a wormhole, but through a myriad of such tunnels—like a 
sort of subway system of the cosmos. 

Needless to say, the construction of a wormhole, or even the locating and 
using of a “natural” wormhole within practical distance from the Earth, is 
currently far beyond the technical capability of humans. Thorne developed a set 
of nine requirements for the construction of such a wormhole, which would 

require the use of “exotic matter.” However, the needed “exotic matter” would 
probably have to be harvested somehow from a black hole—and it may take a 
wormhole to reach a black hole within a reasonable time in the first place! 

Nevertheless, it is conceivable that, at some time within the coming 
centuries, humans may attain the capability to produce and utilize such 
interstellar gateways for practical interstellar travel. Certainly, if such were to 
occur, all the problems associated with traditional spaceflight, such as the 
distances between the stars and the time it takes to traverse such distances, 
would become obsolete and archaic. 

It is possible that extraterrestrial civilizations, way in advance of humans 
technologically, have mastered the physics and engineering that such kind of 
travel would require. Under such conditions, easy travel from other parts of the 
galaxy to Earth could be quite routine and commonplace. If UFOs do represent 
extraterrestrial craft or devices that traverse wormholes to reach Earth, this 
would help resolve the problem of the inexplicably high frequency of UFO 
sighting reports. 

Whether or not advanced intelligences have more fully understood the 
physics still beyond our grasp, and whether they have eventually taken 
advantage of the enormous energy resources available in the galaxy, are 
questions of profound interest. Physicist Freeman J. Dyson, of the Institute for 
Advanced Study, has written on this topic. He predicts that supercivilizations 
would have taken apart planets and harnessed the complete energy output of 
stars within 100,000 years of becoming technological, and that such operations 
would unavoidably create waste heat in the form of infrared radiation. Star 
collisions would also have been engineered throughout the galaxy, and stars 
would appear grouped and organized to a point where a “tame” galaxy would 
provide various forms of telltale clues. Dyson reluctantly concludes that the 
proposition of a supercivilization at work in our galaxy is not supported by 
observational evidence and, further, that if the galaxy contained a large number 
of civilizations, at least one would have “tamed” the galaxy by now. 

An even more negative conclusion has been reached by Michael H. Hart; he 
states that, because no extraterrestrials have actually come to Earth for 
colonization, there is “.. .strong evidence that we are the first civilization in our 
galaxy....” A similar view has been expressed by Eric M. Jones: “The results 
suggest that no technological/ space faring/colonizing civilization has arisen in 
the galaxy.” 

The reasons for all these negative conclusions is that a technological 

civilization would have rapidly colonized or at least visited the entire galaxy, 
but there is no evidence of such visitation to Earth. UFO reports are, of course, 
not given serious consideration, leading some UFO proponents to regard this 
approach as circular: UFOs cannot represent extraterrestrial visitation because 
if extraterrestrials existed they would visit us! 

A calculation by T. B. H. Kuiper and M. Morris determined that just one 
technological civilization would populate the entire galaxy in a mere five 
million years. As conditions for life on Earth have been suitable for at least a 
billion years, the lack of such visitation can be interpreted as a lack of any 
extraterrestrial civilization in the galaxy. Kuiper and Morris, however, propose 
other explanations, such as purposeful noncontact, as does David W. 
Schwartzman, who even supports the “UFO hypothesis.” 

In considering the extraterrestrial hypothesis for UFOs, then, it should be 
recognized that: 

(1) there are many likely locations for the emergence of life in our galaxy, as 
well as in other galaxies; 

(2) the emergence of life does not necessarily imply the eventual evolution 
of intelligent species; 

(3) if such intelligences have evolved in the galaxy, or in other galaxies, 
they have already existed as such for far longer periods than the 
existence of Homo sapiens; 

(4) one can only speculate over the biological, social, or technical 
development of such hypothetical intelligences; 

(5) average distances between stars are enormous, but factors such as 
moving entire societies, time dilation, suspended animation, 
biomagnetic levitation, and prolongevity, would reduce or even 
eliminate the distance problem; 

(6) our understanding of processes in the universe is still relatively poor, and 
it is premature to decide at this time what is “possible” or what is 

(7) any statement categorically rejecting the hypothesis that UFOs may 
represent some form of interstellar visitation is simplistic and is not 
based on a critical evaluation and synthesis of all relevant factors; 

(8) any acceptance of UFOs as representing extraterrestrial visitation, based 
on the available evidence, can only be construed as a belief unsupported 
by established facts. 

The emotional commitment on the part of those speculating on the ETH, 
positively or negatively, is not likely to diminish as long as UFOs continue to 
be reported, and there is no indication that reports are decreasing with the 
advent of a better-informed public and a more sophisticated Earth-based 

The debate over the extraterrestrial hypothesis for UFOs will probably 
continue for many years to come. 

—J. Richard Greenwell 

extraterrestrial life, history of The idea of extraterrestrial life, which dates 
back at least to the ancient Greeks, has become one of the most persistent 
themes of Western civilization. Nevertheless, historians of science prior to the 
1980s largely ignored it, because it was not believed to constitute science or to 
have any intellectually respectable history. 

With a more realistic concept of the nature of science, however, historians 
have now analyzed the idea in considerable detail, beginning with Steven 
Dick’s Plurality of Worlds: The Origins of the Extraterrestrial Life from 
Democritus to Kant (1982). This work showed that far from being an 
aberration, the idea of life on other worlds was strongly connected to major 
scientific traditions, including the ancient atomist, Copernican, Cartesian, and 
Newtonian world views. The Aristotelian world view strongly opposed it. 

Professor Michael J. Crowe, in his volume entitled The Extraterrestrial Life 
Debate, 1750-1900 (1986), showed how pervasive the idea was in religious and 
intellectual discussion in the 19 th century. Harvard Professor Karl Guthke 
emphasized the literary aspects of the discussion in The Last Frontier: 
Imagining other Worlds from the Copernican Revolution to Modern Science 
Fiction (1990). 

Dick’s The Biological Universe: The Twentieth Century Extraterrestrial Life 
Debate and the Limits of Science (1996), and its abridgment and update, Life on 
other Worlds (1998), covered the entire scope of the debate—from the scientific 
aspects of the search for life to the popular culture elements of UFOs and alien 
science fiction and the implications of contact with extraterrestrial intelligence. 

The history of the debate offers many lessons about the nature of evidence 
and inference, the limits of scientific inquiry, and the differing styles among 
scientists in terms of what problems they take up and how they pursue them. 
Moreover, Dick argues that the idea of a universe filled with life, the 
“Biological Universe” as he terms it, is the major world view of the 20 th 

century. As such, it has implications for all of society, and has the potential to 
change our perspective on theology, philosophy and all areas of human 

The status of extraterrestrial life as a world view comparable to the 
Copernican and Darwinian world views allows one to discuss possible 
implications of contact. All world views go through stages, and a rich literature 
in the history of science has analyzed the reception of past scientific world 
views over the short and long term and among various segments of society. 
Although there are obvious differences among world views, and although 
predictions cannot be made and outcomes are scenario-dependent, the cautious 
use of these analogues may serve as a foundation for discussing the 
implications of contact with extraterrestrial intelligence. 

The biological universe, however, has not yet been proven—either for 
microbial or intelligent life. Claims of proof in the past, ranging from the canals 
of Mars to Martian meteorites and UFOs of extraterrestrial origin, have stirred 
great passion precisely because so much is at stake—an entire world view with 
profound implications for human destiny. Possible implications have become 
part of popular culture in the form of science fiction literature and film, where 
the alien theme has been one of the most dominant. 

—ETEP Staff 


Crowe, M. The Extraterrestrial Life Debate, 1750-1900 (Cambridge University Press, 1986), 

Dick, S. J. Plurality of Worlds: The Origins of the Extraterrestrial Life from Democritus to Kant 
(Cambridge University Press, 1982). 

_. The Biological Universe: The Twentieth Century Extraterrestrial Life Debate and the Limits of 

Science (Cambridge University Press, 1996), 

_. Life on other Worlds (Cambridge, 1998). 

Guthke, K. S. The Last Frontier: Imagining other Worlds from the Copernican Revolution to Modern 
Science Fiction (Cornell University Press, 1990). 

Extraterrestrial Visitations from Prehistoric Times to the Present 

(Editions J’ai Lu, 1970). Jacques Bergier makes a series of extraordinary 
claims: extraterrestrials intentionally exploded a star so its radiation would kill 
the dinosaurs on Earth and enable humans to evolve; beings of light bestowed 
secret interplanetary knowledge on the Rosicrucians and Freemasons; at least 
two million people disappear worldwide each year and many reappear with 
false memories designed to puzzle the rest of us; Bigfoot, elves, fairies and 

other creatures are manufactured by extraterrestrial intelligence and deposited 
among us in an experiment to test our reactions; and all of human evolution is a 
continuing experiment conducted by higher intelligences who have us in 
cosmic quarantine. 

—Randall Fitzgerald 

Extraterrestrials...Where are They? (Pergamon Press, 1982) edited by Ben 
Zuckerman and Michael Hart. Twenty-two essays argue that humans may be 
the most advanced species in the galaxy. It is a waste of time and money to 
search for radio signals, goes their argument, because even if other advanced 
technological civilizations existed, they would be of such short duration that 
they would have quickly given up on searching for or sending signals of their 

—Randall Fitzgerald 

Eyes of the Sphinx, The (Berkley Books, 1996). Erich von Daniken says the 
ancient Sumerians and Egyptians preserve evidence in their art of hybrid 
creatures which were genetically designed by alien visitors. These creatures 
included humans who were mixed with animals in ghoulish combinations, 
which explains why the Olmec and Mayan cultures featured human-animal 
hybrids in art representations on their temple walls. 

—Randall Fitzgerald 

Ezekiel’s wheel Ezekiel, who lived in the sixth century b.c., was one of the 
most colorful of the Hebrew prophets. His writings are contained in the Old 
Testament of the Bible. In 597 b.c., Ezekiel was among several thousand 
captives carried off to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar II in the first of three 
captivities of the Jews. (Nebuchadnezzar IFs reign of forty-four years, from 
about 605-562, marked the peak of the Chaldean or neo-Babylonian kingdom.) 
The prophet Ezekiel lived among the exiles at Tel Abib on the Chebar River, or 
Grand Canal, which stretched alongside the town of Nippur from Babylon to 

It was in the fifth year of the Judean captivity, in 593 b.c., that Ezekiel 
described a vivid experience that represented his call to prophesy. This account 
in the first three chapters of “The Book of the Prophet Ezekiel” is generally 
explained as a visionary experience while in a state of trance. Indeed, the story 
has all the earmarks of a religious revelation: God, seated in a throne, descends 
to Earth in a wondrous heavenly chariot; angels accompany Him; the “eyes 

round about” indicate God’s all-seeing, all-knowing power. Ezekiel, according 
to this interpretation, is commissioned to speak God’s word to a rebellious 
nation. He is told Israel will be punished for its sins, and the warning is 
emphasized on a scroll. The prophet is warned of the resistance he will meet. 
After the glory of the Lord departs, Ezekiel goes to his people and sits in a daze 
for a week. 

Quite a different slant on Ezekiel’s experience, and a more bizarre one perhaps, 
is the hypothesis that Ezekiel had a dramatic encounter with a UFO. 

In spite of the weird imagery and elaborate symbolism employed by the 
prophet, and in spite of the difficulty of extracting meaningful details from the 
account, a thread of coherence does run through the first three chapters of the 
book. When viewed in the light of the current UFO phenomenon, a surprising 
tale of a biblical UFO landing and contact emerges. The description is 
remarkably similar to many modern low-level encounters with UFOs. 

What follows is a modern interpretation of the Book of Ezekiel, chapters 1 
through 3. It is a free, imaginative interpretation and as such is purely 
speculative. But it does not require much imagination to realize how a UFO 
witness of the sixth century b.c. would react in the presence of an 
extraterrestrial spacecraft. He would probably behave precisely the way Ezekiel 
did. In fact, he might even regard the event as simply God’s way of revealing 
Himself to chosen mortals. It would, of course, be extremely difficult for 
Ezekiel to describe an advanced flying craft and its occupants. He would have 
to use terminology and comparisons familiar to him in his day. 

Thus, the prophet’s experience might translate something like this: As he sat 
by the Chaldean river Chebar one day in 593 b.c., the priest Ezekiel suddenly 
noticed what appeared to be a bright, fiery cloud of amber color coming out of 
the north. As the “cloud” drew closer, four disk-shaped objects (“wheels”) 
became visible and approached. At least one of the disks landed near where 
Ezekiel stood. 

All the objects had the same appearance—“the color of a beryl [greenish]” 
... like “a wheel in the middle of a wheel [an outer rim encircling a round 
center section]’’...and “eyes round about them four (probably portholes or 
windows].” Describing their maneuvers, Ezekiel said “when they went, they 
went upon their four sides, and they turned not when they went.” 

Four humanoid creatures traveled back and forth from the craft. At times 
they were visible through a transparent dome on each disk. Though this portion 
of the account is particularly difficult to decipher in terms of the UFO 

phenomenon, the beings each had four “wings,” which might have been a 
helicopter-like device strapped to their backs. Whatever the “wings” were, they 
allowed the creatures to maneuver about rapidly (“and the living creatures ran 
and returned as the appearance of a flash of lightning”). The prophet also 
stated: “And when they went, I heard the noise of their wings, like the noise of 
great water...” 

The beings wore shimmering, shiny garments, or spacesuits, like “burning 
coals of fire,” with transparent helmets on top—“the firmament upon the 
heads... was as the color of the terrible crystal, stretched forth over their heads 
above [a similar transparent dome on the craft].” 

Although Ezekiel had no idea what forces propelled the mysterious 
“wheels,” he linked control of the disks to the creatures: “When those [the 
creatures] went, these [the wheels] went; and when those stood, these stood; 
and when those were lifted up from the Earth, the wheels were lifted up over 
against them: for the spirit of the living creature was in the wheels.” 

The witness to this amazing event goes on to describe “the likeness of a 
throne [pilot’s chair?]” located above (?) the ship’s dome with “the likeness... 
of a man” seated in it, dressed in an amber-colored, glittering garment. Ezekiel 
was so awestruck and frightened by this figure that he fell upon his face (1:28). 

Ezekiel’s “wheels” as conceived by former NASA engineer Josef F. Blumrich 

A voice emanating from one of the ships told him to get up and then it 
proceeded to address him. It complained of attacks against him by his people 
(they “hath rebelled against me”) and warned that any further provocation 
would bring punishment (in our own age UFOs have been shot at from the air 

and from the ground). A scroll was spread out before Ezekiel. It evidently listed 
complaints against the Israelites. The witness was told to consider these 
complaints carefully and deliver the message of warning to his people. Ezekiel, 
according to this view, was selected as a spokesman for the space voyagers. He 
was also told he would be ridiculed and scoffed at by persons who would not 
believe his experience- the plight of many UFO witnesses today. 

Then the amazed prophet was taken aboard (“then the spirit took me up”), 
and he heard “the noise of the wheels.. .and a noise of a great rushing.” He was 
carried to Tel Abib, where his fellow exiles were and where he sat “astonished 
among them seven days.” At the end of that period he recalled more clearly 
what had happened. 

Ezekiel received word (telepathically?) again from the voice to “go forth 
into the plain, and I will talk with thee.” This he did, and when he saw the same 
figure “which I saw by the river of Chebar.. .1 fell on my face.” Once again the 
note of warning was repeated for Ezekiel to convey to his people. 

The figure in his shining uniform appears again (dream?) in Chapter 8. And 
in Chapter 10 the four wheels turn up once more with the figure and winged 
creatures, but these repetitions may have been the handiwork of other writers 
trying to improve or expand Ezekiel’s book. However, the first three chapters of 
the book are believed to be the work of the prophet himself 

Having no knowledge of machines or spaceships, it would be natural for 
Ezekiel to assume he had been in the presence of supernatural powers. We may 
never know whether his experience was, in fact, a religious vision or an 
encounter with extraterrestrial visitors. 

-Walter N. Webb 


“Face” on Mars On July 25, 1976, as NASA’s Viking 1 spacecraft orbited 
Mars in search of a suitable spot for the next Viking lander, it photographed a 
relatively crater-free region known as Cydonia. Strewn with rocky mesas and 
devoid of dried river channels, Cydonia did not pique NASA’s interest as a 
promising candidate for harboring traces of possible ancient life. However, 
after the photos were released to the public, one of the many mesas seen in 
#035A72 captured the national spotlight because of its striking resemblance to 
a humanoid face, complete with headdress. 

Section of NASA Viking photo #035A72 showing the controversial “Face” on Mars 

Speculation then arose in some quarters that perhaps this 1.2-mile-wide x 
1.6-mile-long structure was not a natural surface feature at all, but rather an 
artificial monument. Could it have been constructed by a once-thriving Martian 
civilization? Was it erected by beings from elsewhere in the galaxy during a 

brief junket through our solar system, perhaps as a “calling card” for when we 
became a space-faring species? Or might earthlings—from our own future—be 

Hoagland’s “City” is imagined to be in the left portion of this picture. 

The person most responsible for promoting the “Face” on Mars is Richard 
C. Hoagland, a gifted speaker and author of the popular 1987 book, The 
Monuments of Mars: A City on the Edge of Forever. Yes, a “City.” For within 
frame #035A72, Hoagland and his associates thought they had discovered 
evidence of, among other relics, a “fortress,” an artificial “cliff,” a “five “five¬ 
sided pyramid” with humanoid “proportions” (its “head...apparently damaged 
by explosive penetration,” pointing directly toward the more-famous “Face”), 
and a collection of structures dubbed the “City Square.” 

According to Hoagland, the city may date back approximately 500,000 years 
to a time when, if one had stood in the middle of the City Square, “the Summer 
Solstice sun would have arisen directly over the ‘Face.’” 

The publisher’s foreword to Hoagland’s book describes the author as 
somewhat of a science prodigy: “Richard C. Hoagland is, by career, a science 
writer as well as a consultant in the fields of astronomy, planetarium curating, 
and space-program education....In 1965, at the age of nineteen, [Hoagland] 

became Curator (possibly the youngest in the country) of the Springfield, 
Massachusetts, Museum of Science....In 1966 Hoagland served as NBC 
consultant for the historic soft landing of a U.S. spacecraft on the moon 
—Surveyor 1. Later he appeared on ‘The Tonight Show’ explaining the 
significance of the landing to Johnny Carson....At Christmas of [1968] he was 
asked to become a consultant to CBS News...and served as [a science] advisor 
to Walter Cronkite.” 

But in 1990, with no NASA program yet in the works to aggressively 
explore Cydonia, despite Hoagland’s public proclamations about “a 
groundswell of official NASA interest” in his findings, I set out to learn a bit 
more about NASA’s position. 

Dr. David Morrison, Chief of the Space Science Division at NASA’s Ames 
Research Center, informed me that Hoagland was largely “self-educated” in 
science, and that he (Morrison) knew of “no one in the scientific community, or 
who is associated with the NASA Mars Science Working Group, or who is 
working on Mars mission plans at such NASA centers as Ames, Johnson, or 
JPL [Jet Propulsion Laboratory], who ascribes even the smallest credibility to 
[Hoagland’s] weird ideas about Mars.” None of the other three NASA officials 
responding to my inquiries knew of any interest at all in Hoagland’s claims. 

Then on April 5, 1998, as part of its orbital photography mission, the Mars 
Global Surveyor returned images of Cydonia taken at more than ten times the 
resolution of the earlier Viking 1 pictures of 1976. Now, our new and improved 
view of the “Face” reveals it to be nothing more than what NASA scientists 
said it was all along: a natural feature, like many others on Mars, blown into the 
dusty, rocky surface by the planet’s fierce, swirling winds. 

The supposed “Face” is resolved into its true irregular features in this Mars Global Surveyor 


With the benefit of 20/20 hindsight, has Hoagland now abandoned his 
“City”? Oddly, a visit to his Web site ( reveals just 
the opposite. 

—Gary P. Posner 

Fads and Fallacies In the Name of Science (G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1952). 
Science writer Martin Gardner wrote this classic—the first book to take a 
skeptical, “debunking” approach to the growing belief in extraterrestrial 
visitors. Most UFOs are mis-perceptions and delusions, Gardner says, and 
UFO-book authors are preying upon human gullibility; particularly Major 
Donald Keyhoe, Gerald Heard, and Frank Scully. 

—Randall Fitzgerald 

fairy lore and UFO encounters An age-old and nearly universal folk belief 
alleges that a race of supernatural beings shares the Earth with humankind. 
These beings are seldom seen because they live underground or are invisible. It 
is further alleged that they live in some magical place, where they are numerous 
and have cities, customs, and civilizations of their own. The generic term for 
such a being is “fairy.” 

Human contact with fairies is rare, often hazardous, and in some striking 

respects can be likened to encounters with UFOs. Fairies come in all shapes 
and sizes, some of them tall and beautiful while others are animallike and 
monstrous. The most familiar type is shorter than human height and similar in 
some respects to the humanoids associated with UFOs. 

This fairy, known as “Pwca,” was drawn by a Welsh peasant with a piece of coal. 

The best-known fairies belong to Ireland and other Celtic lands, but folk 
traditions of diminutive supernatural beings are worldwide. In European 
folklore, Germany has dwarfs while Sweden has elves and trolls. Various forms 
of Jinn inhabit the Islamic world, while the Devas of India, the kappas of Japan, 
and the duwende of the Philippines populate Asian folklore. The Mmoetia 
appear in western Africa, while the Pygmies describe a spirit race even smaller 
than themselves. The Hawaiians have legends of the Menehune, while in 
American Elves John E. Roth has compiled a booklength catalogue of fairy 
types in the folklore of the American Indians. 

The broadest similarities between fairies and UFO occupants are their 
mutual otherworld origin and possession of extraordinary powers or skills. 
Fairies paralyze assailants, seem part physical and part immaterial, and impart 
prophetic messages to humans. Fairies float or fly, and in some strands of 

tradition sail ships through the air or climb a ladder into a cloud. A common 
motif in fairy lore is the fairy mound or hill that rises up on pillars of light 
during nocturnal celebrations, creating a sight very similar to a landed UFO. 

Nowadays, a “fairy ring” may be considered a UFO landing spot. 

Fairies may have a short stature, large head, piercing eyes, and crippled feet 
or a clumsy gait—features more or less readily comparable to UFO humanoids. 
Similarities in fairy and UFO lore have been treated at length by Jacques Vallee 
in Passport to Magonia (1969), Jerome Clark and Loren Coleman in The 
Unidentified (1975), and Hilary Evans in Visions, Apparitions, Alien Visitors 

An extended list of comparisons link fairy beliefs with UFO abduction 
accounts. Abductee Betty Andreasson’s childhood experience of playing in the 
woods when a short being emerged out of the ground, dressed in clothing like 
the rough bark of a tree, describes a fairy encounter with no more 
modernization than the substitution of an alien being for the supernatural. She 
later visited an otherworld that had more in common with an underground 
fairyland than another planet. On one trip she saw a beautiful crystalline forest; 
on another she passed through a tunnel to a lush and fertile land of plentiful 
light, but no sun or visible horizon. Fairyland is often underground and entered 
through a tunnel, devoid of sunlight but lit by a perpetual twilight. The place is 
extraordinary in its beauty, though the appearance may be sustained by magical 
deception. Like fairies, alien abductors are proficient in mind control and prone 
to deceive their captives. 

Abducting aliens show a keen interest in reproduction by examining 
genitals, harvesting eggs and sperm. They also indicate that their home planet 
has lost its fertility and they somehow need humans to restore the viability of 
their race. Fairies lack reproductive self-sufficiency as well. They steal human 

children, take human mates, or need a human midwife to assist at a fairy birth. 
One common practice is exchange of a human baby for an elderly fairy. This 
changeling has a wizened look and wisdom beyond its apparent age, features 
comparable with the “wise babies” described by Budd Hopkins in Intruders 

A human who meets fairies may experience the “supernatural lapse of time,” 
wherein a few minutes or hours spent in fairy company translates into years or 
centuries elapsed in earthly time, the sort of shocking discovery that Rip Van 
Winkle made when he returned home. The time lapse of abductees is a loss of 
memory rather than a loss of years, but a break in the continuity of time occurs 
in both cases. Some contacts with fairies lead to gains of supernatural powers 
or knowledge, while some abductees receive prophecies or acquire psychic 
powers. Unfriendly fairy encounters lead to injury or insanity, while the 
personalities of some abductees also deteriorate. 

A mother struggles with the fairies as they try to abduct her baby. 

Any recognition of the similarities between UFO lore and fairy lore must 
also reckon with the extensive differences. Few fairies are hairless or large¬ 
eyed, as so many aliens are, and no fairy drives a spaceship. Yet the parallels 
between fairy kidnappings and abductions are too striking to ignore, and 
suggest that fairy lore, near-death experiences, and perhaps abduction accounts 
as well may stem from some subjective, psychological experience common to 

all people. The basic content may be inherent in the human mind even if the 
outer trappings belong to a particular time and culture. 

—Thomas Eddie Bullard 

FATE magazine Long before the paranormal was popular, FATE magazine was 
publishing true reports of the strange and unknown. FATE first hit the 
newsstands in the spring of 1948. Co-founded by Ray Palmer and Curtis Fuller, 
the magazine’s first cover story was a feature by Kenneth Arnold as he shared 
in his own words the unknown objects he saw over Mount Rainier one fateful 
day in 1947. 

Arnold’s sighting inspired the modern UFO era, and his story propelled the 
fledgling FATE to national recognition. Ray Palmer had worked as editor of 
several science fiction pulp magazines (including the venerable Amazing 
Stories) and head of the fiction group at Ziff-Davis Publishing Company in the 
1930s and 1940s. Curtis Fuller was also an accomplished editor. He and his 
wife Mary took full control of FATE magazine in 1955, when Palmer sold his 
interest in the venture. The Fullers expanded the magazine’s focus, and 
increased readership to over 100,000 subscribers. 

The Fullers published the magazine until 1988, when they sold it to the 
present owner, Llewellyn Worldwide, Ltd. In his farewell editorial, Fuller 
explained: “Our purpose throughout this long time has been to explore and 
report honestly the strangest facts in this strange world-ones that don’t fit into 
the general beliefs of the way things are.” 

From personal accounts of UFOs and ghosts, to scientific examinations of 
psychic phenomena and mysterious places, FATE ’s main purpose continues to 
be honest reporting and open discussion of strange and unexplainable events. 

FATE Magazine 
Address: P.O. Box 64383 

St. Paul, MN 55164-0383 

Web site: 

Fatima (Portugal), miracle at The “miracle of Fatima,” which occurred in 
Portugal in 1917, has been given acceptance by the Catholic Church as a 
miraculous occurrence. However, because the series of incidents culminated 
with the witnessing by fifty thousand persons of a large, silver, aerial disk, 
which performed incredible maneuvers, it is also considered to be of definite 
UFOlogical value. It deserves study also because numerous aspects of the 

occurrence seem to parallel other outstanding UFO cases. 

The village of Aljustrel, where the events took place, lies one half mile south 
of Fatima, Portugal. In 1917, very few of the villagers were literate; they were 
isolated from happenings of national and international interest. 

In the summer of 1915, a young Aljustrel peasant girl, Lucia Abobora, and a 
group of other children were herding their families’ sheep in the deserted 
countryside. They viewed what they described as a white, glowing figure move 
majestically three times over an adjacent valley. When Lucia, then aged eight 
years, tried to tell her family about the object which “looked like someone 
wrapped in a sheet,” she was ridiculed. 

In 1916, Lucia was joined in her shepherdess duties by two smaller cousins, 
Francisco Marto, then seven years old, and Jacinta Marto, age five. While 
herding the flocks, they spent the time laughing, playing games, and listening 
to Lucia tell stories. 

The entry of Portugal into World War I, and the takeover of the government 
by anti-Christian factions, did not disturb the pastoral serenity of the villagers’ 
lives. One day, while tending their sheep, the three children sought shelter from 
a violent storm and were astonished to see a strange light approaching them 
from the east. It stopped very near them, at the entrance of a tiny cave, and 
became distinguishable as a “transparent young man,” fully human and 
handsome in appearance. He introduced himself as “the Angel of Peace” and 
invited them to pray with him. The children entered a trance-like state with 
suspension of bodily powers, which continued for some time after the entity’s 
disappearance. This same radiant being appeared twice more; after the third 
visit, they were left in a state of tranquil lethargy which persisted for a week. 

They kept these experiences to themselves for fear of ridicule, but their lives 
and personalities subtly changed. They became more contemplative, less 
boisterous, dancing and singing less than before. The war, too, began to touch 
their pastoral lives with the departure of some of their male relatives for 
military service. 

On May 13, 1917, two tremendous flashes, like lightning, sent the three 
children scurrying for shelter in an isolated area called the Cova da Iria. The 
Cova was a great wooded hollow, a favorite place for grazing sheep. They were 
stopped in their headlong dash by the sight of a ball of light hovering above a 
small, three-foot evergreen tree. In its midst was a woman, exquisitely beautiful 
but serious-faced. Everything about her—her form, face, tunic-style garment, 
mantle, even a rosary dangling from her hands—seemed composed of brilliant 

white light, except the edges of the mantle which glittered with a golden hue. 
The ball of light in which she was encircled extended about a meter and one 
half in diameter all around her. 

The children felt “great joy and peace” in her presence. The Lady introduced 
herself as being “from Heaven” and answered many questions put to her by the 
amazed witnesses. She spoke Portuguese in low, musical tones. She asked the 
children to pray for the end of the war and promised to return on the thirteenth 
day of the next five successive months. Then, still enclosed in the glowing 
globe, she floated off to the east, disappearing into the distance. 

The children decided not to tell anyone what had occurred, but six-year-old 
Jacinta could not contain her excitement, and the secret got out. Her protective 
parents were impressed by the girl’s repetition of the sophisticated language the 
woman had used. Francisco’s statements lent credence to the occurrence, in the 
Marto family’s estimation. Lucia, however, was ridiculed and scolded, 
particularly by her sharp-tongued mother. 

As the children kept the dates of the Lady’s successive appearances, curious 
villagers and outsiders accompanied them. The crowds became progressively 
larger, more aggressive, and persistent. The children resented their interference 
and made every effort to avoid them. By the third visit of the Lady to the Cova 
da Iria, about twenty-five hundred curious onlookers were there, including 
many wealthy persons among the poorly clad peasants. None but the children 
saw or heard the apparition, but many reported hearing a sound like a very faint 
voice, similar to “the buzzing of a bee.” Others noticed an odd dimming of the 
noonday sun, and the top of the small tree curved and bent as if an invisible 
weight was pressed upon it. Another phenomenon noted by startled witnesses 
was a “small cloud” which descended upon the tiny tree at the moment the 
children became entranced. 

On July 13th, the Lady promised to reveal her name on October 13th and 
stated that on that date a miracle would occur “so that everyone would have to 
believe.” Then, according to the children, streams of light poured from her 
fingers, seemingly opening the surface of the earth. A terrifying scene of fire 
was revealed to the children in which were “devils... horrible and loathsome 
forms of animals frightful and unknown.” The Lady told the children they were 
seeing a “vision of hell.” She prophesied the ending of World War 1, the rise of 
Communist Russia, and a second World War. She also gave them a secret 
which is said to be known only to the Pope in Rome. 

Though the two younger witnesses’ family remained supportive, Lucia’s 

family believed she was a hoaxer and liar. She was questioned by the village 
priest, who felt Lucia was truthful, but he suspected that the apparitions might 
be “the work of the devil.” This suspicion multiplied her mother’s fears, and 
she began to treat her daughter badly. Lucia persisted in her belief that the Lady 
was beautiful and good. 

By August, the news of the apparitions had spread throughout Portugal. The 
secular newspapers and magazines were generous with space and sarcastic in 
interpretation. The Catholic press was characteristically cautious. The children 
continued to be persecuted by crowds of persons—skeptical and devout alike— 
who visited daily in their homes. The children’s lives and personalities changed 
drastically. Forsaking childhood interests and games, they began to make 
sacrifices, often foregoing food and drink in response to the Lady’s request to 
“do penance for sinners to save them from hellfire.” Jacinta began to have 
prophetic visions of a second World War, many of which were later realized. 

The press continued its persecution, and, as a result, the civil authorities 
entered the controversy. The children were ordered to trial on August 11, 1917, 
for “disturbing the peace.” Lucia’s family forced her to face trial, hoping it 
would serve as a lesson to persuade her to retract her statements. She refused to 
answer questions put to her at court and ignored the cruel laughter of onlookers. 
She was finally dismissed with a threat of execution if she did not reveal the 
“secret” the Lady had given her and her two companions. All three children 
seemed prepared to die rather than break the Lady’s confidence. 

On the day of the fourth promised visit, they were furtively kidnaped by the 
administrator of the Fatima district, Arturo de Oliveira Santos. After 
interrogating them without success, he threw them into an illkept jail. Later he 
separated them, one at a time, and told the others that they “had been boiled in 
oil.” Even this desperate ploy failed. The children would not break. Defeated, 
Santos took them back to Aljustrel. 

Meanwhile, on August 13th, without the children being present, six 
thousand witnesses at the Cova heard a low rumbling; the origin was 
undetectable. They viewed a flash of light, and a small white cloud floated in 
from the east, coming to rest over the little evergreen. During this series of 
events, the faces and clothes of the throng were tinged with vivid, rainbow 

On the thirteenth of September, a vast crowd filled the hollow of the Cova 
da Iria. Among them were a few Catholic priests, who were curious about the 
incidents which were causing extreme controversy in Church circles. An 

eminent visitor, Monsignor Joao Quaresma, viewed the luminous globe which 
heralded the Lady’s approach and described it later as a heavenly “carriage.” 
Also present was the Reverend Dr. Manuel Nunes Formigao, noted for his 
scholarship and integrity. He noted the strange dimming of the sun’s light and 
the appearance of stars in some areas of the midday sky. Later, in interrogating 
the children, he sought to entrap them in discrepancies and lies. He was unable 
to do so and went away convinced of their truthfulness. 

On October 13, 1917, the sky was covered with thick clouds and an 
unrelenting rain was falling. The muddy roads leading to Aljustrel were 
clogged with fifty thousand pilgrims and curiosity-seekers. Among them was 
Avelino de Almeida, managing editor of O Seculo, the largest newspaper in 
Lisbon. He was a skeptical, cautious man, antireligious in nature. 

The children pushed their way through a sea of black umbrellas toward the 
tiny tree. When a flash of light in the east heralded the beginning of the last 
apparition, the crowd saw the children kneel down, entranced. Those nearest 
them were struck by the radiance on their faces. Suddenly, Lucia pointed 
upward and shouted: “Look at the sun!” 

Looking up, the crowd saw the thick rain clouds parting like curtains at the 
zenith. The rain stopped, as a huge silver disk, the apparent size of the sun, 
shone at the top of the sky. It gave out as much light as the sun, but the fifty 
thousand witnesses could stare at it without apparent harm to their eyes. 

The disk began to “dance,” whirling rapidly like a fireworks wheel. On its 
rim, a crimson tinge threw off flames, reflecting onto the throng below in all 
colors of the spectrum. The disk stopped three times, then resumed its rotating 
gyrations. Suddenly, it plunged in a zigzag motion toward the earth. Warmth 
engulfed the vast crowd as many fell to their knees, horrified. The disk then 
climbed back into the sky, in similar zigzag fashion. It quieted, then assumed 
the dazzling brilliance of a normal sun. 

Many in the crowd found that their rain-drenched clothing had dried in 
seconds. The total phenomenon, from beginning to end, had lasted about ten 

Even the skeptical editor of O Seculo was impressed. He wrote: “It remains 
for those competent to pronounce on the ‘danse macabre’ of the sun which... 
has made hosannas burst from the hearts of the faithful and naturally has 
impressed—as witnesses worthy of belief assure me—even freethinkers and 
other persons not at all interested in religious matters.” 

Two of the young witnesses, Francisco and Jacinta Marto, died in early 

childhood, having prophesied their own deaths long before the actual dates. 
Lucia Abobora was taken under the protection of church authorities. 

Now known as Sister Maria das Dores, she has never publicly revealed the 
last “secret” of the Lady. The Lady, however, identified herself to the children 
as “Our Lady of the Rosary,” and, very slowly, the Catholic Church accepted 
the occurrences as being of miraculous nature. Most of the specific utterances 
of the Lady had definite religious significance. 

Many UFO researchers and authors have considered the Aljustrel (Fatima) 
events to be UFOlogical in nature, if one considers the following parallel 
aspects: (1) initial skepticism and total unpreparedness of the primary 
witnesses; (2) ridicule and persecution suffered by the witnesses; (3) reports of 
“unearthly” entities; (4) a luminous globe which apparently acted as an aerial 
vehicle; (5) sighting by secondary witnesses of unexplained meteorological 
phenomena; (6) auditory phenomena of undetectable origin; (7) associated 
psychic phenomena, such as healings, et cetera. 

Every aspect of the children’s statements and those of secondary witnesses 
have been fully and authoritatively documented by both clerical and secular 
authors. It remains, however, for expert UFO researchers to document the 
specifies, particularly the well-witnessed “miracle of the sun.” 

A careful study of the azimuth and elevation angles might rule out the sun as 
being the source of the “silver disk.” Fatima being at latitude 39.37 north, the 
sun would not appear at the top of the sky or “zenith” at that date. Also, 
photogrammetric analyses of available photos of the gyrating object might aid 
in establishing whether or not the incident was primarily of metaphysical or 
UFOlogical significance. 

Since the true nature of UFOs is still a mystery, it is possible that the series 
of events at Fatima were both metaphysical and UFOlogical in nature. There 
may be no real conflict between the two at all. 

—Ann Druffel 

Fawcett, George D. (b. 1929) George Fawcett is known for his many 
investigative and research articles in various magazines, UFO journals, books, 
and newspapers. Fawcett is also widely known for his public lectures and for 
having been the founder and chief advisor to five UFO study groups: the New 
England UFO Study Group(1957), the Pennsylvania and New Jersey Two-State 
UFO Study Group(1965), the Florida UFO Study Group(1968), the Tar Heel 
UFO Study Group(1973) and the Mutual UFO Network of North Carolina, Inc. 


George Fawcett (on the left) 

He is currently an active member of the Mutual UFO Network (MUFON), 
the J.Allen Hynek Center for UFO tudies (CUFOS), and the Fund for UFO 
Research (FUFOR). He is also the author of a 1975 book entitled Quarter 
Century Studies of UFOs in Florida, North Carolina and Tennessee. 

Fawcett received his B.A. degree in psychology and education from 
Lynchburg (Virginia) College in 1952. He was a professional YMCA director 
for twenty years and the general manager of the Maiden Times (North Carlina) 
weekly newspaper. Though now retired, he has continued his UFO 
investigations, and continues to write and lecture on the subject. 

In 1998 Fawcett and his UFO colleague E. R. (Bob) Sabo of St. Petersburg, 
Florida donated 45,000 UFO items to the rapidly expanding International UFO 
Museum & Research Center at Roswell, New Mexico, where Fawcett serves as 
a UFO consultant. 

602 Battleground Rd. 

Address: Lincolnton, NC 28092 



POSITION STATEMENT: It has been my firm belief, based on my research and 
investigations over the past half-century, that UFOs and their occupants, which I 
have named “UFOnauts,” are both real. These non-human occupants and their 
craft continue to be a part of an ever-growing global enigma. 

Because of increased UFO encounters there has been a flurry of UFO 
information, misinformation, and disinformation from worldwide agencies,both 
from within the private and public domain. 

I have found there are real objects under intelligent control being seen on the 
ground and in our skies worldwide. The unknowns have varied over the 
decades from 22 percent in my own civilian files, 30 percent in the University 
of Colorado Condon Committee scientific studies to at least 40 percent 
(recently revised) found in the U.S. Air Force Project Blue Book military 
investigations. This is not acceptable, no matter who is doing the investigations. 

The fact that the UFOs and UFOnauts use advanced scientific devices and 
extraordinary powers (reported by many trained and highly qualified witnesses) 
as psychic experiences) indicates a highly developed intelligence and scientific 
technology at work continues to give confirmation to my position. UFOs 
continue to represent a challenge to science, religion and society. 

These objects and their occupants continue to represent the highest secrecy 
of any subject in American history to date. Much of this information has come 
from over 36,000 documents released through Freedom of Information Act 
(FOIA) law suits. 

The biggest question still remains what is the final purpose for these 
visitations and the end result for all mankind? The future will tell. Meanwhile, 
investigations and research should continue in the 147 world nations involved 
with UFO experiences and proper funding should be provided for these efforts 
both in the private and public domain. Special studies of the UFO repetitions 
(see Fawcett’S “Repetitions”) should be emphasized. And special attention 
should be paid to the strange physical and chemical effects of UFOs and their 
occupants on the soil in landing spots; the sensory effects upon animals; the 
physiological and psychological effects on humans; and the electromagnetic (E- 
M) effects on machines and instruments. 

It is the complexity of the worldwide UFO phenomenon that makes 
continued civilian, military and scientific investigations even more important in 
the years ahead. 

These unexplained phenomena continue to pose a challenge to science, 
religion, the military, and society. These are challenges that must be met if we 
are to survive as a civilization of the cosmos in the future. 

—George D. Fawcett 

Fawcett’s “Repetitions” List prepared by veteran UFOlogist George D. 

Fawcett, which he describes as aspects of sightings of unidentified flying objects 
(UFOs) that have been repeated time and time again over the past forty-seven 
years—which have proven themselves both persistent and consistent on a global 
basis—and are a challenge to science. Any future solution to the growing 
worldwide UFO enigma will have to deal directly with these UFO repetitions: 

1) Sightings of unknown flying objects that demonstrate superior speeds and 
intricate maneuvers beyond those of present satellites, aircraft and missiles. 

2) Radar trackings of UFOs. 

3) Photographs and movies of UFOs. 

4) Pursuits of UFOs by planes in the skies, by ships at sea and by cars on open 

5) Falls of “fragments” and “angel hair” from UFOs overhead. 

6) Increases in background radiation, ground markings, changes in soil 
samples, and deposits of both metallic and non-metallic residues after 
UFOs have been reported in the skies or on the ground (especially 
magnesium, aluminum, silicon, boron, and calcium). 

7) Near-collisions, pacings and head-on passes by UFOs reported by civilian, 
military and commercial pilots. 

8) Physiological and psychological effects, such as electric shock, radiation 
bums, dimming of vision, blackouts, temporary paralysis, headaches, blood 
disorders, nightmares and dreams, reported by observers in close UFO 
encounters, both in the air and on the ground. 

9) Electromagnetic interference reports caused by UFOs on compasses, plane 
and car motors, headlights, houselights, searchlights, radar beams, radios, 
TV, power stations and other instmments and communication devices. 

10) Skyquakes, explosions and sonic booms in the skies during UFO 

11) Propulsion sounds and smells attributed to UFOs. 

12) Landings and near-landings (hoverings) of UFOs and their occupants. 

13) Hostile acts due to. UFOs (both towards and from these objects). 

14) Reports of so-called “contactees” in association with “space visitors” as 
occupants UFOs. 

15) Straight lines of flight related to UFOs, along with their other kinematic, 
geometric and luminescent characteristics. 

16) Reputable sightings by scientists, astronauts, engineers, astronomers and 
other trained observers of UFOs. 

17) Appearances of “little men” (apparently humanoids) and other entities in 
relation to worldwide UFO landings, who were reported to have taken 
rocks, vegetation, soil, water, and animals, flowers, etc. Several hundred 
cases of human kidnappings, abductions, physical examinations, etc. 

18) Periodic cycles of increased UFO sightings every twenty-six months, five 
years, and ten years in large numbers. 

19) Unique shapes of UFOs, especially nocturnal lights, daylight disks, domed 
saucers, cigar-shaped or rocket-shaped objects, crescents, half-globes, and 
Saturn-shaped objects. 

20) Revolving wheel-like machines in oceans, seas and vast masses of water 
reported by ship and plane crews and passengers, and other witnesses 

21) Depressions, craters, denuded vegetation, holes, ground markings, burned 
areas and landing-gear marks on the ground due to UFO landings 

22) Power failures due to UFO appearances, both locally and on a widespread 

23) Severe animal reactions reported during UFO encounters. 

24) Levitations in close proximity with UFOs of persons, cars, helicopters, 
trucks, garage roofs, fishing bobbers, UFO occupants, horses, etc. 

25) The historical evidence of UFOs found in archaeology, cave-wall drawings, 
Holy Scriptures, legends, mythology, ancient manuscripts, frescoes, and 
folklore throughout the world. 

To investigate any phenomenon in or outside of a laboratory requires that 
they must be repeatable, and such UFO encounters are recurrent in nature 
regardless of where they occur. Thus, the challenge in future scientific 
investigations remains. 

Future science must meet the challenge posed by these UFO repetitions 

among over 140 world nations in order to solve the growing, global UFO 

problem; otherwise, it will become part of the problem itself. The peoples of 

the world deserve better than that. 

—George D. Fawcett 

Fire Came By, The (Doubleday, 1976) John Baxter & Thomas Atkins rely on 
the expeditions, researches, and the theories of Russian scientists to conclude 
that a nuclear spacecraft may have caused the 1908 explosion at Tunguska in 
Siberia. They base much of their evidence on purported eyewitness accounts 
that a huge shining, cylindrical object had manuevered and changed directions 
before falling and leveling 1,200 square miles of forest. 

—Randall Fitzgerald 

Fitzgerald, Randall (b. 1950) A former investigative reporter for syndicated 
columnist Jack Anderson and congressional reporter for Capitol Hill News 
Service, Randy Fitzgerald has twenty years’ experience as a Washington 
watchdog for the American taxpayer. He has reported on public policy issues 
for Reader’s Digest since 1981, becoming a staff writer and contributing editor 
in 1984. 

Randall Fitzgerald 

The Texas native began his journalism career straight out of high school, 
writing for the Tyler Morning-Telegraph. He later graduated from the 
University of Texas, receiving his B.S. degree in journalism in 1974. 

He was a founder and co-editor of Second Look magazine (1978-1980), later 
called Frontiers of Science, and is the author of four books: The Complete Book 
of Extraterrestrial Encounters (1979), Porkbarrel (1984), When Government 
Goes Private (1988), and Cosmic Test Tube (1998). 


P.O. Box 1536 
Cobb, CA 95426 


POSITION STATEMENT: I consider myself an open-minded skeptic/agnostic 
on the UFO issue. However, at the very least, I think the UFO phenomenon 
should be considered as an evolutionary benchmark by which we can begin to 
measure our potential as a species for absorbing future contact with a higher 

—Randall Fitzgerald 

Flatwoods (West Virginia) monster In modern police parlance a long- 
unsolved homicide or other crime may be known as a “cold case,” a term we 
might borrow for such paranormal mysteries as that of the Flatwoods Monster, 
which was launched on September 12, 1952, and never completely explained. 

About 7:15 p.m. on that day, at Flatwoods, a little village in the hills of West 
Virginia, some youngsters were playing football on the school playground. 
Suddenly they saw a fiery UFO streak across the sky and, apparently, land on a 
hilltop of the nearby Bailey Fisher farm. The youths ran to the home of Mrs. 
Kathleen May, who provided a flashlight and accompanied them up the hill. In 
addition to Mrs. May, a local beautician, the group included her two sons, 
Eddie 13, and Freddie 14, Neil Nunley 14, Gene Femon 17, and Tommy Hyer 
and Ronnie Shaver, both 10, along with Femon’s dog. 

There are myriad, often contradictory versions of what happened next, but 
UFO writer Gray Barker was soon on the scene and wrote an account for Fate 
magazine based on tape-recorded interviews. He found that the least emotional 
account was provided by Neil Nunley, one of two youths who were in the lead 
as the group hastened to the crest of the hill. Some distance ahead was a pulsing 
red light. Then, suddenly, Gene Femon saw a pair of shining animallike eyes, 
and aimed the flashlight in their direction. The light revealed a towering “man¬ 
like” figure with a round, red “face” surrounded by a “pointed, hood-like 
shape.” The body was dark and seemingly colorless, but some would later say 
it was green, and Mrs. May reported drape-like folds. The monster was 
observed only momentarily, as suddenly it emitted a hissing sound and glided 
toward the group. Femon responded by screaming and dropping his flashlight, 
whereupon everyone fled. 

The group had noticed a pungent mist at the scene and afterward some were 

nauseous. A few locals, then later the sheriff and a deputy (who came from 
investigating a reported airplane crash), searched the site but “saw, heard and 
smelled nothing.” The following day A. Lee Stewart, Jr., from the Braxton 
Democrat discovered “skid marks” in the roadside field, along with an “odd, 
gummy deposit”—traces attributed to the landed “saucer.” (Barker, 1953) 

In his article Barker (1953) noted that “numerous people in a 20-mile radius 
saw the illuminated objects in the sky at the same time,” evidently seeing 
different objects or a single one “making a circuit of the area.” Barker believed 
the Flatwoods incident was consistent with other reports of “flying saucers or 
similar craft” and that “such a vehicle landed on the hillside, either from 
necessity or to make observations.” (At this time in UFOlogical history, the 
developing mythology had not yet involved alien “abductions.”) 

In addition to Barker’s article and later his book (1956), accounts of the 
Flatwoods incident were related by another on-site investigator, paranormal 
writer Ivan T. Sanderson (1952, 1967), as well as the early UFOlogist Major 
Donald E. Keyhoe (1953). More recent accounts have garbled details, with 
Brookesrnith (1995), for example, incorrectly reporting five of the children as 
belonging to Mrs. May, and Ritchie (1994) referring to the monster’s hoodlike 
feature as a “halo,” which he compared with those in Japanese Buddhist art. 
However, Jerome Clark’s The UFO Encyclopedia (1998) has a generally 
factual, sensible account of the affair, appropriately termed “one of the most 
bizarre UFO encounters of all time.” 

The UFO 

On June 1, 2000, while on a trip that took me through Flatwoods, I was able 
to stop off for an afternoon of on-site investigating. I was amused to be greeted 
by a sign announcing: “Welcome to Flatwoods, Home of the Green Monster.” 
Although the village has no local library, I found something even better: a real- 
estate business, Country Properties, whose co-owners Betty Hallman and Laura 
Green generously photocopied articles for me and telephoned residents to set 
up interviews. 

Johnny Lockard, 95, told me that virtually everyone who had seen the 
alleged flying saucer in 1952 recognized it for what it was: a meteor. He, his 
daughter Betty Jean and her husband Bill Sumpter said that the fireball had 
been seen on a relatively horizontal trajectory in various states. In fact, 
according to a former local newspaper editor, “There is no doubt that a meteor 

of considerable proportion flashed across the heavens that Friday night since it 
was visible in at least three states—Maryland, Pennsylvania and West 
Virginia.” (Byrne, 1966) The meteor explanation contrasts with the fanciful 
notions of Sanderson (1967). He cites several persons who each saw a single 
glowing object. Although observing that “All of the objects were traveling in 
the same direction and apparently at the same speed and at exactly the same 
time,” he fails to draw the obvious conclusion: that there was one object, albeit 
variously described. (For example, one report said the object landed on a 
nearby knoll, while another described it as “disintegrating in the air with a rain 
of ashes.”) Instead of suspecting that people were mistaken or that they saw a 
meteor that broke apart, Sanderson asserts that “to be logical” we should 
believe that “a flight of aerial machines” were “maneuvering in formation.” For 
some reason the craft went out of control, with one landing , rather than 
crashing, at Flatwoods, and its pilot emerged “in a space suit.” Observed, it 
headed back to the spaceship which—like two others that “crashed”—soon 
“vaporized.” (Sanderson, 1967) 

Such airy speculations aside, according to Major Keyhoe (1953), Air Force 
Intelligence reportedly sent two men in civilian clothes to Flatwoods, posing as 
magazine writers, and they determined that the UFO had been a meteor that 
“merely appeared to be landing when it disappeared over the hill.” That illusion 
also deceived a man approximately ten miles southwest of Flatwoods, who 
reported that an aircraft had gone down in flames on the side of a wooded hill. 
(That was the report the sheriff had investigated, without success, before 
arriving at the Flatwoods site.) 

Keyhoe’s sources told him that “several astronomers” had concluded that the 
UFO was indeed a meteor. As well, a staff member of the Maryland Academy 
of Sciences announced that a meteor had passed over Baltimore at 7.00 p.m. on 
September 12 th , “traveling at a height of from 60 to 70 miles.” (Reese, 1952) It 
was on a trajectory toward West Virginia, where the “saucer” was sighted 
minutes later. 

Spaceship Aground? 

If the UFO was not a spaceship but a meteor, then how do we explain the 
other elements—the pulsating light, the landing traces, the noxious smell, and, 
above all, the frightening creature? Let us consider each in turn. 

As the group had proceeded up the roadway that led to the hilltop, they saw 

“a reddish light pulsating from dim to bright.” It was described as a “globe” 
and as “a big ball of fire” (Barker, 1953) but Sanderson (1967) says they 
“disagreed violently on their interpretation of this object.” We should keep in 
mind that it was a distance away—an unknown distance—and that there was no 
trustworthy frame of reference from which to estimate size (reported to 
Sanderson as over twenty feet across). 

Significantly, at the time of the incident, a local school teacher called 
attention to “the light from a nearby plane beacon,” and Sanderson (1952) 
conceded that there were three such beacons “in sight all the time on the 
hilltop.” However, he dismissed the obvious possibility that one of these was 
the source of the pulsing light because he was advocating an extraterrestrial 

But if a UFO had not landed at the site, how do we explain the supposed 
landing traces? They were found at 7:00 the morning after the incident by A. 
Lee Stewart, Jr., editor of The Braxton Democrat, who had visited the site the 
night before. Stewart discovered two parallel “skid marks” in the tall meadow 
grass, between the spot where the monster was seen and the area where the red 
pulsating light was sighted. He also saw traces of “oil” or “an odd, gummy 
deposit.” (Barker, 1953) 

Johnny Lockard’s son, Max, describes Stewart in a word: “windy.” Max had 
tried to explain to him and others the nature of the unidentified object that left 
the skid marks and oily/greasy deposit, namely Max’s black, 1942 Chevrolet 
pickup truck. Soon after news of the the incident had spread around Flatwoods 
that evening, Max drove up the hillside to have a look around. He told me he 
left the dirt road and circled through the field, but saw nothing, no monster and 
no landing traces in the meadow grass. 

At the time of the incident a few locals who had been skeptical that a flying 
saucer had landed on the hill attributed the skid marks and oil to a farm tractor. 
When several others told Gray Barker that the traces had actually been left by 
Max Lockard, he recalled his old high school chum and decided to telephone 
him. They had a proverbial failure to communicate and Barker—who admitted 
to seeing “an opportunity to get my name in print again”—concluded that 
Max’s truck had not been at the exact spot where the alleged UFO markings 
were found. 

Reading Barker (1956), one senses his impulse to dismiss the tractor and 
pickup hypotheses and never even to consider the possibility of some other 
vehicle. It is not clear that Barker ever saw the traces. He arrived one week 

after the incident, and during the interim rain had obliterated the evidence. He 
could find “no trace of the oil reported to have been on the ground,” and 
although he saw “marks and a huge area of grass trampled down,” he conceded 
that could be due to the “multitudes” that had “visited and walked over the 
location.” (Barker, 1953, 1956) 

Max Lockard took me to the site in his modern pickup. A locked gate across 
the road prompted him to shift into four-wheel drive and take us on a cross¬ 
country shortcut through a field, much as he had done in his search for the 
reported UFO and monster nearly a half century before. He has convinced me 
that he indeed left the supposedly unexplained traces. With a twinkle in my eye 
posed a question: ‘Max, had you ever piloted a UFO before?’ His snffle 
answered that he had not. 

As to the nauseating odor, that has been variously described as a sulfurous 
smell, “metallic stench,” gaslike mist, or simply a “sickening, irritating” odor. 
Investigators first on the scene noticed no such smell, except for Lee Stewart 
who detected it when he beat close to the ground. The effect on three of the 
youths, particularly Lemon, was later to cause nausea and complaints of 
irritated throats. (Barker, 1953, 1956; Sanderson, 1967; Keyhoe, 1953) 

This element of the story may be overstated. Ivan Sanderson (1967), 
scarcely a militant skeptic, also noticed the “strange smell in the grass” but 
stated that it was “almost surely derived from a kind of grass that abounds in 
the area.” He added, “We found this grass growing all over the county and it 
always smelt the same, though not perhaps as strongly.” Keyhoe (1953) 
reported that the Air Force investigators had concluded that “the boys’ illness 
was a physical effect brought on by their fright.” Indeed Gene Lemon, the 
worst affected, had seemed the most frightened; he had “shrieked with terror” 
and fallen backward, dropping the flashlight, and later “appeared too greatly 
terrified to talk coherently.” (Barker, 1956). As to the strange “mist” that had 
accompanied the odor (Barker, 1953), that seems easily explained. Obviously it 
was the beginning stage of what the sheriff subsequently noticed on his arrival, 
a fog that was “settling over the hillside.” (Keyhoe, 1953) 

The Creature 

Finally, and most significantly, there remains to be explained “’the 
Flatwoods Monster,” a.k.a. “the Phantom of Flatwoods,” “the Braxton County 
Monster,” “the Visitor from Outer Space,” and other appellations. (Byrne, 

1966) Many candidates have been proposed, but—considering that the UFO 
became an IFO, namely a meteor—the least likely one is some extraterrestrial 
entity. 1 think we can dismiss also the notion, among the hypotheses put 
forward by a local paper, that it was the effect of “vapor from a falling 
meteorite that took the form of a man.” (Sanderson, 1967) Also extremely 
unlikely was the eventual explanation of Mrs. May that what she had seen 
“wasn’t a monster” but rather “a secret plane the government was working on.” 
(Marchal, 1966) (Both she and her son Fred declined to be interviewed for my 
investigation.) 1 agree with most previous investigators that the monster 
sighting was not a hoax. The fact that the witnesses did see a meteor and 
assembled on the spur of the moment to investigate makes that unlikely. So 
does the fact that everyone who talked to them afterward insisted—as Max 
Lockard did to me—that the eyewitnesses were genuinely frightened. Clearly, 
something they saw frightened them, but what? 

The group described shining “animal eyes,” and Mrs. May at first thought 
they belonged to “an opossum or raccoon in the tree.”’ (Barker, 1956; 
Sanderson, 1967) Locals continued to suggest some such local animal, 
including “a buck deer” (Barker, 1956), but a much more credible candidate 
was put forth by the unnamed Air Force investigators. According to Keyhoe 
(1953), they concluded the “monster” was probably “a large owl perched on a 
limb” with underbrush beneath it having “given the impression of a giant 
figure” and the excited witnesses having “imagined the rest.” 

1 believe this generic solution is correct, but that the owl was not from the 
family of atypical owls” (Strigidae, which includes the familiar great horned 
owl) but the other family (Tytonidae) which comprises the barn owls. Several 
elements in the witnesses’ descriptions help identify the Flatwoods creature 
specifically as Tyto alba, the common barn owl, known almost worldwide. 
(Collins, 1959) Consider the following evidence. 

The “monster” reportedly had a “manlike shape” and stood some ten feet 
tall, although Barker (1953) noted that “descriptions from the waist down are 
vague; most of the seven said this part of the figure was not under view.” These 
perceptions are consistent with an owl perched on a limb 

Also suggestive of an owl is the description of the creature’s “face” as 
“round” with “two eye-like openings” and a dark, “hood-like shape” around it 
(if not the “pointed” appearance of the latter). (Barker, 1953) The barn owl has 
a large head with a “ghastly,” roundish heart-shaped face, resembling “that of a 
toothless, hook-nosed old woman, shrouded in a closely fitting hood” and with 

an expression “that gives it a mysterious air.” (Jordan, 1952; Blanchan, 1925). 

Very evidential in the case of the Flatwoods Monster is the description of its 
cry as “something between a hiss and a high-pitched squeal.” (Barker, 1953) 
This tallies with the startling “wild, peevish scream” or “shrill rasping hiss or 
snore” of the barn owl. Indeed its “shrill, strangled scream is the; most 
unbirdlike noise.” Its “weird calls” include “hissing notes, screams,” and 
“guttural grunts.” (Blanchan, 1925; Peterson, 1980; Bull and Farrand, 1977; 
Cloudsley-Thompson et al., 1983). The latter might explain the monster’s 
accompanying “thumping or throbbing noise.” (Barker, 1953), if those sounds 
were not from the flapping of wings. 

Descriptions of the creature’s movement varied, being characterized as 
“bobbing up and down, jumping toward the witnesses” or as moving “evenly,” 
indeed “describing an arc, coming toward them, but circling at the same time.” 
(Barker, 1956) Again, it had “a gliding motion as if afloat in midair.” These 
movements are strongly suggestive of a bird’s flight. When accidentally 
disturbed, the barn owl “makes a bewildered and erratic getaway” (Jordan, 
1952)—while hissing (Blanchan, 1925)—but its flight is generally 
characterized with “slow, flapping wing beats and long glides.” (Cloudsley- 
Thompson et al., 1983) 

According to Barker (1953): “Not all agreed that the ‘monster’ had arms,” 
but “Mrs. May described it with terrible claws.” Sanderson (1967) cites the 
witnesses’ observation that “the creature had small, claw-like hands that 
extended in front of it,” a description consistent with a raptor (a predatory bird). 
The barn owl is relatively long-legged and knock-kneed, sporting sizable claws 
with sharp, curved talons that may be prominently extended. (Peterson, 1980; 
Forshaw, 1998) 

It is important to note that the youths and Mrs. May only glimpsed the 
creature briefly—an estimated “one or a few more seconds,” and even that was 
while they were frightened. Barker (1956) asks, “If Lemon dropped the 
flashlight, as he claimed, how did they get an apparently longer look at the 
‘monster’?” Some said the being was lighted from within (probably only the 
effect of its “shining” eyes), while Nunley stated that it was illuminated by the 
pulsing red light (ostensibly from the supposed UFO but probably from one of 
the beacons mentioned earlier). This might also explain the “fiery orange color” 
of the creature’s head (Sanderson 1967), but an alternative explanation, while 
the barn owl is typically described as having a white facial disk and underparts, 
in the case of the female those parts “have some darker buff or tawny color.” 

(“Barn Owl” 2000) 

Copyright © 2000 by Joe Nlckell 

Split-image illustration compares fanciful Flatwoods Monster (left) with the real- world creature it 
most resembles, the common barn owl (right). (Drawing by Joe Nickell) 

For this reason, as well as the fact that in this species (a medium-sized owl, 
measuring about 14-20 inches [Peterson, 1980]) the male is typically the 
smaller (Blanchan 1925), 1 suspect the Flatwoods creature was a female. It is 
also interesting to speculate that it may not have been too late in the year for a 
female to have been brooding young. That could explain why “she” did not fly 
away at the first warning of intruders (given barn owls’ “excellent low-light 
vision and exceptional hearing ability” [“Barn Owl” 2000]); instead, probably 
hoping not to be noticed, she stood her ground until the invaders confronted her 
with a flashlight, a threatening act that provoked her hissing, attack-like swoop 
toward them. 

Significantly, the locale where the Flatwoods Monster made its appearance 
—near a large oak tree on a partially wooded hilltop overlooking a farm on the 
outskirts of town—tallies with the habitat of the barn owl. Indeed, it is “'the 
best known of farmland owls.” (Cloudsley-Thompson, 1983) It builds no nest, 
but takes as its “favorite home” a “hollow tree.” (Blanchan, 1925) It “does not 

mind the neighborhood of man” (Jordan, 1952), in fact seeking out mice and 
rats from its residence in “woodlands, groves, farms, barns, towns, cliffs.” 
(Peterson, 1980) 

Considering all of the characteristics of the described monster, and making 
small allowances for misperceptions and other distorting factors, we may 
conclude (adapting an old adage) that if it looked like a barn owl, acted like a 
barn owl, and hissed, then it most likely was a barn owl. 

How Monsters Appear 

It may be wondered, however, why the creature was not immediately 
recognized for what it was. The answer is that, first, the witnesses were led to 
expect an alien being by their sighting of a UFO that appeared to land and by 
the pulsating red light and strange smell that seemed to confirm the landing. 
Therefore, when they then encountered a strange creature, acting aggressively, 
their fears seemed to be confirmed and they panicked. 

Moreover, the group had probably never seen a barn owl up close (after all, 
such birds are nocturnal) and almost certainly not under the adverse conditions 
that prevailed. The brief glimpse, at night, of a being that suddenly swept at 
them—coupled with its strange “ghastly” appearance and shrill frightening cry 
—would have been disconcerting to virtually anyone at any time. But under the 
circumstances, involving an inexperienced group primed with expectations of 
extraterrestrials, the situation was a recipe for terror. 

And so a spooked barn owl in turn spooked the interlopers, and a monster 
was born. A “windy” newspaperman and proparanormal writers hyped the 
incident, favoring sensational explanations for more prosaic ones. Such is often 
the case with paranormal claims. 

—Joe Nickell 


Barker, Gray. “The Monster and the Saucer,” Fate, January, 12-17, 1953. 

_. They Knew Too Much About Flying Saucers (Tower Books, 1967). 

“Bam Owl.” 2000. 

Blanchan, Neltje. Birds Worth Knowing (Doubleday, 1925). 

Bull, John, and Farrand, John Jr. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Birds: Eastern 
Region (Knopf, 1977). 

Byme, Holt.. “The Phantom of Flatwoods,” Sunday Gazette-Mail State Magazine (Charleston, W. Va.), 
March 6, 1966. 

Clark, Jerome. The UFO Encyclopedia, second edition (Omnigraphics, 1998). 

Cloudsley-Thompson, John, et al.. Nightwatch: The Natural World from Dusk to Dawn (Facts on File, 

Collins, Henry Hill, Jr. Complete Field Guide to American Wildlife: East, Central and North (Harper & 
Row, 1959). 

Forshaw, Joseph. Encyclopedia of Birds (Academic Press, 1998). 

Jordan, E. L.. Hammond’s Nature Atlas of America (C. S. Hammond & Co., 1952). 

Keyhoe, Donald E. Flying Saucers from Outer Space (Henry Holt, 1953). 

Marchal, Terry. “Flatwoods Revisited,” Sunday Gazette-Mail State Magazine (Charleston, W. Va.), March 
6, 1966. 

Peterson, Roger Tory.. A Field Guide to the Birds (Houghton Mifflin, 1980). 

Reese, P. M. (1952) Cited in Sanderson, 1967. 

Ritchie, David. UFO: The Definitive Guide to Unidentified Flying Objects and Related Phenomena (Facts 
on File, 1994). 

Sanderson, Ivan T. (1952) Typewritten report quoted in Byrne, 1966. 

_. Uninvited Visitors: A Biologist Looks at UFO’s (Cowles, 1967). 

“flying saucer” An expression commonly used to describe an unexplained 
aerial phenomenon. The words do not always convey a just conception, since 
much of what is reported is not saucer-shaped nor can it be assumed that they 
are solid bodies utilizing aerodynamic principles. This particular designation 
was coined on June 25, 1947, in the newsroom of the East Oregonian a 
newspaper serving Pendleton, Oregon. Newsman Bill Bequette denominated 
the phenomenon during an interview with private pilot Kenneth Arnold while 
the flyer was relating his famous sighting of strange, “tailless aircraft,” an 
episode that took place the previous afternoon over the Cascade mountains. 

Some maintain that the distinctive appellation “flying saucer” was derived 
solely from Arnold’s description of the undulatory flight of the things he saw, 
which, he said, traveled through the air like a “flat rock” skipped along the 
surface of a pond. Nonetheless, the Chicago Daily Tribune, as early as June 
25 th , quotes Arnold as saying the objects were “shaped like a pie plate.” Later, 
when questioned carefully, Arnold insisted that the objects he spotted were 
wide and flat, but none of the nine were true disks, one being crescent in 
outline and the other eight having curved leading edges and pointed trailing 
edges. U. S. Air Force experts rightly doubted Arnold’s ability to make out an 
object’s shape at a distance of twenty-three miles, a distance Arnold claims 
separated him from the flight path of the unknowns, an estimate he refused to 

Since his attention was initially attracted to the swiftly moving objects by 
sunlight flashing from their shiny wings as they sped through the air in an 

undulating manner, Arnold’s perception of the objects may have also been 
hampered significantly by the rapid dipping motion changing the intensity of 
the reflected rays of the sun. It may, nevertheless, be safe to assume that the 
objects Arnold saw were thin, flat, and tailless, words which do not rule out a 
true disk shape. 

The word “saucer” was first used to describe an unidentified aerial object in 
1878, when a farmer named John Martin told the Denison, Texas, Daily News 
on January 25 th , that a mysterious saucer-shaped object had flown over his 
property south of town. 

The “flying saucer” design is actually not that modern; as early as 1918, the 
science-fantasy magazine Electrical Experimenter featured a saucerlike craft on 
the cover of its March edition to illustrate R. and G. Winthrop’s novelette “At 
War with the Invisible.” It should also be noted that a year before the big UFO 
wave of 1947, the pulp magazine Amazing Stories had an interesting fictional 
illustration on its back cover showing a group of “flying saucer spaceships” in 

—Loren E. Gross 

Flying Saucer Occupants (Signet/NAL, 1967). Coral and Jim Lorenzen set 
forth their belief that three races of alien beings are visiting Earth, but the CIA 
and Air Force are probably not aware of the problem. Conspiracy theorists who 
believe a cover-up exists, say this husband and wife team, exhibit a need for 
“instant reassurance” which comes from a fear that no authority figures may be 
in control, or even aware, that UFO visitors pose a problem for humankind. 

—Randall Fitzgerald 

Flying Saucers (Harvard University Press, 1953). With this book Harvard 
University astrophysicist Donald Menzel became the first scientist to craft a 
rational, natural phenomena explanation for UFOs in a presentation tailored to 
a mainstream audience. Flying saucers are real, he says, as real as rainbows, 
sundogs, mirages and other optical tricks the atmosphere plays on the human 
brain. These misidentifications of natural phenomena account for both 
contemporary and Biblical accounts of UFOs. Ironically, with this 1953 
discussion of ancient UFO sightings, Menzel would one day claim the dubious 
credit for having ushered in the spate of ancient astronaut theories and books 
which flooded mainstream literature more than a decade later. 

—Randall Fitzgerald 

Flying Saucers: A Modem Myth of Things Seen in the Skies 

(Routledge & Kegan Paul/Harcourt, Brace & Co., 1959; Signet/NAL, 1969). 
Psychologist Carl Jung sees UFOs as projections from the collective 
unconscious of humanity and a symptom of psychic change in our species. 

Jung examines the UFO phenomenon as a complement to, or the cause of, 
“longlasting transformations of the collective psyche.” This psychic component 
of the phenomenon Jung details in three stages or interconnections: in the first, 
an “objectively real, physical process forms the basis for an accompanying 
myth”; in the second, an archetype, whose specific form our collective instincts 
take, creates a corresponding vision; finally, emerging with these two “causal 
relationships,” we experience synchronistic behavior, the meaningful 
coincidence, in which the psychic stress of humankind and the appearance of 
UFOs coincide as a meaningful pattern. 

—Randall Fitzgerald 

Flying Saucers and the Straight-line Mystery (S.G. Phillips, 1958). Aime 
Michel, a French mathematician and engineer, recounts a wave of UFO 
sightings in France which included human encounters with alien craft and 
creatures. When he charted these sightings chronologically several patterns 
emerged. Sightings occurring on the same day were found to be in straight lines 
on maps. Aside from the extraterrestrial hypothesis, Michel wonders whether 
another explanation might be that human thoughts actualized these visions in 
the sky. 

—Randall Fitzgerald 

Flying Saucers are Real, The book (Fawcett Publications, 1950). This book 
by Retired U.S. Marine Major Donald E. Keyhoe was the first ever devoted to 
the flying saucer topic. 

It was essentially an expanded version of Keyhoe’s seminal article for True 
magazine under the same title. In this book Keyhoe states his main conclusions, 
which defined the modern flying saucer era: “ (1) The Earth has been under 
periodic observation from another planet, or other planets, for at least two 
centuries. (2) This observation suddenly increased in 1947, following the series 
of A-bomb explosions begun in 1945. (3) The observation, now intermittent, is 
part of a long-range survey and will continue indefinitely. There may be some 
unknown block to making contact, but it is more probable that the spacemen’s 
plans are not complete.” 

—Ronald D. Story 

Flying Saucers from Outer Space (Henry Holt, 1953). With this book 
retired Marine Corps Major Donald E. Keyhoe became the first prominent and 
outspoken conspiracy theory proponent. 

He claimed that flying saucers are piloted by extraterrestrial visitors, the 
U.S. Air Force is aware of the truth, it is engaged in a cover-up, and it is up to 
civilian UFO groups to end this secrecy. He is also the first author to speculate 
that UFOs have an electromagnetic propulsion system. 

—Randall Fitzgerald 

Flying Saucers Have Landed (The British Book Centre/Werner Faurie, 
1953) by Desmond Feslie and George Adamski. America’s first famous 
contactee, Adamski, collaborates with an Irish journalist to tell how he met a 
Venusian with long sandy hair in the California desert. 

Supposedly he and other beings from Venus are here on this planet to 
express their displeasure with nuclear testing, a theme which soon became a 
cause taken up by other contactees. Adamski hit the lecture circuit after the 
book and later circulated a series of photos of Venusian spaceships which were 
generally regarded as crude hoaxes. 

—Randall Fitzgerald 

Flying Saucers-Serious Business Fyle Stuart, 1966). Radio broadcaster 
Frank Edwards wonders whether the race to the moon between America and 
Russia has the ulterior motive of being the first to contact aliens based there. 
He points out how the shapes of reported UFOs have been evolving over the 
years from dirigibles in the late 1890s to flying disks in the 1950s to egg- 
shaped craft in the 1960s. 

—Randall Fitzgerald 

Flying Saucers Uncensored (Cidadel Press, 1955) by Harold T. Wilkins. 
Author catalogues UFO sightings and incidents over the U.K., Western Europe, 
U.S., and Australia from 1947 through 1955 and speculates that extraterrestrial 
visitants are possibly established in bases on the moon and other planets; a 
cosmic general staff may receive reports on terrestrial affairs as well as 
biological and ecological samples from Earth for purposes of study and 

—Fynn Catoe 

foo fighters The foo fighters, or “kraut balls,” as they were also called, were 
first observed as very small (from a few inches to a few feet in diameter) balls 
of light that followed and seemingly “teased” military fighter and bomber 
aircraft during the final months of World War II. These miniature-sized UFOs 
would appear alone, in pairs, or in groups, and seemed at times to be under 
some kind of remote, intelligent control. They would sometimes emit a steady 
glow of red, gold, or white light; other times they would blink on and off. 

Although it is customary in most UFO literature to associate the foo fighters 
with the beginning of the “modern” phase of the UFO phenomenon in general, 
there are important differences between these and most other UFO reports. In 
fact, there are good reasons to believe that the foo-ball mystery is explainable 
in nonprosaic, albeit earthly, terms. 

The earliest reliable report of the specterlike apparitions came from a pilot 
and crew belonging to the 415th Night Fighter Squadron based at Dijon, 
France. The 415th patrolled both sides of the Rhine River, north of Strasbourg, 
in eastern Germany, seeking out any German planes in the area with the aid of 
U. S. Army ground-based radar stations. Lieutenant Ed Schlueter (pilot), 
Lieutenant Donald J. Meiers (radar observer), and Lieutenant Fred Ringwald 
(intelligence officer, flying as an observer) were on such a mission on the night 
of November 23, 1944, when Ringwald first spotted what appeared to be stars 
off at a distance. Within a few minutes, the starlike points became orange balls 
of light (eight or ten of them) “moving through the air at a terrific speed.” The 
“objects” could not be picked up by radar, either ground-based or from the 
plane. The lights then disappeared, reappeared farther off, and within a few 
minutes vanished from view. 

More reports followed, as the mystery spread to other parts of the world. 
The foo fighters (a name that was picked up from the Smokey Stover comic 
strip, wherein it was frequently said that “where there’s foo, there’s fire”.) 
appeared also on the bombing route to Japan and over the Truk Lagoon in the 
mid-Pacific. The reports were similar: speeds generally estimated at between 
two hundred and five hundred miles per hour, orange, red. and white colors, 
steady or blinking lights, alone or in groups, but not detectable by radar. 

The consistency of these well-authenticated encounters is unlike any other 
set of UFO reports. According to the Italian aircraft engineer and writer, Renato 
Vesco, it is for good reason. In an article published in Argosy magazine (August 
1969), Vesco writes: 

Later encounters with foo-fighters led experts to assume they were 

German inventions of a new order, employed to baffle radar. 

How close they had come to the truth, they learned only when the war 
was over and Allied Intelligence teams moved into the secret Nazi plants. 
The foo-fighters seen by Allied pilots were only a minor demonstration, and 
a fraction of a vast variety of methods to confuse radar and interrupt 
electromagnetic currents. Work on the German antiradar Feuerball, or 
fireball, had been speeded up during the fall of 1944 at a Luftwaffe 
experimental center near Oberammergau, Bavaria. There, and at the 
aeronautical establishment of Wiener Neustadt, the first fireballs were 
produced. Later, when the Russians moved closer to Austria, the workshops 
producing the fireballs were moved to the Black Forest. Fast and remote- 
controlled, the fireballs, equipped with kliston tubes and operating on the 
same frequency as Allied radar, could eliminate the blips from screens and 
remain practically invisible to ground control. 

It is also interesting to note that in one of the first published accounts of the 
foo-fighter mystery, Jo Chamberlin reported in The American Legion Magazine 
(December 1945) that: “The foo-fighters simply disappeared when Allied 
ground forces captured the area East of the Rhine. This was known to be the 
location of many German experimental stations.” 

Another theory is that the foo balls might have been a type of plasma, in the 
form of an electrical discharge, known as St. Elmo’s Fire. Both the Gennan 
secret-weapon theory and the plasma theory have their merits, whereas an 
extraterrestrial explanation seems unlikely. 

—Ronald D. Story 

Fort, Charles (1874-1932). A former newspaper reporter and amateur 
naturalist who, for twenty-six years, collected strange, unexplained bits of 
information—including some of the earliest documented sightings of UFOs— 
culled from old newspapers, magazines, and even scientific journals. 

A daring mind, Fort proposed various exotic solutions to weird mysteries 
ignored by science. Although Fort explored different ideas about a number of 
subjects, his postulations about unexplained aerial phenomena gave him 
enduring notoriety. Backed by an impressive documentary effort (some 40,000 
notes), Fort’s writings have served to call attention to UFO activity that 
occurred between 1801 and 1930. Fort authored five books, the earliest of 
which, The Outcast Manufactures (1909), was a novel having nothing to do 

with his later preoccupation with bizarre events. The other four books contain 
the data and thoughts that have made Fort famous among students of the UFO 
riddle. Those are: The Book of the Damned (1919), New Lands (1923), Lo! 
(1931), and Wild Talents (1932). The books were limited editions, having little 
public impact at the time. As for book reviewers, they were either baffled or 
exhilarated by Fort’s revelations. It was the American iconoclast’s small but 
influential following in literary circles that guaranteed the survival of his 

Just before the United States entered World War 11, Fort’s four books on the 
esoteric were republished together (in 1941) in a single 1,100-page tome, a 
volume that has gone through many editions and is still widely used by UFO 
enthusiasts as a reference work; though close scrutiny reveals that Fort’s 
documentation was not always completely accurate, the data published in his 
books was not meant to be exhaustive. Considerable detail on UFO cases was 
deleted in favor of clownish and clever commentary. Many UFO reports, 
pinpointed by Fort, lacked extensive investigation. 

Fort’s Book of the Damned is the richest of all four in UFO material. Besides 
mysterious lights and objects in the atmosphere, the book contains two episodes 
on a larger scale that are especially striking. There was the extraordinary 
telescopic discovery of a lunar-size body close to the planet Venus, which was 
observed at various times between 1645 and 1767. Astronomers called the little 
world “Neith,” but, to the consternation of the experts, the orb eventually 
vanished. Likewise, another smaller, spindle-shaped body was observed by 
astronomers in 1762, which remained inexplicable, but was noted by Fort, who 
named it “Monstrator.” To Fort, the data suggested space arks and cosmic 
mother ships—vast vessels that had dropped anchor in the solar system so they 
could probe closer to the abode of mankind. 

After accepting the possibility that scout craft from a “super-Rome” were 
coming and going in the Earth’s atmosphere, Fort soon became stumped by a 
puzzle which still troubles modern-day UFO researchers. If the Earth was being 
visited, why was it not done openly? This “greatest of mysteries,” (Fort’s very 
words) he compared to civilized man’s contact with a primitive tribe. Would 
not visitors from a superior extraterrestrial culture be eager to sell earthmen 
“superwhiskeys, cast-off superfineries,” or proselytize us with “ultra-Bibles”? 
he asks. Perhaps, he suggests, mankind’s hostile behavior was considered so 
dangerous that possible contamination was feared, thus making the Earth a 
place to be avoided, at least as far as direct contact was concerned. 

Another hypothesis proposed by Fort placed the Earth under the 
guardianship of some other superior beings. Unbeknownst to us, like a farmer’s 
pigs, geese, or cattle (which lack the sophistication to understand they are 
“owned”), man, with his own limited perceptions, does not realize that aliens 
have long ago quarreled over, and eventually divided up, the cosmos, and that 
our world is the property of some victorious extraterrestrial civilization, which 
occasionally checks on us, chasing away all unauthorized intruders. 

New Lands, Fort’s second collection of weird data, also contains a 
considerable amount of UFO information. Significant sections relate events 
pertaining to UFO waves in England in 1905 and 1913, and UFO waves in the 
United States in 1897 and 1908-10. Giving his thousands of notes some 
thought, Fort wrote that he could conceive of many kinds of extramundanians, 
some of which might adapt to the conditions on Earth, although he assumed the 
surface of our world would be like an ocean floor to aliens from a radically 
different environment. And if such were to be the case, then that could be 
another reason why such creatures do not land. 

Another fascinating line of conjecture was Fort’s suggestions that many 
mysterious occurrences classified as supposed psychic phenomena might 
actually be due to the unrecognized antics of alien visitors. (Interestingly, the 
noted Fortean investigator/author John Keel later suggested the exact reverse— 
that many reports of supposed alien visitors actually represent paranormal or 
psychic phenomena.) 

The third work by Fort of interest to UFO buffs, Lo! is only sparsely 
sprinkled with UFO accounts, with the exception of a discussion of the English 
UFO waves of 1904-05 and 1908-09. Still, it contains some memorable 
“Fortean” suggestions on the UFO enigma. 

For example: Could alien spies be living in the major cities of Earth, 
regularly reporting back to their home base on a distant world? Also, could it 
be that the Earth is actually at war with extraterrestrial powers? This curious 
Wellsian train of speculation he did not develop fully, nor does any sizable 
amount of data justify such a suspicion. Fort did, however, play with the notion 
that mysterious vanishments of ocean vessels and their crews, of which he 
gives numerous examples, may have been due to wanton seizures by spacemen. 

In Lo! Fort expressed concern over the lack of public interest in UFO 
activity, of how people could not take such data and its implications seriously 
and seemed to suffer from strong preconceptions that such things were 
nonsense. Even if eyewitnesses were to number in the millions, he asserted, 

UFO phenomena would be explained away, or in his own words, 

In a more humorous mood, he foresaw the possibility that even if real 
creatures from Mars were to land and, with much fanfare, parade up Broadway 
in New York City, disbelief would remain so great, some jokers could, after the 
aliens had departed, successfully proclaim they had plotted and carried out a 
grand deception. 

Fort’s last book Wild Talents; has little of value UFO-wise but is laced with 
more of his views of how strange data can represent “gulfs of the 
unaccountable,” which the authorities “bridge with terminology.” 

Although a timid man and, in general, content as an obscure author, Fort 
nevertheless penned four letters to The New York Times between 1924 and 
1926, trying to alert the public to the fact that craft piloted by creatures from 
other worlds were patrolling the skies of Earth. He confessed in his letters that 
the possibility was difficult to accept, yet when its time came, the “great 
discovery” would amount to the “final perception of the obvious.” The 
publication of Wild Talents took place just before Fort died on May 3, 1932. On 
May 5 th , Fort’s passing was reported in The New York Times. Instead of being 
recognized as something of a prognosticater, the Times tagged Fort a “foe of 
science,” an unfortunately distorted view of a man who, although critical of 
“scientists”—when they spoke ex cathedra —was really a true proponent of the 
scientific method in its purest form. 

—Loren E. Gross 

Fowler, Raymond E. (b. 1933). Born in Salem, Massachusetts, Raymond 
Fowler enlisted in the U.S. Air Force in 1952 and served a four-year term, first 
as a general radio operator and later with the USAF Security Service. In 1960, 
he received his B.A. degree (magna cum laude) from Gordon College of 
Liberal Arts (majoring in Bible and Greek studies) at Wehham, Massachusetts. 
After twenty-five years of service, he retired early from GTE Government 
Systems where he worked as task manager and senior planner for several major 
weapons systems, including both the Minuteman and MX intercontinental 
ballistic missiles. 

Ray Fowler is a veteran UFO researcher (since 1947) and investigator. His 
investigative reports have been published in Congressional hearings, military 
publications, newspapers, magazines, and professional journals in the U.S.A. 
and abroad. Fowler also believes himself to be a UFO-abductee. 

In addition to his interest in UFOs, Fowler is an avid amateur astronomer 
and teacher. In 1970, he built the Woodside Planetarium and Observatory, 
where he conducts both adult and children’s shows, supplemented by 
observation sessions with a 14-inch Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope. 

Fowler has written eight books and a novel on the subject of unidentified 
flying objects. In order of publication they are: UFOs: Interplanetary Visitors 
(1974), The Andreasson Affair (1979), The Andreasson Affair-Phase Two 
(1982), Casebook of a UFO Investigator (1981), The Melchizedek Connection 
(1981), The Watchers (1990), The Allagash Abductions (1993), The Watchers II 
(1993), and The Andreasson Legacy (1997). 

13 Friend Court 

Address: Wenham, MA 01984 



Raymond Fowler 

POSITION STATEMENT: After years of study and personal on-site 
investigation of UFO reports, I am certain that there is more than ample high- 
quality observational evidence from highly trained and reliable lay witnesses to 
indicate that there are unidentified machinelike objects under intelligent control 
operating in our atmosphere. Such evidence in some cases is supported by 

anomalous physical effects upon the witnesses, electrical devices and the 
environment, as well as by instrumentation such as radar and Geiger counters. 

1 have also come to the conclusion through investigation and personal 
experience that the so-called UFO-abduction experience is supported by strong 
circumstantial physical and anecdotal evidence. It has also become apparent to 
me that such experiences contain (for want of a better term) “paranormal 

The reported objects appear to exhibit both physical and non-physical 
characteristics. Radar-visual reports of UFOs indicate that they are able to 
appear and disappear at a point A and then reappear at a point B with no visible 
transit between these two points. UFOs sometimes behave as if they have little 
or no mass: They execute right-angle turns without a curve radius and exceed 
the speed of sound without causing a sonic boom. 

In other instances they exhibit very little mass, as they appear to float and 
bob like a cork on water, descend like a falling leaf or move with an up-and- 
down motion as they encounter air resistance. At other times, however, UFOs 
do exhibit mass and weight. They reflect radar waves. Bullets are reported to 
ricochet off their surface. When UFOs land they physically affect the 
environment and leave traces behind indicative of great weight. 

The reported “entities” exhibit similar abilities to materialize and 
dematerialize. They more often float rather than walk, and are able to pass 
through solid walls and windows. Other paranormal abilities of UFO occupants 
reported are the ability to: appear and disappear in a ball of light, communicate 
by mental telepathy, exercise physical and mental control over humans, know 
when humans will die, cause abductees to undergo OBEs and experiences 
identical to NDEs. 

Abduction research, personal and family UFO/psychic experiences have led 
me to consider the possibility that UFOs are para-physical in nature and 
perhaps just one of many other components of an overall metaphenomenon that 
is made up of a variety of other so-called paranormal phenomena. Such 
manifestations may be the reflection of a super technology, highly developed 
psychic abilities or a combination of both. 

This is not to say that UFOs are not visitors from another star system. It just 
opens the possibility that multiple dimensions and other states of reality may 
exist throughout the universe and manifest their existence to us by what we 
term psychic or paranormal phenomena including UFOs. Such terms are 
merely descriptive words for things that we currently do not understand. 

The seeming limits of the laws of physics as applied to short-term 
interstellar travel in our plane of existence may not be a limiting factor 
elsewhere. We may be dealing with intelligences with the technology not only 
to travel between star systems within other planes of existence, but also to 
physically interface from such existences with our planet and its life-forms at 
will for their own purposes. 

The very fact that UFOs appear to be paraphysical in nature and have 
exhibited a technology seemingly beyond the pale of science appears to be the 
reason why governments have been extremely reluctant to publicly admit their 
existence and capabilities. The UFO phenomenon is not predictable, and is 
therefore difficult to study using the scientific method. Its ability to outperform 
and neutralize our best military systems at will makes it a potential threat to 
international security. Government investigations may prove the physical 
existence of UFOs by radar, photographic and other types of instrumentation. 
But governments may still not have answers to their origin and purpose, nor the 
ability to mount a defense against them if they are hostile. Most likely 
officialdom believes that if these hard truths were officially made public, it 
would be very disruptive to the body politic. 

Contrary to what I formally believed, I tend to agree. But, such impacts have 
taken place before in human history. Painful as they have been, we have 
survived. Such impacts to our belief systems are an integral part of 
humankind’s intellectual and emotional evolution. Officialdom can delay but 
not prevent cultural impacts caused by such disturbing truths. Thus both the 
public and the civilian scientific community currently are left to fend for 
themselves against official disinformation and denials of UFO existence. 

Nonetheless, in spite of this current situation, no one can prevent UFO 
activity nor can witnesses be prevented from sighting UFOs and reporting UFO 
experiences. The results of polls taken over many years show that people have 
and are being conditioned to UFO reality and to mistrust of government in 
general. In the long run, it may be that no one will ever know what the UFO 
phenomenon is all about, unless the powers behind the phenomenon itself 
decides to overtly reveal that truth to us. 

—Raymond E. Fowler 

Friedman, Stanton T. (b. 1934). Stanton Friedman is one of the world’s best 
known UFO-ET researchers. More than four decades of study has convinced 
him that “the evidence is overwhelming that the Earth is being visited by 

intelligently controlled vehicles from off the Earth.” 

Friedman received his B.Sc. and M.Sc. degrees in physics from the 
University of Chicago, in 1955, 1956; his professional background as a nuclear 
physicist includes fourteen years of industrial experience in the development of 
nuclear aircraft, fission and fusion rockets, and nuclear power plants for space 
and terrestrial applications. 

Since 1970 Friedman has been a full-time UFO researcher and lecturer. He 
is the author of two books: Crash at Corona (1992) and Top Secret/Majic 
(1996), as well as numerous articles published in both professional and UFO 
journals and magazines. 

79 Pembroke Crescent 

New Brunswick, 

Canada E3B 2V1 

POSITION STATEMENT: There are no good arguments to be made against the 
conclusion that some UFOs are intelligently controlled vehicles from off the 
Earth. Some skeptics may be well intentioned, but they are almost always 
ignorant of the significant scientific data indicating UFO reality. They read the 
newspapers but not the solid information. They are unaware of the myriad of 
landing-trace cases the multitude of “critter” reports and earthling abductions, 
the numerous large-scale scientific collections of data, the many published 
scientific studies indicating that trips to nearby stars in our galactic 
neighborhood are already feasible without violating the laws of physics or 
invoking science fiction techniques. 



Stanton Friedman 

I can safely say that the “laughter curtain” has gradually been rising. Most 
people are ready to listen to the scientific data, which 1 present at lectures, and 
to agree with my conclusions. The notion that most people and most scientists 
do not believe in UFOs is pure fiction concocted and repeated over and over 
again by ancient academies, nay-saying newsmen, and fossilized physicists 
who form a very small, but very vocal, minority full of false platitudes, illogical 
reasoning, misinformation, and usually egotistical notions about their own 
knowledge and importance. They are sure that if flying saucers were real, they 
would know all about them, because the aliens would, of course, have already 
visited with them. Since these all-important persons have not been visited, 
UFOs must not be real There is every indication that the United States 
Government (and other governments as well) has covered up loads of the best 
cases involving data obtained by military radar and aircraft and not referred to 
Project Blue Book or its equivalent overseas. Such a cover-up can be easily 
understood from the viewpoint of a nationalistically oriented planet and the 
search for better flying weapons delivery systems, though it does not make 
much sense from an earthling viewpoint. Having spent fourteen years as a 
nuclear physicist on advanced development programs, many of which were 
highly classified, 1 can safely state that the government can keep secrets. The 
whole UFO subject is a kind of “Cosmic Watergate” crying out for a Daniel 
Ells-berg and/or the same media effort that went into uncovering the political 


It is time for all of those who have studied mountain of relevant data to stop 
being “closet UFOlogists” and to speak up and not hide behind “invisible 
colleges” and private rather than public pronouncements. The future of the 
planet many depend upon our courage as earthlings. 

—Stanton T. Friedman 

Fry, Daniel W. (1908-1992). Probably the most technically oriented of the 
famous contactees, Dan Fry is described on his book jacket (of The White 
Sands Incident, 1966) as: “an internationally known scientist, researcher and 
electronics engineer who is recognized by many as the best-informed scientist 
in the world on the subject of space and space travel.” 

Mr. Fry described himself as “an engineer, scientist, author, and lecturer,” 
who “was one of the prime movers in the Crescent Engineering and Research 
Company’s liquid-fueled missile flight-testing program.” He also worked for 
the Aerojet General Corporation at the White Sands Proving Grounds, where he 
was “in charge of installation of instruments for missile control and guidance.” 
Fry later moved to Tonopah, Arizona, the home base of his quasi-religious 
organization called Understanding, Inc. (After that, he lived in Alamogordo, 
New Mexico.) He also claimed to be an “ordained” minister and to hold a 
Ph.D. degree from St. Andrews College of London, England. 

Dan Fry’s initial contact with the “Space People” (he claimed four contacts 
in all, between 1950 and 1954) allegedly occurred on July 4, 1950, near the 
White Sands Proving Grounds (now Missile Range), near Las Cruces, New 
Mexico, while employed by Aerojet General. Fry said he missed a bus which 
would have taken him into town that night to observe the traditional fireworks 
display. Thinking he would spend the evening reading, he returned to his room, 
but his air conditioner failed, so he decided just to take a desert stroll and enjoy 
the cool, night air. 

Daniel Fry 

As he was scanning the sky, he caught sight of a “disappearing” star. The 
star only appeared to “blink out” because it had been eclipsed, he claims, by a 
“flying saucer” (he described it as “an oblate spheroid about thirty feet in 
diameter at the equator or largest part”). The “saucer” supposedly settled to the 
ground about seventy feet away, whereupon he approached to investigate the 
surface of the highly polished metal. He was startled to hear a deep voice, 
which he claims came out of the air beside him, which said, “Better not touch 
the hull, pal. It’s still hot!” He was so taken aback by this, he says, that he 
caught his foot against a root sticking out of the ground and fell over onto the 
desert sand. Then, a chuckle filled the air as the invisible voice supposedly 
spoke again: “Take it easy, pal. You are among friends.” 

After a little introductory chat, Fry claims to have learned that he was 
talking to an invisible spaceman named Alan. The spaceman explained some of 
the technicalities of the spacecraft’s operation, and then took Fry on a quick 
flight to New York City and back to White Sands—a trip which lasted only 
thirty minutes (flying at a speed of 8,000 miles per hour). 

The Space People who contacted Fry were said to be the descendants of a 
past supercivilization on Earth, which was annihilated in an atomic war more 
than thirty thousand years ago. According to Alan, the Saucerians’ ancestors 
were originally from the legendary Lemuria, which was in scientific 
competition with the ancient civilization of Atlantis. These two nations 
eventually destroyed each other, except for a few survivors who were able to 

escape in four aerial craft capable of space travel. One ship was lost along the 
way; but three landed safely on the, planet Mars, where the survivors 
established a new society. Later, they became independent of planets altogether, 
and began living aboard huge, self-sustaining ships that float through space in 
whatever direction the people choose, somewhat like the imaginary floating 
island fictionalized by Jonathan Swift in Gulliver s Travels. 

According to the skeptic-UFOlogist Philip J. Klass, who did some checking 
on the matter, Fry’s doctoral degree was obtained from “a sort of 
correspondence school” operated by a small church, from which it is possible 
for virtually anyone to be granted a Ph.D. by merely submitting a ten thousand- 
word thesis and paying a standard fee. 

Captain Edward J. Ruppelt, former head of the U.S. Air Force Project Blue 
Book, also had this to say: “He [Fry] hadn’t told the Air Force about his ride 
before because he was afraid he’d lose his job. But, at the press conference, he 
did plug his new book, The White Sands Incident. By this time Adamski had 
already published his book Flying Saucers Have Landed and it looked as if Fry 
was going to cut him out. But Fry took a lie-detector test on a widely viewed 
West Coast television show and flunked it flat.” (Ruppelt, 1956). 

However, if we are looking for meaning when we study the contactees, does 
it really matter if the alleged contacts are literally true? Let us consider the 
story about the war between the Lemurians and Atlanteans as a parable, or 
metaphor, demonstrating what consequences we can expect when competition 
is not balanced with cooperation. When you read The White Sands Incident 
carefully for its meaning, it is hard to miss. The spaceman, Alan, uses a series 
of metaphors to trace the different phases of human civilization, beginning with 
“the symbol of the tree and the serpent,” and culminating in our present-day 

Photo taken by Fry at Merlin, Oregon, in 1964 

“The tree is almost always the symbol of life,” says Alan, “beginning in the 
sea, rising to the atmosphere, and finally into space. There is another factor 
which may, perhaps, have some significance. Your people and some of mine, 
including myself, have, at least in part, a common ancestry.” This is where Alan 
relates the story of the rival between the two factions, represented by Lemuria 
and Atlantis. He applies the parable directly to us when he states that: “Unless 
some small balancing force is applied in the right quarters, your entire 
civilization may wipe itself out in a planet wide holocaust before we are in a 
position to be of assistance.” He adds: “ can improve the conditions of 
his life only through cooperation.” 

According to the psychologist Carl Jung, the UFO (or space ship) 
represented the higher Self. It is usually in the shape of a mandala (or magic 
circle), which universally symbolizes order and perfection. Thus the 
independent, free-floating space ships—mentioned in all of the contactee 
accounts—clearly symbolize the perfect, self-reliant, individuated psyche: the 
ideal to which all humans seeking wisdom aspire. It is also the ideal that is 
required for survival; hence, the warning. 

In the same manner that the technological gods and angels reside inside the 
self-sustaining space ships, the “kingdom of heaven” resides within each of us, 
just as Jesus said. In every case, the contactee is given a tour of the ship— 
which, of course, means looking inward at the elements that make up the 
psyche and realizing the virtually unlimited potential that exists within us, once 
we tap into nature’s forces. The personal message is that when we take control 
of our own “ship,” we have all the power we need, and we become the cure for 
whatever ails us. When Alan says “Every aspect of our environment is 

precisely controlled within our ships,” he is really talking about human 
potential and self-actualization. When you read Fry’s original account, the 
metaphor becomes richer and more obvious with every sentence. 

Fry was informed that he was specially chosen to be the liaison between 
planet Earth and the Galactic Confederation. “One of the purposes of this visit,” 
Alan told him, “is to determine the basic adaptability of the Earth’s peoples, 
particularly your ability to adjust your minds quickly to conditions and 
concepts completely foreign to your customary modes of thought. Previous 
expeditions by our ancestors, over a period of many centuries, met with almost 
total failure in this respect. This time there is hope that we may find minds 
somewhat more receptive so that we may assist you in the progress, or at least 
in the continued existence of your race.” (Fry, 1973) 

Alan made the most important point of all when he said: “Actually, the 
possibility of atomic warfare on your planet, while it is an immediate danger, is 
not the basic problem, it is merely a symptom, and few illnesses can be cured 
by treating only the symptoms.” He then explained how material science and 
social science are perfectly good in themselves, but must be based on a 
foundation of “spiritual science which deals with the relationship between man 
and the great creative power and infinite intelligence which pervades and 
controls all nature, and which your people refer to as God.” (Fry, 1973). 

That is one of the main differences between man and the other animals: “the 
animal has no spiritual or social science”; whereas “ endowed 
with the innate realization of the infinite intelligence and the creative power of 
the supreme mind, even though he may not yet be able to understand.” (Fry, 

—Ronald D. Story 


Fry, Daniel W. The White Sands Incident (New Age Publishing, 1954; Best Books, 1966). 

-. To Men of Earth, including The White Sands Incident (Merlin Publishing Co., 1973), 

Gibbons, Gavin. They Rode in Space Ships (The Citadel Press, 1957). 

Ruppelt, Edward J. The Report on Unidentified Flying Objects (Doubleday, 1956). 

Fund for UFO Research (FUFOR) Founded in 1979, the Fund for UFO 
Research is a nonprofit corporation that raises money and issues grants for 
selected UFO investigation and publication projects. 

Until 1993, FUFOR was headed by Bruce Maccabee, followed by Richard 

Hall from 1993 through 1997. Since 1998, Don Berliner has served as 

FUFOR has supported investigations into the Wellington/Kaikoura, New 
Zealand, film, the UFO abduction phenomenon, the “Majestic 12” (MJ-12) 
documents, and many other UFO-related incidents. 

To receive a grant from FUFOR, a proposal must be approved by a majority 
of the national board. 

P.O. Box 277 

Address: Mt. Rainier, MD 20712 


Web site: 


Clark, Jerome. The UFO Encyclopedia (Omnigraphics, 1998). 


Galactic Club, The (W.H. Freeman, 1974). Australian astrophysicist Ronald 
Bracewell sounds the first pessimistic note in science books about the prospect 
of contacting an advanced civilization using radio telescopes. There is only one 
chance in a thousand that radio signals will come our way and only one chance 
in a thousand that one of our radio telescopes will be pointed the right way when 
the signal arrives. He proposes instead that first contact will come as a result of 
our detection of an interstellar space probe sent to contact us. “It is quite 
possible,” he writes, that such a space probe, or messenger, has already arrived 
in our solar system and is even now monitoring us 

Galicia UFO wave of 1995-1996 What would prove to be one of the best- 
documented UFO “flaps” of the decade began on November 28, 1995 in 
Galicia (the autonomous region occupying Spain’s northwestern corner), when 
the security cameras of the As Gandaras military facility captured several 
UFOs on film, causing concern among the Spanish military. 

The media soon learned that soccer players at a nearby field had also seen 
the mysterious objects. UFOlogist Marcelino Requejo was quick to stress that 
the As Gandaras sighting was by no means an isolated incident, and that “a 
veritable flood of sightings” was taking place in the region, coinciding with 
seismic disturbances—approximately 70 in that month alone. 

The UFOlogist’s prediction would come true in January 1996, when 
sightings multiplied throughout northern Spain. Citizens of Pedrona 
(Santander) were treated to the passing of a brightly-lit oval object over their 
town. The coastal city of Gijon reported a UFO hanging over the sea at night— 
its multicolored lights dispelling the darkness. In the Galician village of As 
Pontes, cameraman Bartolome Vazquez filmed the maneuvers of a triangular 
UFO which he described as an “upside down steam iron.” This episode was 
considered to be one of the most significant, given that the cameraman had 
managed to capture two jet fighters in pursuit of the slow-moving triangle. Yet 
the most spectacular one occurred at Monforte de Lemos, where a local camera 

crew filmed hundreds of witnesses absorbed in contemplation of a massive oval 
UFO which remained suspended overhead for an hour. Other television crews 
filmed UFO maneuvers over sensitive locations like the ENDESA 
thermoelectric plant at As Pontes. 

The phenomenon entered its proactive phase on February 26, 1996, when 
motorist Andres Landeira, driving at night toward the city of Lugo, found that 
his car was being drawn upward by an unknown force. In a panic, Landeira 
opened the car’s door to jump out, but found he was at least thirty feet above 
the ground. He would later tell UFO invesigator Manuel Carballal, “I forced 
myself back into the driver’s seat and thought 1 was going to die, being taken to 
God knows where...” However, the force that picked up the car deposited it 
further along the road, but in a sideways manner. 

Like the classic UFO flaps of earlier decades, the Galician wave followed 
the classic pattern of sightings, ground effects, and occupant encounters. On 
February 18, 1996, two children playing in the woods outside Entrimo reported 
seeing a trio of luminous spheres which merged to form “a pair of saucers on 
top of each other” before vanishing. The youngsters also claimed having found 
clearly non-human footprints upon returning the next day; investigators 
ascertained that the marks corresponded to a creature standing at least 7 feet 

On March 7, 1996, Jose Manuel Castro, a rancher from the town of 
Ferrerias, saw a UFO land on his property a mere 100 feet away from his 
house. Small creatures “looking like monkeys” emerged from the object, and 
the vehicle left surface impressions and footprints similar to those found at 

—Scott Corrales 

Garden Grove (California) abduction hoax The 1975 Garden Grove, 
California, abduction was the most spectacular CE-3 of its time. A 33-year-old 
man (let’s call him “BS”) gave the following story in eight weekly videotaped 
hypnosis sessions with Dr. W.C. McCall. 

BS and a friend were camping in the Arizona desert in 1971 when suddenly 
a weird beam descended slowly and lifted them aboard a UFO where ugly 7- 
foot reptilian entities stripped them naked. Two entities took BS and floated 
down a curving hallway, through an exploding door and into a brightly lit 

As two creatures fidgeted in boredom at their consoles, BS stood against a 

wall and was given a lightning-quick physical exam. Two beams shot at him; 
one held his eyes in a fixed gaze and the other probed his body from his feet 
up: he sensed he was bleeding, he urinated, liquid drained from his stomach, his 
chest opened as his heart left his body briefly, and in a dizzying moment he saw 
his brain travel up the beam and back. 

Then everything stopped and from across the room an alien like the others 
but 9 feet tall glided toward him, smelling foul and with bad breath as well. BS 
was terrified but when the monster’s scaly hand touched his head he was 
instantly calmed. The tall alien gave him a tour of the ship. BS learned that the 
aliens were clones created by a central intelligence called the Host, in the form 
of a giant computer (and also as a fetal humanoid) on the UFO’s upper floor. 
There he also saw a vast birth laboratory—row after row of clear cylinders with 
writhing alien embryos in liquid. The aliens were “checking the original 
biological plantation” on Earth. 

BS was returned down the curving hall to his pal and they were dressed and 
beamed to the ground, and the UFO disappeared. He had been onboard about 
two hours. 

BS’s weekly regressions kept a group of local UFOlogists gasping. In the 
fourth week BS reported that he had been visited at night in his garage 
workroom by a ball of light that became a fetal humanoid. In the seventh week 
BS disappeared. Police were notified, but BS turned up 24 hours later, 
unshaven and woozy, wearing only his shorts. Hypnotized, he claimed that he 
had been abducted by a UFO and taken to Peru where he underwent a ritual 
with the aliens at the site of the famous spider figure on the Nazca Plain. BS 
said his first CE-3 was at 16, when he was forced by aliens to give himself a 
tattoo on his right forearm in the shape of the Nazca spider—spectacular 
physical evidence, if true. 

The Garden Grove case ultimately involved six alleged abductions 
(unprecedented in 1975), two with separate second witnesses, and loads of data 
channeled during BS’s daily self-hypnosis sessions, including blueprints of the 
UFO (BS was a draftsman, though otherwise unschooled); chemical formulae 
for the craft’s propulsion system (with atomic weights of elements to four 
decimal places); texts of a mysterious computer-like alien language; and a brief 
message from the aliens written in pre-Homeric Greek (ca. 3500 years ago), 
“Nous laos hikano. ’’ BS gave us a loose translation: “I come in the mind of 

Unbelievably, perhaps, BS’s case seemed believable to McCall and me. But 

after several weeks of hypnosis, videotaping, and laborious analysis of his 
narratives, we caught BS in a hoax. He claimed to have found a spider figure 
drawn on the ground at the site of a reported UFO sighting, but a young boy 
had seen BS scratching it in the dirt himself. 

Then—belatedly—we looked into BS’s personal life and found disturbing 
facts. He worked for a computer manufacturer (bye-bye to the alien computer 
motif). At work he had access to both a technical library (adios to the atomic 
weights) and books by Erich von Daniken (ta-ta to the Nazca Plain, the 
biological plantation, etc.). One of his friends at work was a Greek scholar. 
Neither of two alleged second witnesses would verify BS’s claims (all 
fabrications). Finally, we learned that BS had once served prison time for fraud. 
He had glib excuses for his actions but we stopped working with him. 

How were a medical doctor and a college professor flim-flammed by a fable 
that in another context few people with an IQ higher than a coat of floor wax 
might believe? In our defense, BS’s sessions were convincing in the extreme. 
He had an Irishman’s gift for blarney, a con man’s cunning, and a draftsman’s 
eye for specific details. As a clincher, there were surprise factors in his sessions 
—such as the clinically plausible hitech exam, the ghastly birth lab, and his 
mention of alien ennui—that electrified us because we naively assumed they 
were beyond his powers of invention. BS’s case remains one of the most 
persuasively detailed CE-3s ever, and though it made monkeys out of us for a 
while, chances are that it would have done the same to many of the intelligent 
life forms in the galaxy. 

BS deceived us just as decades of supposedly real CE-3 yams before and since 
have duped other investigators—who rarely discuss hoaxers. BS’s hoax worked 
because we wanted to believe him, and we were seduced by his ability to spin an 
appealing saga. Our inadequacies were those that have afflicted the spotty 
history of abduction investigations from the beginning. 

The Garden Grove hoax is unusual in that we compiled a complete 
audiovisual and written record of a CE-3 hoaxer’s regressions, from acceptance 
to exposure. Also, our somewhat humbled perseverance ultimately solved a 
complex case without media sensationalism. More important, we began to 
make sense of its wealth of birth imagery, which we found was common in 
other supposedly real and known-to-be-imaginary cases. (See birth memories 

In retrospect, our first CE-3 case was a stumble that we made into a giant 
leap: BS hoaxed us into permanent skepticism about CE-3 claims. Now I think 

of him as our first Imaginary Abductee. Like the subjects of that 1977 study, 
BS fabricated a typical and perinatally rich CE-3 narrative out of his own fertile 
fantasy. His case establishes that hoaxers, Imaginaries, and allegedly real 
abductees have more in common than proponents are likely to acknowledge. 
(See also Imaginary Abductee Study) 

—Alvin H. Lawson 

geomagnetic explanations for UFOs Dr. Michael Persinger, a 
neuropsychologist at Laurentian University in Canada, has conducted and 
published hundreds of studies showing how magnetic fields can produce UFO- 
like visions as well as hallucinations of saucers, “Grays,” and abductions in 
people subjected to the fields in a controlled laboratory setting. Beginning his 
research in the early 1970s, Persinger initially showed that UFO reports were 
statistically correlated with seismic (earthquake) activity. His results showed 
that increased reports of UFOs come at times when seismic activity is low or 

Working with geologist John Derr and others, Persinger speculated that the 
tectonic stress that builds between earthquakes produces powerful geomagnetic 
fields. These fields, it was hypothesized, somehow affected the areas in the 
brain that can produce hallucinatory phenomena. One related line of 
speculation has asserted that plasmas are produced by a building tectonic strain 
in the Earth’s surface, thus creating powerful but localized geomagnetic fields. 
Plasmas—balls of charged air particles—are not speculative phenomena, and 
have been produced in laboratory settings. The piezoelectric effect, the 
production of electricity when a crystal is pressured or crushed—is often 
theorized to be the source of plasma energies that can emerge from the Earth. In 
addition, plasmas are believed to be related to “earthquake lights” as well as 
lights observed at volcanic sites. Greg Fong’s 1990 book, Examining the 
Earthlight Theory: The Yakima UFO Microcosm does an admirable job of 
showing how a 1970s UFO flap on the Yakima, Washington, reservation was 
probably caused by tectonic strain on a ridge in the reservation covered with 
over 100 earthquake fault lines. The eruption of Mt. St. Helens in 1980 is 
hypothesized as relieving the building tectonic strain in the region, thus 
accounting for the sudden cessation of UFO reports in UFO reports in the area 
after the pressure was relieved. Another investigator, Paul Devereux, has long 
theorized that charged balls of light coming from the Earth produce mental and 
physical phenomena in people who come close enough to observe the lights. 

Persinger’s more recent research has focused on identifying specific brain 
sites and specific magnetic frequencies that can produce a host of phenomena. 
For example, magnetic fields focused on the temporal lobe can create visions of 
various types. Research shows that different magnetic frequencies focused on 
various brain areas can, in fact, literally create abduction-like experiences as 
well as visions of saucers, angels, and apparitions. Persinger has speculated that 
“haunted” sites and places where long-term phenomena occur are situated on 
an area of the Earth’s surface where plasma energy is regularly released. 

The influence of magnetic fields and frequencies on human behavior is 
under intense investigation in laboratories across the globe. Military and 
medical applications are both being investigated. Publication of results from 
this vast arena of research does occur routinely, however the scientific journals 
disseminating studies are highly technical and sometimes obscure. Major 
university research libraries and government repositories generally carry these 
technical journals. The amount of research being conducted in this area is 
staggering. For example, the Harvard University Genetics Department supplied 
this writer with a bibliography of 3,000 published studies in 1995. 

Exactly how magnetic fields can produce mental phenomena is also 
becoming known. In 1992, the mineral magnetite was discovered in human 
brain cells. In the presence of a magnetic field, the magnetite in brain cells 
aligns itself with the field and begins to resonate (vibrate). As it resonates, ion 
channels on the surface of brain cells open allowing the passage of specific ions 
that result in the release of neurotransmitters. This produces imagery and other 
experiences. The textbook Psychopharmacology (Little, 1997) and Grand 
Illusions (Little, 1994) both summarize this process. 

Related to the geomagnetic explanation of UFOs is the proposal that 
electromagnetic pollution accounts for increased paranormal phenomena. 
Albert Budden’s Electric UFOs (1998) and Allergies and Aliens (1994) assert 
that electromagnetic pollution created by microwaves, transmission lines, and 
modern society’s proliferation of electronics has created a cesspool of magnetic 
pollution. Budden proposes that this bombardment of electromagnetic energy 
alters brain chemistry through its influence on brain magnetite. Hauntings, 
abductions, missing time, and paranormal experiences result from this 
influence. A more speculative but all-encompassing theory invoking 
geomagnetic energy is that proposed by Greg Little. (See also Geomagnetic 
Intelligent Energy Theory of UFOs) 

—Gregory L. Little 


Little, Gregory L. Grand Illusions (White Buffalo Books, 1994). 

-. Psychopharmacology (White Buffalo Books, 1997). 

Long, Greg. Examining the Earthlight Theory: The Yakima UFO Microcosm (CUFOS, 1990). 

geomagnetic intelligent energy theory of UFOs Building from the works 
of John Keel and Carl Jung as well as from geomagnetic research and 
neurochemistry, the present writer has theorized that the plasma energies 
produced by the Earth represent Carl Jung’s archetypes manifesting in physical 
reality. This form of archetypal manifestation can be described as intelligent 
geomagnetic energy forms. 

The theory begins by proposing that the electromagnetic energy (EM) 
spectrum is the abode of Jung’s archetypes (as Jung himself stated). The EM 
spectrum is sometimes referred to as forming the fences that hold physical 
reality together. The entire universe is bathed in constant pulses of EM energy. 
The human visual system is capable of perceiving less than 5 percent of the EM 
spectrum. The remaining 95 percent of reality is there—all around us—but 
unseen. A perusal of a basic text in psychology or physics will explain the EM 
spectrum in more detail. 

As proposed by Jung through his concept of archetypes and John Keel with 
his idea of “ultraterrestrials,” the intelligent energy theory proposes that UFOs, 
abductions, apparitional, and various other psychic phenomena are produced 
when the intelligent energy forms residing on the unseen ends of the EM 
spectrum manifest in physical reality. 

Jung wrote in several places that angels were archetypal forms that could 
manifest into reality. This process has long been termed transmutation by 
occultists and occurs by an alteration of the energy form’s vibrational frequency 
into the narrow band of the EM spectrum perceived by the human visual 
system. As such, these manifestations have also been termed “spectral 

The theory accounts for a wide range of ancient reports. For example, in 
Zechariah 5:2, a flying tube 30 feet by 15 feet is described as a permanent curse 
of the Earth judging the deeds of men. In Zechiariah 5:6 he is shown an object 
the size of a bushel basket moving through the Earth. He is told that the object 
collects the wicked thoughts of men. Zech. 4:6-10 describes lamp-shaped 
objects that run “to and fro” everywhere on the Earth. These are the “eyes of 
God” that record everything that occurs on Earth. These “collection” devices 

are normally unseen but are living beings as described by the angel who 
showed them to the ancient prophet. 

The Hebrew Book of Enoch (translated in 1928) also contains numerous 
descriptions of devices used by “angels” in their work. These flying objects are 
described as “pipes,” orbs, and tubes. They not only record events on Earth but 
are used by the Watchers (fallen angels) to literally contain the souls of evil 
people after death. The souls of these people are then taken to the “gates of 
hell” where they are pushed out the tubes into hell. This ancient religious text 
(3 Enoch) describes the fallen angels who control these collection devices as 
gray in color, short like children, and having a partial human-like appearance. 

The geomagnetic intelligent energy theory proposes that the EM spectrum is 
the spiritual world. The intelligent beings residing on the unseen ends of the 
EM spectrum can, under some conditions, come into physical reality when their 
frequency comes into the visible frequency range. The powerful EM fields 
constantly produced by the Earth (and the Sun) provide an energy source for 
the EM forms to utilize. 

Human consciousness is changed when in proximity to an emerging EM 
form because of the alteration in neurochemistry. In addition, people can 
voluntarily tune themselves to specific EM frequencies through various rituals 
and processes. Many occult practices as well as religious rites are designed to 
foster an attunement to specific EM frequencies. 

The theory also proposes that ancient ritual sites, including specific mound 
and pyramid complexes, were built because they were in areas where frequent 
and powerful geomagnetic fields emerged from the Earth. Many rituals were 
designed to allow the participants to attune themselves to the frequency of the 
emerging EM form. Many Native American legends relate how this process 
works. Three books: The Archetype Experience, People of the Web , and Grand 
Illusions; and a series of articles in Alternate Perceptions develop this theory. 

—Gregory L. Little 


Alternate Perceptions, Box 9972, Memphis, TN 38190 

Jung, C. G. On the Nature of the Psyche (Princeton University Press, 1960, 1969). 
Keel, John. UFOs .Operation Trojan Horse (G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1970). 

Little, Gregory L. The Archetype Experience (Rainbow Books, 1984). 

-. People of the Web (White Buffalo Books, 1990). 

-. Grand Illusions (White Buffalo Books, 1994). 

ghost rockets of 1946 Strange phenomena reported in the skies of Europe 
just after the Second World War, for the most part in the year 1946, have 
become known among the students of the UFO problem as the “ghost rocket” 
mystery. This UFO flap was first recognized officially when Finland announced 
over Helsinki radio on February 26, 1946, that “inordinate meteor activity” had 
been noticed in the nation’s northern districts near the Arctic Circle. Eater, 
toward the end of May, persons in northern Sweden also became aware of 
unusual sights in the heavens. On June 9 th , when something spewing a trail of 
smoke raced through the night sky over Finland’s capital city, Helsinki, at a 
reported altitude of one thousand feet, leaving an illuminous afterglow, public 
consternation became widespread. When another report was made, asserting 
that an unidentified luminous body giving off glowing vapor had approached 
the Finnish coast from the direction of the Baltic, only to turn sharply and 
retrace its course, a corre spon-dent for the Fondon Daily Mail, stationed in 
Helsinki, cabled the story to England, thus arousing international interest. 

Unsure of the exact nature of the phenomena being reported, the newspapers 
adopted the term “ghost rocket” to explain the “missile-like meteors.” As 
reports accumulated at an increasing rate, suspicions grew that the Soviet 
Union was testing missiles over the Baltic Sea. Often, a single “ghost rocket” 
would be seen exploding in the air, prompting careful ground searches for 
fragments. According to press reports, the residue recovered after such 
explosions consisted of tiny particles of dark-colored, slag-like material. This 
seemed to reinforce the meteor theory, but it did not explain other puzzling 
characteristics reported by witnesses. 

People claimed that the strange objects did more than simply fall earthward, 
as one would expect of a meteor. Instead, the ghost rockets would fly 
horizontally, and sometimes even dive and climb, leap, barrel-roll, and 
backtrack. And while some of the objects in question crossed the sky at 
tremendous velocity, many times the objects reportedly moved in a very 
leisurely fashion. Frequently the objects sighted were not shaped like missiles, 
but more like common bolides, yet they would behave in an unme-teorlike 
manner. Expressions used in such cases were: “luminous bodies,” “balls of 
fire,” “cometlike,” “shooting starlike,” “flarelike,” “greenish globe,” “gray 
sphere,” “like a huge soap bubble,” “shining ball,” “rotating object emitting 
sparks,” and an “arrow-shaped object.” 

One of the mysterious “ghost rockets” of the 1946 Scandinavian wave, as depicted by artist Hal 


However, the most mysterious cases were the ones that had started the 
“ghost rocket” rumors. These sightings mentioned flying bodies that did not 
have a round, fiery appearance. They resembled wartime German V-2 rockets. 
Such descriptions used the words: “football shape,” “silver torpedo,” “cigar 
shape,” “rocketlike,” “silvery projectile,” “cylinderlike,” “missile-like,” 
“elliptical,” “bullet-shaped,” and “like a squash racket.” 

Although documentation is incomplete, reports catalogued to date seem to 
indicate that the aerial phenomena of 1946 slowly shifted southward from the 
Arctic, eventually reaching Portugal, Tangiers, Italy, Greece, and even Kashmir 
in India, by the month of September. The phenomena were striking enough to 
warrant official reaction from the governments of Norway, Sweden, Finland, 
Denmark, Greece, Belgium, England, Russia, and the United States. 

Of all the nations affected, Sweden was the most alarmed, experiencing as 
many as a thousand sightings. Reports of ghost rockets reached a peak on 
August 11 th in the skies of Sweden, and during the following days angry anti- 
Soviet editorials were published in most newspapers as tension in the country 
approached the boiling point. In the United States, such newspapers as the 
Washington Post, the Christian Science Monitor, and the New York Times gave 
front-page treatment to the latest dispatches from Stockholm. The Swedish 
High Command, pressured by public opinion, seriously discussed the 
possibility that the Russians were conducting a mysterious bombardment of 
Sweden. The armed forces of Sweden were placed on alert and the government 
authorities prepared a strong protest addressed at a “certain neighboring 
country.” Restraining the Swedes, however, was the lack of any tangible 
evidence aside from the fragments of slag-like material gathered from ground 

searches. This perplexing problem was explained away by the Swedish military 
experts by the postulation of what they called: “the new explosion theory,” the 
idea that the ghost rockets were totally consumed by fire when they exploded 
and burst into flame. This hypothesis was based on a number of vivid 
eyewitness accounts. 

According to the New York Times, the United States felt compelled to send 
two top intelligence experts to Sweden to confer with the Swedish General 
Staff. They were General James Doolittle and David Sarnoff. Just what the two 
men learned about the mystery has never been revealed, although Mr. Sarnoff 
told a group of electronics experts after his return from Europe that he was 
convinced the strange missiles being reported over Sweden were not a myth but 
something real. 

Aside from the exact nature of the ghost rockets, the biggest question mark 
about the flap was the secrecy imposed by the authorities in the nations 
affected. Early investigations of the riddle relied on public cooperation, and 
reports were often written up in detail in the press; but by July 27 th , the Swedish 
government prohibited newspapers from printing the location of any ghost 
rocket. The Norwegian government also ordered that such information not be 
published as of July 29 th , followed by the government of Denmark on August 
16 th . Later, on August 31 st , Norway totally banned ghost rocket sighting 
information, while news on the continuing rocket barrage had all but 
disappeared from the Swedish press by August 22 nd . Lending support to the fact 
that the mystery surrounding the ghost rockets was increasing was a story in the 
Christian Science Monitor which declared that the British Foreign Office had 
admitted that British radar experts were submitting secret reports about the 
ghost rockets. 

Although very little appeared in the Scandinavian newspapers at the time, 
the Associated Press learned that ghost rocket sightings had continued in 
considerable numbers right up to October before tapering off. The last official 
word on the ghost rocket mystery in 1946 was a Swedish military communique 
made public October 10 th , remarking on the results of Sweden’s investigation. 
The briefly worded release asserted that, while most reports were vague, 
different instruments registered something definite, and that many reports were 
“clear unambiguous observations.” The Swedish experts claimed that some 20 
percent of the ghost rocket reports appeared to be neither aircraft nor natural 
phenomena. Details of the 1946 Swedish investigation are still classified. 

The ghost rockets returned to Scandinavian skies in the first part of 1946 and 

during the early months of 1948. Even the conservative London Times 
acknowledged that ghost rockets were once again infesting the skies of 
Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. According to the Times; pilots of the 
Norwegian Air Lines reported missile-like objects speeding along through the 
air, emitting bluish-green flames, and that these “missiles” were seen flying as 
fast as 6,700 miles per hour, traveling as much as 25,000 feet high and as low 
as the treetops. The 6,700 miles-per-hour clocking was witnessed and timed by 
the president of the Norwegian Airline Pilots Association. 

Ghost rocket-type UFOs are still being reported around the world, and they 
remain one of the most spectacular and mystifying of unidentified aerial 
phenomena. In summation, it should be stated that while the American wave of 
1947 heralded the “flying saucer” craze, the European “ghost rocket” flap of 
1946 truly marked the beginning of the modern era of large-scale UFO activity. 

—Loren E. Gross 

Gill sighting William B. Gill, an Anglican priest with a mission in Boainai, 
Papua, New Guinea, observed craft-like UFOs—one with humanoid figures on 
top—on two consecutive evenings, June 26-27, 1959. About twenty-five 
natives, including teachers and medical technicians, also witnessed the 
phenomena. They “signaled” the humanoids and received an apparent response. 
This was one of sixty UFO sightings within a few weeks in the New Guinea 

An approximate chronology of the complex series of sightings follows 
(based on Father GilFs log of events and a summary report by his colleague, 
the Reverend Norman Cruttwell): 

June 26th 

6:45 rm. Large sparkling light seen by Father Gill in western sky. Called 
natives who also saw it. 

6:55-7:04 rm. Up to four illuminated humanoid figures seen on top of 
object, off and on. 

7:10-7:20 p.m. Sky now overcast at about 2,000 feet. Humanoid figures seen 
again, and a “thin electric blue spotlight” upward from the UFO, hovering 
below the overcast. UFO disappears in clouds. 

8:28-8:35 rm. Skies clear again; UFO visible, appearing to descend and 
increase in size. Second object seen over sea, “hovering at times,” and another 

over village. 

8:50-9:30 p.m. Clouds forming again. Large UFO stationary, others (about 
three) like disks coming and going through clouds, casting a light halo on the 
clouds. Large UFO moves away rapidly across sea toward Giwa. 

9.46-10:30 p.m. UFO reappears overhead, hovering. 

10:50 p.m. Heavy overcast; no sign of UFO. 

11:04 p.m. Heavy rain. 

June 27th 

6-7 p.m. Large UFO seen again, first sighted by medical technician at 
hospital, before dark. Closest sighting yet; seen clearly, bright and sparkling. 
Humanoid figures seen on top. Father Gill and about twelve others in group 
waved at humanoids, and one of figures appeared to wave back. One member 
of the group waved both arms, and figures apparently responded by waving 
both arms. Two smaller objects remained visible, stationary at a higher altitude. 

7:45 p.m. Sky overcast; no UFOs visible. 

On the first night, Father Gill stepped out the front door of the mission house 
after dinner, about 6:45 p.m., and glanced at the western sky looking for Venus, 
which was conspicuous at the time. “I saw Venus,” he said, “but I also saw this 
sparkling object, which to me was peculiar because it sparkled and because it 
was very, very bright, and it was above Venus and so that caused me to watch it 
for a while; then I saw it descend towards us.” 

Father Gill estimated the object’s angular diameter as about five inches at 
arm’s length. Stephen Gill Moi, a teacher, who joined Father Gill a few minutes 
later, said that if he put his hand out closed, it would cover about half of the 

In a signed statement, the witnesses agreed that the object was circular, had a 
wide base and a narrower upper “deck,” had something like legs beneath it, at 
times produced a shaft of blue light which shone upward into the sky at an 
angle of about 45 degrees, and that four humanoid figures appeared on top. 
Some of the witnesses described seeing about four portholes or windows on the 
side. Father Gill saw what appeared to be bright panels on the side of the craft, 
but did not interpret them as portholes. 

“As we watched it,” Father Gill said, “men came out from this object and 
appeared on top of it, on what seemed to be a deck on top of the huge disk. 
There were four men in all, occasionally two, then one, then three, then four; 

we noted the various times the men appeared.... 

“Another peculiar thing was this shaft of blue light, which emanated from 
what appeared to be the center of the deck. The men appeared to be illuminated 
not only by this light reflected on them, but also by a sort of glow which 
completely surrounded them as well as the craft. The glow did not touch them, 
but there appeared to be a little space between their outline and the light....” 

Father Gill described the movements of the objects, especially the smaller 
disks, as very erratic. They sometimes moved rapidly, sometimes slowly, 
approaching and receding, changing direction, and at times swinging back and 
forth like a pendulum. One object moved away and appeared to descend toward 
Wadobuna village, and everyone thought it was going to land. The Papuans ran 
down on the beach, but the object swooped up and away over the mountains, 
turning red as it disappeared. 

When the large object disappeared at 9.30 p.m., Father Gill said it made a 
slight wavering motion, then suddenly shot away at tremendous speed across 
the bay in the direction of Giwa, diminishing to a pinpoint and vanishing. No 
sound was heard throughout. 

The next evening, about 6 p.m., the same or a similar object reappeared while 
the sky was still bright, first seen by Annie Laurie Borewa, a Papuan medical 
assistant at the hospital. She called Father Gill, who in turn called Ananias and 
several others to watch. “We watched figures appear on top,” Father Gill said. 
“Four of them. There is no doubt that they were human. This is possibly the 
same object that 1 took to be the ‘mother ship’ last night. Two smaller UFOs 
were seen at the same time, stationary, one above the hills, and another 

Two of the figures seemed to be doing something, occasionally bending over 
and raising their arm as if “adjusting or setting up something. One figure 
seemed to be standing, looking down on us (a group of about a dozen).” This 
figure, he explained later, was standing with his hands on the “rail” looking 
over, “just as one will look over the rails of a ship.” 

(•Pd) Will 1st W. Pill. 

Rongfc rkateh of O.P.O. // 

“1 stretched my arm above my head and waved. To our surprise the figure 
did the same. Ananias waved both arms over his head, then the two outside 
figures did the same. Then both of us began waving our arms and all four 
seemed to wave back. There seemed to be no doubt that our movements were 
answered. All the Mission boys made audible gasps.” 

As darkness began to settle in, Father Gill sent one of the natives for a 
flashlight and directed a series of signals (“long dashes”) toward the UFO. 
After a minute or two, the UFO wavered back and forth like a pendulum, in 
apparent acknowledgment. They waved and flashed signals again, and the UFO 
appeared to descend toward them, but stopped and came no closer. After two or 
three more minutes, the figures disappeared. Then, at 6:25 p.m., two figures 
resumed their activity, and the blue spotlight came on for a few seconds twice 
in succession. By 7:45 p.m. the sky was totally overcast and no UFOs were 
visible. This ended the sightings. 

In his evaluation of the incidents, Dr. Donald H. Menzel, a Harvard 
University astronomer who wrote three UFO-debunking books, refers to the 
natives as “uneducated” and to Father Gill as being their “great leader,” to them 
“a holy man” (implying that they were influenced in their testimony). He 
attributed the sightings to the planet Venus viewed myopically by Father Gill. 
Venus, he noted, was very conspicuous in the west, setting about three hours 
after the sun. 

Menzel then openly assumed that Father Gill was myopic and without 
glasses at the time, that he “probably” had appreciable astigmatism as well 
(causing him to see a distorted image of Venus), plus blood cells on the retina 
producing illusory motion. He concluded: “Since a very simple hypothesis 

accounts, without any strain, for the reported observations, I shall henceforth 
consider the Father Gill case as solved. Moreover, I feel the same phenomena 
are responsible for some of the more spectacular, unsolved cases in the Air 
Force files.” 

Dr. J. Allen Hynek, the former Air Force UFO consultant, notes in rebuttal 
that Father Gill was wearing properly corrected glasses at the time and that 
“Venus was pointed out separately by Gill.” 

Although any prolonged series of UFO sightings with excited witnesses may 
be “contaminated” by coincidental sightings of aircraft, meteors, or stars and 
planets glimpsed through moving clouds, the report of a large structured object 
(with moving humanoid figures) below a low overcast is not easily explainable. 

—Richard Hall 


Hynek, J. Allen. The UFO Experience: A Scientific Inquiry (Henry Regnery, 1972). 

Hall, Richard. “Gill sighting” in Story, Ronald D., ed. The Encyclopedia of UFOs (Doubleday/New 
English Library, 1980). 

Story, Ronald D. UFOs and the Limits of Science (William Morrow/New English Library, 1981). 

God Drives a Flying Saucer (Bantam, 1969). Connecticut schoolteacher 
R.L. Dione writes that UFOs are God’s messengers, responsible for the 
prophecies, scriptures, and miracles of the Christian religion. Even Jesus Christ 
accomplished his miracles by channeling energy beamed to him by 
extraterrestrial spacecraft, according to this view, and persons who were 
incarcerated throughout history, perhaps including even Adolf Hitler, were 
subjected to programing signals beamed at them by UFOs to produce “divinely 
inspired writing.” 

—Randall Fitzgerald 

Gods of Eden, The (Avon Books, 1989). William Bramley proposes the 
ultimate conspiracy theory of history—that we humans are a species of slaves 
owned by extraterrestrial visitors who used our ancestors to mine the planet for 
minerals. To keep humans divided, confused and in turmoil, these visitors or 
keepers, called the “Custodians,” inspired the creation of competing religions. 
A secret society called “The Brotherhood” has been used by the Custodians, 
through its various branches such as the Freemasons and the Rosicrucians, to 
foment terror, revolution, and warfare among humans. 

—Randall Fitzgerald 

Gods or Spacemen? (Amherst Press, 1964; reprinted in the U.K. by Sphere 
Books, in 1977, as Messengers from the Stars). In this, the first of his five 
books on the ancient astronaut theme, W. Raymond Drake scans the myths of 
numerous ancient and modern cultures and civilizations to find similarities in 
the way they portray visits from sky-dwelling beings who revealed cosmic 
mysteries to leaders chosen from among the humans. 

From witch doctors in Africa to the shamans of Siberia and the Celtic 
Druids, Drake finds “fragments of a very high theology” that once existed 
worldwide and inspired construction of the megaliths, the Nazca lines in Peru, 
and the Egyptian and Mayan pyramids. 

—Randall Fitzgerald 

Good, Timothy (b. 1942). Timothy Good first became interested in UFOs in 
1955, when his passion for aviation and space travel led him to read a book by 
Major Donald Keyhoe which described sightings by military and civilian pilots. 
Now regarded as a top authority, he has researched the subject worldwide, 
interviewing key witnesses and amassing a wealth of evidence, including 
several thousands of intelligence documents. He has conducted extensive 
investigations in the United States for many years. 

Born in London, Timothy Good completed his formal education at the 
King’s School, Canterbury, then gained a violin scholarship to the Royal 
Academy of Music in London, where he won prizes for solo, chamber and 
orchestral playing. His professional career began in earnest in 1963 when he 
toured the U.S. and Canada with the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra. From 1964 
to 1978 he played with the London Symphony Orchestra. He has also played 
with many other orchestras, and has worked for many great conductors and 
composers, including Leonard Bernstein, Benjamin Brit ten, Otto Klemperer, 
Leopold Stokowski, Igor Stravinsky and Sir William Walton. 

Since 1978 Timothy Good has been involved in freelance session work for 
television dramas, commercials, feature films, and recordings with pop 
musicians. Those he has recorded for include Phil Collins, George Harrison, 
Elton John, Paul McCartney, Rod Stewart, Barbra Streisand, and U2. Recent 
films include The Fifth Element, The Man in the Iron Mask, Tomorrow Never 
Dies , and Wings of the Dove. 

Timothy Good 

Timothy Good is known to millions worldwide through his numerous 
television appearances, and has acted as associate producer for several 
documentaries on the UFO subject. He has given lectures worldwide at 
universities, schools, and to many organizations, including the House of Lords 
All-Party UFO Study Group, IBM, the Institute of Medical Laboratory 
Sciences, the Royal Canadian Military Institute, the Royal Geographical 
Society, the Royal Naval Air Reserve Branch, and the Oxford and Cambridge 
Union Societies. He liaises with a number of retired intelligence officers, and in 
1998 was invited to discuss the subject at the Defense Airborne 
Reconnaissance Office in the Pentagon. 

Timothy Good’s bestselling books include: Above Top Secret: The 
Worldwide UFO Cover-Up (1987); retitled Beyond Top Secret: The Worldwide 
UFO Security Threat (1996) in its revised edition; Alien Contact: Top-Secret 
UFO Files Revealed (1993); Alien Update (1995), and Unearthly Disclosure 
( 2001 ). 


247 High Street 
Kent, BR3 1AB 

POSITION STATEMENT: It is my conviction that we are being visited by 
several different groups of extraterrestrials, and that while some may not be well 
disposed toward us, the majority are essentially benevolent. All share a common 

“foreign” policy of avoiding open contact with earth, which to me seems entirely 
logical. From my own investigations throughout the world, however, 1 am 
convinced that selective contacts have been made with hundreds of individuals. 
The visitors have no need to establish open contact, nor do they want the 
majority of us to know what they are doing here. 

—Timothy Good 

(Position statement was adapted from Timothy Good’s first book, Above Top 
Secret: The Wordwide UFO Cover-up, 1987.) 

Grays The image of the alien in UFO culture has generally been dominated by a 
fetus-like entity with a large, bald head (more pear-shaped than round). Usually 
the being is small compared to humans. Often the limbs are described as 
thinner or more slender, but the more closely universal rule is that such aliens 
are never fat or obese. Current convention labels approximations to this 
stereotypical UFOnaut with the term “Grays.” Ostensibly this is because of 
grayish skin tones usually being associated with this body type. In practice, 
absence of this defining trait does not inhibit use of the label so long as a big 
bald head appears somewhere in the description. 

The project of assembling a history of this alien stereotype with a view to 
understanding its origins and rise to dominance is a daunting one, because there 
are special hazards. There are no maps to guide us. Therefore, this 
encyclopedia entry should be regarded as a pioneering effort, not as the final 

We will start this history by offering the proposition that the idea underlying 
the Grays was constructed in the 19 th century. 

Copyright © 1997 by Argonaut & William Louis McDonald 

Collection of typical “Grays” drawn by forensic artist William Louis McDonald 

Images that fit loosely the definition of Grays can be found here and there in 
art and myths long predating the modern era. Finding them is an easy and 
pleasant diversion. Take the Greco-Egyptian painting of mortuary house 21 at 
Tuna-Gebel. It has an entity with a large smooth head and very slender build 
that includes a pencil-neck. Few would quarrel that the look matches that of the 
Grays. The fact that the being is the shadow of the deceased represented 
symbolically as a black emaciated corpse makes it questionable that the look 
carries the modern idea. (Baines and Melek, 1990) 

Dr. Gregory Little has found a description of the watchman at the gates of 
Sheol in the Hebrew Book of Enoch as gray in color, short like a child, and 
taking on a somewhat human appearance that he says left him stunned. (Little, 
1994) I’ve described elsewhere items from ancient Denmark and the Congo 
whose facial features mimic the exotic facets of Whitley Strieber’s “visitor.” 
(Kottmeyer, 1995) 

Such images are quite scattered and could be random outcomes of the 
immense creativity of artists exploring hundreds of permutations. There is no 

evidence of deeper linkages between them and current UFO beliefs, and no hint 
of historical connections. As a parallel example, ponder how some short bald 
fairies ended up in Star Trek, Next Generation Starfleet uniforms, even though 
the painting was done 1880 by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s father. (Philpotts, 
1978) One may not be able to rule out some swirly space-time anomaly causing 
such things, but coincidence has to be the favored judgement. 

The trait of big-headedness can be found associated with aliens inhabiting 
the sun in Pierre Boitard’s Mussee des families (1838), but the beings possess 
hair and otherwise seem completely human. This seems a simple way of 
representing higher intelligence in such beings. 1 consider it slightly outside the 
definition of a Gray. (Pinvidic, 1993) 

The idea underlying the Grays did not and could not exist before the idea of 
evolution. Christian theology held that God created life in the first week of 
creation. Each species was designed optimally for its niche in the hierarchy of 
nature, and, presumably, given all the fuss over the Ark, would never be 
recreated. Transformation of form or future improvement on present design 
held no place in such a worldview. Evolution was heretical and rarely 
considered at length prior to the 19 th century. It is to one of the proponents of an 
early version of evolution, Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, that we will turn to for an 
important element of out history. 

Lamarck was an early opponent of the ideas of special creation and 
catastrophism. Nature did everything little by little and successively. Where 
earlier thinkers spoke of a great chain of being with each species created 
specifically for its place, Lamarck felt that varying environmental pressures 
created new needs and increased the use of certain organs to make them more 
perfect while adding to the organism’s complexity. Conversely, “...the 
permanent disuse of an organ, arising from a change of habits, causes a gradual 
shrinkage and ultimately the disappearance and even extinction of that organ.” 
(Lamarck, 1809; 1963) 

Lamarck regarded man as a probable product of evolution. The process, he 
felt, reached the limits of complexity and perfection; and, while noting 
individual instances of the perfecting or degradation of reason, will, and 
morality, was not compelled to speculate on the future of the human form. 
Since man’s intelligence and powers protect him from the voracity of any 
animal, man could potentially multiply indefinitely, but he believed the 
Sublime author installed a safety feature: “...nature has given him numerous 
passions which unfortunately develop with his intelligence, and thus set up a 

great obstacle to the extreme multiplication of individuals of his species. It 
seems that man is responsible for keeping down the numbers of his kind; for 1 
have hesitation in saying the earth will never be covered by the population that 
it might support; several of its habitable regions will always be sparsely 
populated in turns, although the periods of these fluctuations are, so far as we 
are concerned, immeasurable.” (Lamarck, 1809; 1963) Man “...assuredly 
presents the type of highest perfection that nature will attain to....” (Lamarck, 

Towards 1866, a Lamarckian named Alpheus Hyatt indicated his studies of 
fossils were providing a less optimistic understanding of the process of 
evolution. Just as individuals slip into senility and decrepitude at the end of life, 
groups like races and species display a senile phase before going extinct. This 
theory of racial senescence later becomes an indispensable feature of the 
doctrine of orthogenesis. It held that the organism was not shaped by natural 
selection, but by processes internal to the germ plasm that caused modification 
along trendlines that ran on until they became overdeveloped and detrimental to 
survival. Examples of this process could be found in the huge antlers of the 
Irish elk, the demise of the sabre-toothed tiger, and the massiveness of 
dinosaurs. Hyatt himself believed man was already showing senile and 
regressive features. (Bowler, 1983) 

The writings of Herbert Spencer, another Lamarckian, provide us with the 
next step in the development of the idea underlying the Grays. In his work The 
Principles of Biology (1875), he speculates at length on the human future. He 
feels there will be “larger-brained descendents” and the brain will have more 
convolutions, a more developed structure. Asserting the existence of “an 
apparent connection between higher cerebral development and prolonged 
sexual maturity,” evidence that excessive expenditure of mental activity during 
education causes complete or partial infertility, and conversely that “where 
exceptional fertility exists there is a sluggishness of mind;” Spencer concluded 
further evolution may be expected to cause a decline in his power of 
reproduction. (Spencer, 1875) 

There most likely would be greater delicacy of manipulation, better 
coordination of complex movements, and a “corresponding development of 
perceptive and executive faculties.” There would also be greater power of self¬ 
regulation and higher emotional development. He would be more moral. 
Crimes and cruelties would cease. Of strength and agility, Spencer doubted 
there would be further improvement. He does not explicitly articulate that a 

general degeneration of the rest of the body would follow, but that is now only 
a couple of steps away. (Spencer, 1875) 

We should digress to point out that Darwin does not belong to this line of 
development. His theory of evolution by natural selection builds in part on 
Lamarck’s arguments against special creation and catastrophism while stripping 
animal evolution of its central mechanism of use-inheritance. The issue of 
Darwin’s views on progress is a notoriously thorny subject, and on the future 
form of man he was silent. He seemed to think some ongoing natural selection 
existed in the destruction of more primitive peoples. However, he was also 
concerned that natural selection no longer operated to scythe down the sickly 
and degenerate. Any slow evolution of mankind, however, paled next to his 
pet-horror, the eventual and inevitable ice-death of the earth under the aegis of 
a cooling sun. “To think of the progress of millions of years with every 
continent swarming with good and enlightened men all ending in this ...Sic 
transit gloria mundi with a vengeance.” (Darwin quoted by Desmond and 
Moore, 1991) 

Alfred Russell Wallace, Darwin’s co-discoverer of natural selection, 
believed the human physique was no longer subject to natural forces. War 
killed off the strongest and bravest, he thought. Skin color and hair perhaps still 
evolved, but the body remained an upright ape. The human species was still 
capable of spectacular advances with women’s rights giving females free 
choice in marriage and allowing them to reject males who were chronically 
diseased, intellectually weak, idle, or utterly selfish. (Brackman, 1980) These 
matters, however, belonged to the moral and spiritual realms, not the realm of 
man’s physical being. 

Thomas Henry Huxley, the era’s most prominent Darwinian, also lies 
outside this line of development, but bears special attention and caution. 
Scholars have caricatured him alternately as a naive advocate of progress and a 
purveyor of cosmic pessimism. These extreme interpretations derive from 
selective focus on separate facets of a carefully balanced view blending the 
lessons of natural history and social history. 

Early writings indicate he “had no confidence in the doctrine of ultimate 
happiness,” but it was impossible for him to be blind to the improvements in 
life that science was making manifest around him in his personal sphere. 
(Desmond, 1994) Huxley often argued with Spencer over the nature of 
evolutionary and social progress. Huxley soon developed the metaphor of 
society advancing, insect-like, from grub to butterfly. There are periods of 

repressive restraint, dark ages, that are broken in dramatic moults like the 
French revolution. Each moult moves us closer to a butterfly state of man, 
albeit that may prove to be terribly distant. (Desmond, 1994) 

In 1894 he offered his mature statement on these matters in Evolution and 
Ethics and we see the same balancing. He rejects utopia, “the prospect of 
attaining untroubled happiness, or a state which can, even remotely, deserve the 
title of perfection, appears to me as misleading an illusion as ever dangled 
before the eyes of poor humanity.” Yet, “that which lies before the human race 
is a constant struggle to maintain and improve.” (Huxley quoted in Paradis and 
Williams, 1989) 

The theory of evolution encourages no millennial expectations, he writes: 
“There is no hope that mere human beings will ever possess enough 
intelligence to select the fittest.” (Paradis and Williams, 1989) He sees “no limit 
to the extent to which intelligence and will, guided by sound principles of 
investigation and organized in common effort, may modify the conditions for a 
period than that now covered by history. And much may be done to change the 
nature of man himself...(we) ought to be able to do something towards curbing 
the instincts of savagery in civilized men [thus permitting] a larger hope of 
abatement of the essential evil of the world...” (Paradis and Williams, 1989) 

Evolution, however, permits both progressive and retrogressive 
development. “The most daring imagination will hardly venture upon the 
suggestion that the power and the intelligence of man can ever arrest the 
procession of the great year.” Eventually, “the evolution of our globe shall have 
entered so far upon its downward course that the cosmic process resumes its 
sway; and, once more, the State of Nature prevails over the surface of our 
planet.” This is an allusion to the thermodynamic heat death of the Earth. 
(Paradis and Williams, 1989) 

To point to these latter quotes and label it cosmic pessimism has the perverse 
air of saying that someone who expects to achieve some measure of happiness 
and success and die at 120 is being depressing. Huxley dialectically balanced 
optimism and pessimism in a manner he felt most people did. (Paradis and 
Williams, 1989; Hillegas, 1974) Huxley nowhere comments on the future 
biological shape of man as Spencer did, nor does he dwell on the implications 
of the possibility of his retrogressive modification. 

The final steps in the development of the idea underlying the Grays were 
made by one of Huxley’s students. The student thought Huxley was the greatest 
man he ever knew and when he published his first book he sent his teacher a 

note that read: 

May 1895 

I am sending you a little book that I fancy may be of interest to you. The 
central idea—of degeneration following security—was the outcome of a 
certain amount of biological study. I daresay your position subjects you to a 
good many such displays of the range of authors but 1 have this excuse—1 
was one of your students at the Royal College of Science and finally (?): 
The book is a very little one. (Quoted in Smith, 1986) 

It was a work of fiction that describes a traveler’s encounter with a delicate 
little people of the far future. The first person is described as “a slight creature 
—perhaps 4 feet high—clad in a purple tunic, girdled at the waist with a leather 
belt. Sandals or huskins were on his feet; his legs were bare to the knees and his 
head was bare...He struck me as being a very beautiful and graceful creature, 
but indescribably frail. His flushed face reminded me of the more beautiful 
kind of consumptive—that hectic beauty of which you used to hear so much 
about.” As he observes more of them he notes their Dresden china prettiness 
had peculiarities. They had some curly hair that did not go past the neck and 
cheek. There was no trace of beard or other facial hair. The lips were thin. The 
ears were singularly minute. Chins were small and ran to a point. The eyes 
were large, but mild and indifferent. 

There is nothing said about the size of the head, and the intelligence of these 
people is slight. Their behavior is child-like and playful and they show a lack of 
interest in the traveler. There was little to distinguish the sexes. The traveler 
eventually learns the name of this beautiful race—Eloi. He also learns of a 
second race—the Morlocks—which are described as a white, ape-like human 
spider. They tend the underworld of machines that make the utopia of the 
aristocratic Eloi possible. 

The title of the story was The Time Machine. The student was H.G. Wells. 
His boast to Huxley that it was based on an amount of biological study is easily 
proven. Four years earlier he had written a non-fiction essay titled Zoological 
Retrogression that displayed his familiarity with the biological literature 
involving degeneration. In it he describes a popular and poetic formulation of 
evolution as a steadily rising mountain slope that he terms Excelsior biology. 
Proclaiming it lacking any satisfactory confirmation in geological biology or 
embryology, he argues degeneration has entire parity with progressive trends. 

He points to ascidians, cirripeds, copepods, corals, sea-mats, oysters, mussels, 
and mites as examples. Advance has been fitful and uncertain. There is no 
guarantee in scientific knowledge of man’s permanence or permanent 
ascendancy. Huxley’s teachings are apparent except for one point of 
divergence. Wells concludes The Coming Beast must certainly be reckoned in 
any anticipatory calculations in the Coming Man. (Philmus and Hughes, 1975) 

Though Wells believed he was swimming against the stream of mass 
opinion in this essay, some historians would argue he was being swept along by 
the currents of his time. The concept of degeneration was not new and the 
Victorian era’s concerns over the permanent underclass bred in urban areas like 
London had spawned a theory of urban degeneration that held powerful appeal 
to the British after 1885 no matter what their politics. (Nye, 1985) This 
degeneration scare, as it has been termed, was part of a yet larger trend of 
cultural pessimism spreading among western intellectuals. (Herman, 1997) 
Peter Bowler, an expert on evolutionary theories of the era speculates that E. 
Ray Lankester’s book Degeneration is a likely source of the ideas behind “The 
Time Machine.” (Bowler, 1989) The unavoidable caveat to this attribution is 
that the concept of degeneration was present in so many forums from medical 
journals like The Lancet to much popular fiction. Wells could have been 
influenced by a variety of sources. 

The 11 th chapter of The Time Machine takes the reader beyond the time of 
the Eloi and Morlocks to a farther future where the Earth approaches its end. 
Life had grown sparse and was in obvious regression. The dominant form was 
an ungainly monster crab smeared in slime. He goes another thirty million 
years into the future and only lichen and liverworts remained. That and a black, 
round, hopping thing with tentacles trailing from it. It seems like Alpheus Hyatt 
writ large; life as a whole falls into senescence as everything becomes extinct. 
(Eisenstein, 1976) 

The Eloi come halfway to our image of the Gray in short and fragile bodies 
being indicative of a degenerate evolutionary history. What is missing is the big 
bald head. Wells began playing with that part of the image maybe as early as 
1885 for an address before a student debating society. It was written out for 
publication in a facetious book review for the Pall Mall Budget , 9 November 
1893. “Of a Book Unwritten, The Man of the Year Million” is a short piece 
with no ambitions of wanting to be taken seriously. Wells imagines a book 
titled The Necessary Characters of Man of the Remote Future deduced from the 
Existing Stream of Tendency. Though easily missed, Wells is telegraphing his 

intent to play upon the ideas of orthogenesis which as its name implies dealt 
with straight-line trends in the fossil record. Just as a fish is molded to 
swimming and a bird is molded to flight, man’s form will be determined by the 
trait of intelligence. We already see the decay of much of the animal part of 
man: the loss of hair, the loss of teeth, the diminution of jaw, slighter mouth and 
ears. Athleticism yields to a subtle mind in real-world competition. The coming 
man, then, will clearly have a larger brain and a slighter body than the present. 

Behold the dim strange vision of the latter day face suggested by loss of 
unused features: Eyes large, lustrous, beautiful soulful; above them, no 
longer separated by rugged brow ridges, is the top of the head, a glistening 
hairless dome, terete and beautiful; no craggy nose rises to disturb by its 
unmeaning shadows the symmetry of that calm face, no vestigial ears 
project; the mouth is a small perfectly round aper ture, toothless and 
gumless, unanimal, no futile emotions disturbing its roundness as it lies, 
like the harvest moon or the evening star, in the wide firmament of the face. 
(Quoted by Hughes, 1993) 

Potentially, man’s knowledge of organic chemistry will supplant the use of a 
stomach and alimentary canal and the brain will swim in a nutritive bath— 
some clear, mobile and amber liquid. In still deeper time the cooling Earth will 
force a retreat to galleries and laboratories deep inside the bowels of the planet 
following the diminishing supply of heat with boring machinery and glaring 
artificial lighting. Wells takes pleasure in noting the whole of this imaginary 
book may vanish in the smoke of a pipe with no great bother—one of the great 
advantages of unwritten literature. 

But of course it did not vanish and did become a great bother. It ended up in 
a book that would guarantee a very enduring life. The book was War of the 
Worlds (1898). Mars in an ancient world and evolution has proceeded farther 
than on Earth, thus is the logical setting for Man of the Year Million. The 
Martians were 4-foot diameter round heads. They had very large dark-colored 
eyes, no nostrils, and no ears per se. They had a fleshy beak for a mouth. The 
internal anatomy was, in a word, simple. They had no entrails and did not eat. 
Rather, they injected blood from other creatures, most notably a type of biped 
with flimsy skeletons and feeble musculature, and a round head with large eyes 
set in flinty sockets. 

The Martians were absolutely without sex and allied tumultuous emotions. 

They budded off the parent. Wells’s fictional narrator explicitly credits the 
author of the Pall Mall Budget book review with forecasting such a creature, 
albeit in a foolish, facetious tone. Noting that many a truth is said in jest, the 
idea seemed likely that Martians had once been like us but with a brain evolved 
at the expense of the rest of the body. They turn out to also be telepathic. The 
Martians die off at the end of the war because of their vulnerability to earth’s 
microorganisms. There were none on Mars, probably because their science 
eliminated them ages before. We would say nowadays that their immune 
systems had degenerated from disuse. (Hughes, 1993) 

The mental giantism and diminished sexuality clearly echo Spencer. It has a 
Lamarckian sensibility in the early part of the argument of man’s form being 
molded by the trait of intelligence, but Wells does include Darwinian 
competition in suggesting a subtle mind wins over athleticism in the real world. 
One can fairly wonder how many people would accept that premise these days. 
The basic thrust that evolution would trend to a grossly overspecialized super¬ 
tick, however, is decisively orthogenetic. Admittedly, extinction in a foreign 
environment rich in microorganism is not strictly a proof of maladaptation, but 
nobody is meant to think this type of monstrosity is a good thing. 

The critical literature on War of the Worlds generally agrees that the 
Martians are nightmare extensions of ourselves and our machine civilization. It 
is a warning that an over-reliance on cold intellect and technology need not lead 
to better and better. Basically it is a moral it shares with The Time Machine. 
Where the atrophy from over-reliance on technology and the brain is played for 
comic effect in the Pall Mall Budget, here it is played for horror. That a story 
with such an anti-intellectual moral should come from the pen of a person as 
intellectual as Wells is slightly ironic, but not amazing. Science fiction writers 
are a brainy bunch, but are perennially worried over the social consequences of 
science and technology. 

Wells himself never regarded his atrophied aliens as a realistic speculation. 
Though he granted life on Mars might exist and even speculated on what 
interesting differences might be expected because of the harsh environment, his 
nonfiction writings did not advance the probability that big, bald-headed aliens 
with degenerate bodies existed. (“The Things That Live on Mars” reprinted in 
Hughes, 1993) The idea that begat the Grays was born as a jest that never was 
intended by its author to be taken as a serious scientific speculation. 

—Martin S. Kottmeyer 


Baines, John, and Malek, Jaromir. The Cultural Atlas of the World: Ancient Egypt (Andromeda, 1990). 
Bowler, Peter. The Eclipse of Darwinism: Anti-Darwinian Evolution Theories in the Decades Around 1900 
(Johns Hopkins University Press, 1983). 

Bowler, Peter. The Invention of Progress (Basil Blackwell, 1989). 

Brackman, Arnold C. A Delicate Arrangement: The Strange Case of Charles Darwin and Alfred Russell 
Wallace (Times Books, 1980). 

Desmond, Adrian, and Moore, James. Danin—The Life of a Tormented Evolutionist (Warner Books, 

Desmond, Adrian. Huxley—The Devil s Disciple (Michael Joseph, 1994). 

Eisenstein, Alex. “The Time Machine and the End of Man,” Science Fiction Studies (July, 1976). 
Gentleman s Magazine, September 1981, reprinted in Philmus, Robert M. and Hughes, David Y. H.G. 

Wells: Early Writings in Science and Science Fiction (California University Press, 1975). 

Herman, Arthur. The Idea of Decline in Human History (Free Press, 1997). 

Hughes, David Y. A Critical Edition of The War of the Worlds (Indiana University Press, 1993). 

Hillegas, Mark R. The Future as Nightmare: H.G. Wells and the Anti-Utopians (Southern Illinois 
University Press, 1974). 

Kottmeyer, Martin. “Ishtar Descendant,” The Skeptic (1995). 

-. “Varicose Brains: Entering a Gray Area” Magonia (February 1998). 

Lamarck, Jean-Baptist. Zoological Philosophy: An Exposition With Regard to the Natural History of 
Animals (Hather Publishing, 1963). Originally published in 1809. 

Little, Gregory. Grand Illusions (White Buffalo Books, 1994). 

Nye, Robert A. “Sociology: The Irony of Progress” in Chamberlin, J. Edward, and Gilman, Sander L. 

Degeneration: The Dark Side of Progress (Columbia University Press, 1985). 

Paradis, James and Williams, George C. T.H. Huxley’s Evolution and Ethics with New essays on its 
Victorian and Sociobiological Context (Princeton University Press, 1989). 

Philpotts, Beatrice. The Book of Fairies (Ballantine, 1978). 

Pinvidic, Thierry. OVNI vers une Anthopologie d’un Mvthe Contemporain (Editions Heimdal, 1993). 
Smith, David C. H.G. Wells: Desperately Mortal (Yale University Press, 1986). 

Spencer, Herbert The Principles of Biology (D. Appleton, 1875). 

POSTSCRIPT: In UFO lore, the Grays are sometimes good and sometimes evil, 
but generally they are amoral. In other words, they represent multiple aspects of 
the human personality—especially the contemporary human (or humanoid)—for 
good or ill. 

They are usually described as sexually neuter and perform their hybrid 
breeding experiments, for the most part, through artificial insemination. The 
gray color symbolizes neutrality in morals, sexuality, and emotions. It also 
symbolizes “gray matter” or intelligence. The eyes are large and black (without 
pupils) like a shark’s eyes—uncaring, one might say. The hairlessness of the 
Grays is derived from the assumption that we are losing our animal 

characteristics—but to be replaced by emotionless clones. 

The Grays aren’t exactly the good guys or the bad guys—they’re in a “gray 
area,” as Martin Kottmeyer has pointed out. They represent human evolution 
and its uncertain future. They are analogies of ourselves. 

—Ronald D. Story 

Great Falls (Montana) movie On August 5 or 15, 1950 (the exact date is not 
known with certainty), Nick Mariana, thirty-eight at the time and the general 
manager of the local “Selectics” baseball team, in the company of his secretary, 
nineteen-year-old Virginia Raunig, were at the Great Falls Legion Ball Park in 
preparation for that afternoon’s game. It was about 11:30 a.m., and, as was his 
habit before every game, Mariana checked the wind direction by watching the 
steady stream of white smoke issuing from a towering Anaconda smokestack 
located about a mile northwest of the stadium. Mariana said: “As 1 looked up 1 
saw two silvery objects moving swiftly out of the northwestern blue. They 
appeared to be moving directly south. My first thought was, ‘Get the camera— 
they’re flying discs!’ Then 1 thought again, ‘Don’t be stupid—they must be 
planes in a bank and I’ll see their wings in just a minute.’ Then as they got 
closer and more distinct, 1 realized there were no wings—these were not 
banking planes, they were flying saucers!” (Saunders, 1968) objects appeared 
to hover or stop in midair.” (Saunders, 1968) 

One of the frames (cropped) from Nick Mariana’s 16mm movie shot over Great Falls, Montana, 

in August of 1950 

The witness then called to his secretary, who came running, as Mariana 
himself raced from the grandstand to his car where he always kept a 16mm 
movie camera in the glove compartment. After losing a few more seconds to 
turn the telephoto turret lens into position, he managed to film the objects for 
sixteen seconds while standing by his car. The duration of the whole sighting 
was about one minute. Miss Raunig arrived in time to see “two silvery balls,” 
but Mariana’s description was more detailed. He said the objects were 
definitely disk-shaped, apparently “about fifty feet across and about three or 
four feet thick.” Also, “the discs appeared to be spinning, like a top.” 
(Saunders, 1968) 

The distance was estimated at about two miles, altitude at 5,000 to 10,000 
feet, and the objects’ speed at between 200 and 400 miles per hour. Mariana 
also claimed that at one point, just before he started filming, “the objects 
appeared to hover or stop in midair.” (Saunders, 1968) 

Computer enhancement of the Great Falls, Montana, UFOs 

The Montana movie was submitted to the U.S. Air Force for analysis in 
1950, but the military investigators did not seem impressed. Project Grudge 
regarded the UFOs simply as “the reflections from two F-94 jet fighters that 
were in the area.” (Ruppelt, 1956) Sunlight from the fuselages washed out the 
other details and that was why Mariana had been fooled. Mariana, however, 
claimed that both he and Raunig saw the jets in another part of the sky just after 
seeing the UFOs. 

Then in 1952, according to former Project Blue Book chief Captain Edward 
J. Ruppelt, the investigation was reopened “at the request of the Pentagon.” 
(Ruppelt, 1956) This time, the airplane-reflection theory was studied a little 
more closely. Though Mariana and his secretary had testified to seeing two jets 
roaring by in the opposite direction just two minutes after the UFO sighting, the 
Air Force investigators understandably wanted something more solid. With 

information obtained through an intelligence officer at Great Falls Air Force 
Base (now Malstrom AFB), the landing pattern of the planes that were in the 
vicinity on August 15th was carefully established. Ruppelt said: “The two jets 
just weren’t anywhere close to where the two UFO’s had been. Next we studied 
each individual light and both appeared to be too steady to be reflections.” 

“We drew a blank on the Montana Movie—it was an unknown.” (Ruppelt, 

When the film was returned, Mariana claimed that some thirty frames at the 
beginning had been removed. It was in those frames that the oval shape of the 
UFOs could be seen. The Air Force denied editing the film except to remove a 
single frame because of damaged sprockets. Mariana claimed he had a letter 
about the removal of the thirty frames, but was unable to produce it. 

In 1953 the CIA-sponsored Robertson Panel examined the Mariana film. 
Their scientists believed that aircraft could account for the images on the film, 
so they concluded that the film probably showed sunlight reflected from 

The film was analyzed again in 1955 by Dr. Robert M. L. Baker, Jr., a 
specialist in celestial mechanics, then employed by the Douglas Aircraft 
Company. Dr. Baker shot comparative films of planes at varying distances 
reflecting the sun, using a 16mm movie camera similar to Mariana’s. But none 
of the images came close to resembling those on Mariana’s film, convincing 
Baker that if Mariana had filmed two jets “at the largest distances compatible 
with their speeds and the angular rate of the images...[their structure] would 
have been identifiable on the film.” (Baker, 1972). 

Baker did not believe the images were the result of any known natural 
phenomena. He determined that the objects were two miles from the camera, 
and his experiments showed that jet fighters would have been identifiable as 
aircraft. Baker considered the case unexplained. 

It wasn’t until the Condon Committee investigation in 1966 that the film was 
again examined. All the previous investigations were reviewed and Mariana 
was re-interviewed. The principal photo analyst for the Condon study, Dr. 
William K. Hartmann (an astronomer), found that the objects had a constant 
elliptical shape consistent with the “resolution of disks oriented parallel with 
the ground.” (Baker, 1972) Hartmann concluded, however, that the evidence of 
the film was not sufficient to draw a final conclusion about the objects. 

In the end, none of the studies produced any evidence that the film had been 
faked. Data indicated that the objects were basically disk-shaped and that the 

images on the film were consistent with highly polished metal surfaces. 

Because these pictures consist of 290 continuous frames of 16mm color 
movie film, the possibility of a hoax in this case is generally considered by 
skeptics and proponents alike to be extremely remote. And, if Mariana’s 
accompanying testimony is given any credibility at all, this case would have to 
rank as one of the “best” of all time. Dr. David R. Saunders, a psychologist and 
member of the former University of Colorado UFO Project, considered it “the 
one sighting of all time that did more than any other single case to convince me 
that there is something to the UFO problem.” (Saunders, 1968) 

Along with the photos taken at McMinnville, Oregon, also in 1950, this is 
the one other photographic case which defied all efforts by the Condon team to 
arrive at a completely satisfactory explanation. Dr. William K. Hartmann, chief 
photo-analyst for the University of Colorado UFO Project, wrote in the Condon 
Report that: “The case remains unexplained. Analysis indicates that the images 
on the film are difficult to reconcile with aircraft or other known phenomena, 
although aircraft cannot be entirely ruled out.” (Gillmor, 1969) 

Most UFOlogists believe the photographic evidence, as well as the 
eyewitness testimony suggests that the aircraft explanation is unlikely. 

Computer enhancements by William Spaulding at GSW (Ground Saucer 
Watch) add further support to the conclusion that the Great Falls/Mariana 
movie is one of the strongest photographic cases of apparently genuine UFOs 
on record. 

—Kevin D. Randle & Ronald D. Story 


Baker, Robert M.L., Jr. “Motion Pictures of UFO’s” in Sagan, Carl and Page, Thornton, eds. UFO’s—A 
Scientific Debate (Cornell University Press, 1972; W.W. Norton, 1974). 

Gillmor, Daniel S. and Condon, Edward U., eds. Scientific Study of Unidentified Flying Objects (E. P. 
Dutton/Bantam Books, 1969). 

Randle, Kevin D. “Great Falls (Montana) movie” in Story, Ronald D., ed. The Encyclopedia of UFOs 
(Doubleday/New English Library, 1980). 

-. Conspiracy of Silence (Avon Books, 1997). 

-. Scientific UFOlogv (Avon Books, 1999). 

Ruppelt, Edward J. The Report on Unidentified Flying Objects (Doubleday, 1956). 

Saunders, David R. and Harkins, R. Roger. UFOs? Yes! Where the Condon Committee Went Wrong 
(Signet/NAL, 1968). 

Story, Ronald D. UFOs and the Limits of Science (William Morrow, 1981). 

Guardians of the Universe? (St. Martin’s Press/New English Library, 1980). 

Ronald Story makes a case that alleged evidence for ancient astronauts is a 
psychological projective test based on faith and hope, not verifiable facts. 

Despite the contention of Erich von Daniken and other proponents, the 
construction of the Great Pyramid in Egypt and other megalithic monuments 
never required a level of technology which was beyond “the capacities of 
Earthmen working on their own in the normal context of their own cultures.” 
Much of the evidence used in support of ancient visitation by aliens, especially 
artistic representations on cave and temple walls, takes the form of 
psychological projective tests in which the book authors plant interpretive ideas 
in the minds of readers, substituting propaganda for logic. 

—Randall Fitzgerald 

Gulf Breeze (Florida) incidents Since the late 1980s, Gulf Breeze, Florida, 
has become a “window” area of UFO sightings and other paranormal events. 
(See window areas) It all began on November 11, 1987, with a foiled 
abduction attempt. Local building contractor Edward Walters happened to 
glance out the window of his home office when he saw an unusual glow behind 
some trees. Grabbing his Polaroid camera, he headed outside just in time to 
snap five pictures of a spectacular UFO heading towards his house. Then, as 
the UFO hovered silently above him at an altitude of about 200 feet, Ed was 
struck by a paralyzing blue beam which shot down from the bottom of the 
object. Screaming as the beam lifted him up, he resisted with all his power 
while a “voice” communicated with him telepathically from the UFO saying 
“calm down” and “stop it.” Ed answered by screaming “screw you!”. Then, just 
as a plane flew by, the UFO let him go and disappeared out of sight. 

After discussing the matter with his wife and son, Ed submitted the photos 
anonymously to the local weekly newspaper, The (Gulf Breeze) Sentinel. Soon 
after Ed’s story and the photos were published in the Sentinel on November 19, 
1987, the whole area became a UFO hot spot. First dozens, then hundreds, of 
other witnesses came forth to report their own UFO sightings and experiences. 
These included sightings of UFOs, jets chasing UFOs, and abductions. 

By the time the first Gulf Breeze flap had subsided in July, 1988, there had 
been over 100 sightings involving over 200 people (with many multiple witness 
sightings). Twenty-four of these sightings were reported by Ed Walters who, 
understandably, became a highly controversial figure—especially because of 
the multiple photo opportunities afforded him—making Walters as contentious 
as George Adamski and Billy Meier before him. 

The first photo taken by Ed Walters on November 11, 1987 

Although some investigators consider the whole series of sightings to be 
explainable as a hoax by Walters, followed by misidentifications and attempts 
by other witnesses to gain public recognition, the fact is that numerous 
witnesses with no connection to Walters have provided detailed descriptions of 
objects that appear to have been what he photographed. 

One of the most explicit descriptions was given by a medical doctor and his 
wife who saw the object at rather close range (a few hundred feet) for many 
seconds hovering over the Pensacola Bay near their home. They could see light 
from the object reflected off the water. 

From July, 1988 through late November, 1990, the sighting rate diminished 
somewhat, there being about 120 sightings over that time period. About a 
dozen or so of these involved Ed Walters. In late November a new series of 
sightings began which had a distinctly different nature. The new sightings were 
of a light moving through the sky, which had peculiar properties. Usually it was 
first seen by witnesses as a red light (although sometimes it was initially seen 
as white and would then turn red), moving at a steady pace through the early 
evening sky within an hour of darkness. The light would remain red for a 
period of time—from many seconds to several minutes—and then it would 
suddenly turn white and start flashing brightly. Quite often glowing lights were 
seen to drop downward from the light as it began flashing. Then it would go 

Lights such as this were seen so often that a group of local residents began a 
nightly “skywatch,” broken only by bad weather, which existed from 
November, 1990 through 1995—even though the first major wave of sightings 
ended in July, 1992, by which time there had been about 170 recorded events. 

Here “recorded” means multiply witnessed and generally recorded on video 
and sometimes with telephoto photography as well. Starting in September, 
1991, yet another type of moving object was seen. Witnesses observed (and 
recorded) rings of light, that is, individual lights forming a circular pattern 
moving through the sky. This author was a witness to one such ring of eight 
white lights forming an octagon, which appeared in the sky above Gulf Breeze 
at about 8:30 p.m. on the night of September 16, 1991. A crude triangulation 
combined with photographic data showed it to be many feet, perhaps several 
tens of feet, in diameter. It simply appeared in the sky and then moved upward 
and perhaps toward the 30 or so witnesses to this event and then, after 70 
seconds, disappeared. 

Enlargement of the “UFO” 

The red light and its “relatives” (two red lights traveling in parallel, a ring of 
lights, a cluster of lights) seen over the year and a half period, were early on 
referred to as “bubba” (slang for “brother”). These “bubba” sightings were 
observed by several TV camera crews as well as the local residents and visitors 
who came from all over the world to see the Gulf Breeze UFOs. 

The bubba sightings have never been satisfactorily explained. The initial 
thought was that some sort of balloon carrying a road flare could explain some 
of the reported phenomena. However, it could not have been this simple. 
“Bubba” was never observed to rise into the sky and travel along. Instead, it 
always appeared at some altitude, hence requiring remote ignition or a long- 
burning, hidden fuse. A simple red road flare could not explain the sudden 
change of color to extremely bright white and the subsequent many-second- 
long duration of rapid white flashing, often at a high rate comparable to the 
frame rate of a TV camera (30 complete frames per second). If a bubba were a 

pyrotechnic display, it would have to have been some special formulation. 

Moreover, an experiment was performed to compare the optical spectrum of 
bubba with the spectrum of a red flare. A diffraction grating was placed inside a 
camera that was then used to photograph both a bubba light and a red road 
flare. Analysis of the resulting images showed conclusively that the color 
spectra of the two were different, with bubba having more blue light than a road 
flare—a color shift that was obvious to the witnesses who saw both the bubba 
light and the flare that was burned almost immediately afterward. 

Several of the bubba lights were simultaneously witnessed by observers 
separated by considerable distances (up to several miles) thereby allowing for 
accurate triangulations. For several of the triangulated sightings it was possible 
to calculate a speed of up to 50 miles per hour, much faster than any wind at the 
time, and even a crosswind. If this was a hoax, it would require a motorized 
transport system, such as a model plane or a very small blimp. Yet, there was 
never any engine noise associated with a bubba sighting. The triangulated 
altitudes were a few thousand feet. 

Except for one crude attempt at a hoax, which was identified immediately by 
the witnesses, there was not one shred of hard evidence, such as debris found 
on the ground or floating on the water around Gulf Breeze, that the bulk of the 
bubba sightings were hoaxes, even though one would expect that with nearly 
two hundred recorded events there would have been some mistake at some time 
by the hoaxer(s). Had they been hoaxes involving some pyrotechnic display, 
they would have been illegal and highly dangerous (a lighted flare falling on a 
building could cause a fire; in some cases the bubba was over a thousand feet 
high and in the vicinity of the landing pattern for Pensacola airport). Of course, 
the balloon-flare hypothesis could not explain the rings of lights and other 
sightings of even more complex light arrangements. 

Photo by Ed Walters, taken on May 1, 1988, showing two different UFOs 

No debris of a suspicious nature was ever found, even though many of the 
sighted objects were over the land when they disappeared. Several of the bubba 
sightings have been analyzed in detail and are presented in UFOs are 
Real...Here’s the Proof (Walters and Maccabee, 1997) along with the details of 
this author’s sighting. Also in that reference is an analysis of the January, 1990, 
sighting in which Ed Walters and other witnesses took pictures of a structured 
object with a red light on the bottom. 

After July, 1992, the sightings in the Gulf Breeze area diminished 

Photos taken by Ed Walters on January 12, 1994. The wide-angle view shows the jet and UFO in 
the same picture. Enlargements are superimposed to show more detail. The second insert 

shows the F-15 partially obscuring the UFO. 

Although there have been quite a few sightings in the years since, there has been 
nothing like the 1987-1988 and 1990-1992 concentrations. Ed Walters had nine 
sightings during the time period from 1993 through the end of 1996 and took 
pictures or videos of what he saw. The incident depicted in the above photos is 
described below. 

January 12, 1994 

Ed Walters was in his office which has windows that face northward toward 
the Santa Rosa Sound (his house is on the north side of Pensacola Beach). 
Across the Sound is the south shore of Gulf Breeze. 

As he was working at his desk a glint from something shiny in the clear sky 
attracted his attention. He looked up and saw a strange object, stationary in the 
sky apparently above Gulf Breeze. Its shape indicated it was no ordinary object. 
He grabbed a 35 mm camera with zoom lens (with a maximum effective focal 
length of 214 mm) that he kept loaded in the event that something should 
appear, and ran outside where he had an unobstructed view. The camera was set 
on automatic so, based on subsequent experiments, its shutter speed was 
probably 1/250 or 1/500 sec. 

As he started to zoom and focus on the UFO, he heard the noise of jets. 
Lowering the camera he noticed two jets—one low and one high—coming 
from the east, heading west toward the object (he was looking north- 
northwest). They were not traveling at a high rate of speed (estimates based on 
the photos suggest about 300 mph). He un-zoomed the lens to get a wide angle 
shot and, when the lower jet appeared in the frame, he took the first picture. He 
wanted a close-up of the UFO, so he zoomed in on it and tried to hold the 
camera steady. This took a few seconds and, just as he was about to click the 
shutter button, he noticed that the lower jet was entering the field of view. He 
took the second shot and watched as the lower jet made a slight curve around 
the UFO and then headed west. The upper jet was still headed west. These two 
jets traveled westward for several seconds and then made a U turn and headed 
back toward the UFO. Suddenly it streaked away to the east and the jets then 
made a southward turn and flew over Pensacola Beach and off into the 
distance. The total sighting may have lasted about a minute. 

Ed described the UFO as appearing like a large egg with its axis vertical, 
with several smaller ball-like or egg-shaped objects forming a horizontal ring 
about the vertical center of the UFO. The photos support this description. The 
first photo shows the UFO and the jet approaching. The second photo is 
particularly remarkable, however, because the shutter opened just as the jet was 
passing between the camera and the UFO. From the known size of the jet, the 
known focal length of the camera lens at full zoom and image size on the film, 
one can calculate that the jet was about 8,500 ft from the camera and about 
1,300 ft high. The image size of the UFO then indicates that it was about 30 ft 
wide and 20 ft high if it was only a few hundred feet farther from the camera 

than the jet (larger if it was farther away). 

The experiences of Walters, his wife and family, and many of the other 
witnesses have been documented in three books: The Gulf Breeze Sightings by 
Ed and Frances Walters (Morrow, 1990; Avon 1992), UFO Abductions in GulJ 
Breeze by Ed and Frances Walters (Avon, 1994), and UFOs are Real, Here’s the 
Proof by Ed Walters and Bruce Maccabee (Avon, 1997). 

—Bruce Maccabee 

POSTSCRIPT: This whole “three-ring flying saucer circus,” claims science 
writer Robert Sheaffer, has been exposed as a hoax perpetrated by Walters for 
financial gain. A Gulf Breeze youth came forward to confess that he and two 
others, including Walters’ son, had helped to fabricate the photos. Equally 
damning, occupants of a house Walters had lived in during the alleged UFO blitz 
found a UFO model—hidden under some insulation in the garage attic—which 
resembled the object seen in the Walters photos. The model was wrapped in part 
of an old house plan drawn by Walters himself. News photographers were able 
to use the model to essentially duplicate some of the UFO photos that had made 
Walters rich and famous. 

When two MUFON (Mutual UFO Network) investigators (Rex and Carol 
Salisberry) took another look at Walters, they found that he was “adept at trick 
photography,” and the case had all the earmarks of a clever hoax; one that 
enriched Walters with a book deal and fees from movie and television 
producers, which reportedly added up to hundreds of thousands of dollars. 

Interestingly, this updated finding caused MUFON to lose confidence in the 
Salisberrys—who had previously received an award from MUFON for their 
outstanding investigations—but not in Walters. 

—Randall Fitzgerald 


Haines, Richard F. (b. 1937). Dr. Haines retired from NASA as a senior 
research scientist in 1988. Originally from Seattle, Washington, he received his 
M.A. and Ph.D. degrees (in experimental psychology and physiology) from 
Michigan State University in 1962 and 1964 respectively. 

Richard Haines 

He then worked for the NASA Ames Research Center, where he developed 
and then directed NASA’s “High Luminance Vision Laboratory” carrying out 
rendezvous and docking simulation studies for America’s Gemini and Apollo 

From 1967 to 1985 Haines was a research scientist in various NASA life 
science divisions carrying out theoretical and applied research on astronaut and 
aircraft pilot vision. He was appointed Chief of the Space Human Factors 
Office at Ames (1986-1988) and retired from government service in 1988. 

Dr. Haines was also an associate professor of psychology at San Jose State 

University, and a senior research scientist for the Research Institute for 
Advanced Computer Science (1988-1992). In 1993 he joined the staff of 
RECOM Technologies, Inc. to carry out advanced research and development in 
multimedia telecommunications for NASA’s International Space Station, and, 
more recently, for an advanced air traffic control research simulator to be built 
at Ames. 

Dr. Haines is the author or editor of six books on UFO themes, including: 
UFO Phenomena and the Behavioral Scientist (1969), Observing UFOs 
(1980), and Close Encounters of the Fifth Kind (1998). 

. ,, 325 Langton Ave. 

AddreSS: Los Altos, CA 94022 U.S.A. 

POSITION STATEMENT: Although I do not yet have enough reliable 
information concerning the relevant characteristics of the UFO phenomenon 
with which to form a scientific judgment of its “core” identity, I do believe that 
the phenomenon is objectively real; i.e., I believe that the many thousands of 
eyewitnesses around the world are experiencing UFO phenomena in a manner 
very similar to the way any other human with normal sensory capabilities would 
perceive it if they happened to be present. And the wide variety of reported 
characteristics of UFOs suggests that there is also a cognitive (psychological?) 
component present which brings into play deeply submerged sub- or 
preconscious protosymbols lying largely dormant within most people. I also 
think that we will one day discover the phenomenon’s “core” identity. When that 
day comes, we are likely to be in for some big surprises concerning the nature of 
reality and infancy of our sciences. 

—Richard F. Haines 

Hall, Richard H. (b. 1930). Richard Hall is a graduate (in philosophy) of 
Tulane University, New Orleans, Fouisiana (1958), and is currently employed 
by a major publishing firm in the Washington, D.C. area. Among numerous 
other credits in the UFO field, he was assistant director of the National 
Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena (NICAP) from 1958 to 1967, 
and former editor of the MUFON UFO Journal. 


Richard Hall 

He is currently Director of Publications (and a Board Member) of MUFON; 
a National Board Member for the Fund for UFO Research; and Consulting 
Editor for the International UFO Reporter (IUR) (published by the J. Allen 
Hynek Center for UFO Studies, Chicago, Illinois). Hall was the compiler-editor 
of The UFO Evidence , published by NICAP in 1964, and the author of 
Uninvited Guests: A Documented History of UFO Sightings, Alien Encounters, 
and Coverups, published by Aurora Press in 1988). He is presently compiling 
and editing The UFO Evidence: Volume II: 1964-1993, to be published by 
Scarecrow Press in 2001. 

4418 39 th St. 

Address: Brentwood, MD 20722 


POSITION STATEMENT: Among the hundreds of so-called “UFO reports” 
each year, a sizable fraction of those clearly observed by reputable witnesses 
remain unexplained—and difficult to explain in conventional terms. There is a 
modicum of physical evidence, radar cases, residual effects, and some films and 
photographs in support of the unexplained cases. Collectively, these cases 
constitute a genuine scientific mystery, badly in need of well-supported, 
systematic investigation. 

In answer to the skeptical objection that the alleged unexplained cases have 
not been thoroughly investigated, that is exactly my point. They should be. The 

circumstantial and sometimes physical—evidence indicates that something real 
is going on for which no satisfactory explanation currently exists. 

The available “theories” include: (1) Extraterrestrial, (a) visitors from 
another planet, (b) “time travelers,” (c) gods or other not entirely physical 
beings from realms unknown; (2) Terrestrial, (a) mistaken observations of Earth 
technology or familiar events misidentified, (b) advanced secret technology, (c) 
psychic projections of the human mind, (d) hoaxes/imagination. 

1 reject (2-a) and (2-d) as inapplicable to the hardcore unexplained cases. 
Among the other choices, by Occam’s razor, I prefer (1-a—the so-called “nuts 
and bolts” visitors from elsewhere. 

—Richard H. Hall 

Harmonic 33 (A.W. Reed, 1968). New Zealand airline pilot Bruce Cathie, 
seeking an explanation for six of his own UFO sightings, writes about his 
discovery of a worldwide grid system set up by aliens in ancient times to power 
their spaceships using gravitational frequencies. He suspects that scientist 
Nikola Tesla uncovered the power grid’s secrets, which were seized at his death 
by U.S. government officials who have since exploited this information. 

—Randall Fitzgerald 

harvest This is a central term used in The RA Material and other spiritually 
based ET channeled sources to denote the impending physical, energetic, and 
consciousness transformation on Earth. This global shift is predicted to occur 
during the time period of 2010-2013 a.d., after which the planet will enter a 
higher dimension of cosmic life. Geological upheaval, climatic and solar 
anomalies, increasing UFO visitation, socio-cultural stresses, and the entire 
range of global ET contacts are all believed to be due to the imminence of this 
major cycle change in human evolution. 

This change is also alluded to by other mystic, indigenous, and New Age 
sources, including esoteric Christianity (“the Rapture, Ascension, Revelation, 
Kingdom of Heaven”), Judaism and Islam (“Return of the Messiah/Imam 
Mahdi”), Hinduism (“end of the Kali Yuga”), Theosophy (“the Aquarian 
Age”), as well as the Mayans and Hopis (“the Fifth World”), Edgar Cayce, and 
Nostradamus. It is held that only those individuals who embrace love, 
compassion, and kindness to a sufficient degree will be able to remain in 
incarnation on the physical planet, after Earth enters its new cycle of evolution. 

—Scott Mandelker 

Hesemann, Michael (b. 1964). One of Europe’s leading UFO researchers, 
Michael Hesemann studied cultural anthropology and history at Gottingen 
University. Since 1984 he has published Magazine 2000, Europe’s most 
popular magazine on the paranormal. His international bestsellers The Cosmic 
Connection, Beyond Roswell (with Philip Mantle), UFOs: A Secret History , and 
The Fatima-Secret were published in eighteen countries with a circulation of 
nearly a million copies. 

Hesemann has produced several award-winning video documentaries 
(distributed in fifteen countries) and worked as a UFO expert and advisor for 
several TV programs in the U.S., U.K., Germany, Mexico, and Japan. He is an 
sssociate member of the Society for Scientific Exploration and the Israel 
Exploration Society. 

He received honorary membership in the Italian Centro Ufologico Nazionale 
(C.U.N.) and was honored with the Colman VonKeviczky Medal of Hungarian 
UFOology. In 1989, Hesemann organized the world’s largest UFO conference, 
“Dialogue with the Universe,” with 1830 participants and 44 speakers in 
Frankfurt, Germany. It was the first time that Russian scientists, military, and 
UFO researchers presented their evidence to a Western audience. Because of 
his contacts in Russia, Hesemann was able to publish the KGB UFO files. 

Hesemann has investigated UFO incidents in forty-four countries and has 
travelled more than 700.000 miles in search of answers. He has interviewed 
U.S. sstronauts as well as Russian cosmonauts on their UFO experiences. He 
has lectured at international conferences in twenty-three countries, at dozens of 
universities, the United Nations, and was personally received by Pope John 
Paul II. 

Hesemann’s historical work on religious relics was greeted by the Pontiff 
with “admiration and appreciation...for your laborious research.” Hesemann 
resides in Duesseldorf, Germany. 


Web site: 

An der Obererft 88 
D-41464 Neuss 

www.hesemann. m-n-d. com 
www.hesemann. m-n-d. com 

POSITION STATEMENT: (1) After investigating the UFO phenomenon all over 
the world, after studying thousands of pages of released governmental 

documents, and interviewing eyewitnesses and insiders, including generals, 
intelligence officers, cosmonauts, and astronauts, military and commercial pilots, 
1 do not have the shadow of a doubt anymore that we are indeed visited by 
extraterrestrial intelligences. The evidence just does not allow another 

(2) We have to learn to deal with this situation and prepare for a contact. 
Studying the behavioral pattern of the phenomenon, 1 came to the conclusion 
that they are neither friend nor foe, but study our planet and civilization from a 
mainly scientific perspective. They are as curious to learn more about us, as we 
would love to study other human and humanoid civilizations. 

Michael Hesemann 

Most probably the ETs have been here since the beginning of mankind. 
They, during our history, intervened in our evolution several times. Today, after 
the human race have become “adults,” they prefer to be nonintrusive, obviously 
because every interference would contaminate their research subject. Therefore, 
any approach must come from our side, by a common, international effort, e.g. 
through the United Nations. 

(3) A contact with an extraterrestrial civilization is the greatest challenge for 
mankind in the Third Millennium. We would finally realize that we are indeed 
not alone, what could cause a new Copernican revolution, a quantum leap in 
our thinking and perspective. We would finally realize that we are one mankind 
and all the small differences which separate humans from each other today— 

nationality, race, religion—would disappear. Only together mankind can 
explore the universe, our true home and destiny. 

—Michael Hesemann 

Higdon experience Carl Higdon was elk hunting south of Rawlins, Wyoming, 
when he said he met a man from another planet. Higdon claims that the “man,” 
named “Ausso,” pointed a “fingerlike” appendage at him and, instantly, they 
were aboard a spaceship. The experience, which lasted from 4 p.m. to 6:30 p.m., 
supposedly involved a trip to Ausso’s home planet, 163,000 “light miles” away, 
and Higdon’s safe return to Earth. 

It was a Friday night, October 25, 1974, at about 4 p.m. Carl Higdon (an oil 
driller, employed by the AM Well Services of Riverton, Wyoming) was hunting 
elk on the north edge of the Medicine Bow National Forest, when his bizarre 
experience began to unfold. 

“1 walked over this hill and saw five elk,” Higdon said. “1 raised my rifle 
and fired, but the bullet only went about fifty feet and dropped.” He went over, 
got the bullet, and tucked it into a fold in his canteen pouch. “1 heard a noise 
like a twig snapping and looked over to my right, and there in the shadow of 
the trees was this sort of man standing there.” 

Higdon described the “man” as being six feet two inches tall and weighing 
approximately 180 pounds. He was dressed in a black suit and black shoes and 
wore a belt with a star in the middle and a yellow emblem below it. Higdon 
also said the man was quite bowlegged, had a slanted head, and no chin. His 
hair was thin and stood straight up on his head. 

“He asked me if I was hungry and 1 said yes,” Higdon said, “so he tossed me 
some pills and 1 took one.” Higdon commented that he didn’t understand why 
he took the pills because ordinarily he doesn’t even like to take an aspirin. The 
man had told him that the pills were “four-day” pills, apparently to slake his 
hunger. Higdon said the man called himself “Ausso” and asked Higdon if he’d 
like to go with him. Higdon replied “yes” and the man pointed an appendage 
which came out of his sleeve. 

Higdon said he suddenly found himself in a transparent cubicle along with 
Ausso. He was sitting in a chair with “bands” around his arms (apparently 
holding him in the chair which resembled a high-backed “bucket seat”) and a 
helmet-like apparatus on his head somewhat like a football helmet, except that 
it had two wires on top and two on the sides leading to the back. On a sort of 
console opposite his chair, Higdon said he saw three levers of different sizes 

which had letters on them and which Ausso manipulated. 

Artist’s conception of “Ausso” from Higdon’s description 

Higdon was unclear on the size of the cubicle. He said there was a mirror on 
the upper right, in which he could see the reflection of the live elk which 
seemed to be behind him in a “cage” or corral. They were still, not moving, just 
as they had been when he first spotted them before he encountered Ausso. He 
thought the cubicle was about seven feet square but couldn’t account for the elk 
being there also. 

When Ausso pointed his appendage at the largest lever it moved down and 
the cubicle felt as if it was moving. After they took off, Higdon said he saw a 
basketball-shaped object under the cubicle, which he took to be the Earth. 
There was another being in the cubicle who “just disappeared” when they 
landed. Ausso said they had traveled 163,000 “light miles.” 

Outside the cubicle, Higdon said, was a huge tower, perhaps ninety feet high 
with a brilliant, rotating light, and he heard a sound like that made by an 
electric razor. The light bothered his eyes considerably, and he put his hands 
over them. 

Standing outside the tower were five human-appearing people: a gray-haired 
man of forty or fifty years old, a brown-haired girl about ten or eleven, a blond 
girl of thirteen or fourteen, a young man of seventeen or eighteen with brown 
hair, and a blond seventeen- or eighteen-year- old girl. They were dressed in 
ordinary clothing and appeared to be talking among themselves. 

Ausso pointed his “hand” and they (Ausso and Higdon) moved into the 
tower and up an elevator to a room where he stood on a small platform and a 
“shield” moved out from the wall. Ausso was on the other side of it. The shield 
was “glassy” appearing, stayed in front of Higdon for what he estimated to be 
three or four minutes, then moved back in the wall. 

Ausso then told Higdon he was not what they needed and they would take 
him back. The two moved out of the room to the elevator and then down to the 
main door. It seemed that all Ausso needed to do was to point his hand and they 
moved effortlessly. 

Next, Higdon found himself back in the cubicle with Ausso, who was 
holding Higdon’s gun. He said the gun was primitive and he wanted to keep it, 
but wasn’t allowed to, and so he gave it back to Higdon. Then he pointed at the 
longest lever and Higdon found himself standing on a slope. His foot struck a 
loose rock and he fell, hurting his neck, head, and shoulder. 

At this point Higdon didn’t know who or where he was. He got up and 
walked past his pickup truck, which was sitting in a wooded area on a road with 
deep ruts. He walked along the track about a mile past the truck, then came 
back to the truck and heard a woman’s voice. As he regained a little of his 
senses, he used the citizen’s band radio to call for help. He told the woman he 
didn’t know who or where he was. Authorities were notified, and Higdon was 
eventually found about 11:30 that night. He was dazed and confused and had 
difficulty recognizing his wife. The search party had a considerable problem 
retrieving Higdon’s two-wheel drive vehicle (it had to be towed as it could not 
navigate the rough road). 

Higdon was brought to the Carbon County Memorial Hospital in Rawlins at 
2:30 a.m. on the twenty-sixth. Besides the sore head, neck, and shoulder, his 
eyes were extremely bloodshot and they teared constantly. He had no appetite 
on Saturday, and his wife Margery had to force him to eat. On Sunday morning, 
however, he was ravenous and complained about the meager size of the 
hospital breakfast. 

This, essentially, is Carl Higdon’s account of his time from 4:15 p.m. on 
October 25, 1974, when he first spotted the five elk, until he called on the CB 
radio, at around 6:30 p.m., that evening. 

Some foundation for his story is found in the testimony of the search-party 
members, who said Higdon’s pickup truck could not have driven into or out of 
the area where it was found. Also, unidentified lights were seen near the area 
where Higdon was found before the searchers started driving out of the area, so 

the lights of the vehicles could not have accounted for the unidentified lights. 

According to psychologist Dr. R. Leo Sprinkle, who investigated the case, 
Higdon has agreed to other interviews, plus the use of hypnotic techniques for 
the purpose of obtaining further information about his experience. Sprinkle 
comments that: “Although the sighting of a single UFO witness often is 
difficult to evaluate, the indirect evidence supports the tentative conclusion that 
Carl Higdon is reporting sincerely the events which he experienced. Hopefully, 
further statements from other persons can be obtained to support the basic 

—Coral & Jim Lorenzen 

Higher Self This term is a translated from the Sanskrit word Atman, used by 
Hindus and in Western mysticism, to denote the essential, monadic core of the 
human body/mind/spirit. Metaphysical science holds that each of us is connected 
to an individualized, yet universal Higher Self, which possesses a full and 
complete knowledge of all our past events and future development. Many 
meditation practices and New Age teachers are concerned with the means by 
which we may contact Higher Self for guidance and to support personal healing 
and spiritual evolution. — Scott Mandelker 

Hill abduction Barney and Betty Hill’s “interrupted journey” was the first 
publicized time-lapse (or “missing time”) UFO-abduction episode, and the first 
such case in which hypnosis was used to elicit hidden details of the experience. 

The Encounter 

The Portsmouth, New Hampshire, couple was returning home from a 
vacation at Niagara Falls on the night of September 1920, 1961. Barney, 39 
(who died in 1969), worked as a postal clerk in Boston; while Betty, 41, was 
employed by the state as a child welfare worker. 

Photo Courtesy of Betty Hill (Jeeves Studios) 

Betty and Barney Hill 

As they drove south on U.S. 3 in northern New Hampshire, the Hills noticed 
a bright moving star-like object in the southwestern sky. The time was 
approximately 11 p.m. 

The object turned toward the car and then seemed to accompany it, at a 
distance, for the next 35 miles. The couple stopped now and then to observe the 
UFO through binoculars. As it drew closer, the light source appeared to be a 
spinning circular object describing an erratic, step-like path above the White 

In the vicinity of North Woodstock, the “object” came to a halt over an open 
area. When Barney stopped the car and got out, the UFO crossed the road 
ahead, from right to left, and hovered above a field next to the highway. Barney 
then proceeded into the field, halting periodically to view the unknown object 
through his binoculars. He could see a large, flat, disk-shaped craft with two 
rows of bluish-white glowing windows and a red light on each side. 

According to Mr. Hill, eight or more humanoid figures were looking back at 
him. The “leader” of the group, in particular, both fascinated and terrified him. 

As the disk descended toward Barney, all of the occupants except the leader 
started scurrying around, at which time the two red lights moved outward at 
opposite ends of the “craft.” After the craft approached to within 100 feet or 
less, Barney panicked. He dashed to the car and took off down the highway. 

The couple recalled hearing “beeping” sounds that vibrated the car twice— 
once after they left the UFO, and again in the Ashland area some 30 miles 
farther south. Oddly, the Hills had no memory of the interval between the two 
sets of “beeps” nor why they arrived home at least two hours later than 
expected. Other peculiarities were noted as well. 

Betty’s Dreams 

About ten days after this experience, Betty said she had a series of dreams in 
which she and Barney were captured by the entities and examined onboard 
their craft. To Mrs. Hill, the dreams indicated her recall of a real abduction that 
must have occurred following their initial encounter along Highway 3. 

Betty reported the sighting to nearby Pease Air Force Base and to the 
National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena. As a New England 
advisor to NICAP, I was asked to interview the New Hampshire couple. Just 
one month after the encounter, I questioned the two witnesses for six hours and 
came away impressed with them and their incredible story. (Had I known at the 
time the historic significance of this prototypical UFO abduction, I would have 
handled many aspects of my investigation quite differently.) 

Drawing of the UFO by Walter Webb, based on Barney Hill’s original sketch 

The Abduction 

Over the next two years, Barney Hill experienced anxieties and physical 
ailments—possibly connected with his UFO encounter—and Betty became 

even more concerned about her capture dreams. Eventually the couple was 
referred to Boston psychiatrist Benjamin Simon for treatment. In 1964 Dr. 
Simon hypnotized the Hills separately, and found that both husband and wife 
related similar stories of being kidnapped and examined by the UFO beings. (1 
have heard all eleven hours of the taped testimony.) 

Barney recalled that after hearing the first “beeps,” he was directed 
telepathically to drive to a wooded area where his car stalled. A group of alien 
figures approached the vehicle and then led the couple into the landed UFO. 
The beings were described as about five feet tall with large gray heads, 
enormous slanted eyes, small nose, and narrow mouth. 

The Examinations 

Betty said she was left with the leader and an examiner who proceeded to inspect 
her arm under a big lens and to take samples from her skin, ear, hair, and nails. 
Instruments used in the examination included a skin-scraper, hand-held light, a 
cluster of needles (that touched the skin all over her body), and a long needle 
inserted into her navel. 

Explaining that the needle was a “pregnancy test,” the examiner seemed 
surprised at the pain this caused. Betty said the pain disappeared when the 
leader passed his hands over her eyes. When Mrs. Hill asked the leader where 
he was from, he exhibited a three-dimensional (holographic) “star map.” 
According to Betty, it was explained to her that the curved lines connecting 
twelve of the glowing dots were routes from the leader’s home star system to 
other stars. Under Simon’s posthypnotic suggestion, Mrs. Hill later drew the 
star map as she remembered it. 

Artist’s depiction of the alien humanoids, as described by Betty and Barney Hill (Drawings by 

Diane Prentice) 

Barney Hill, who was led to another room, recalled lying on a table with his 
eyes closed. He said his exam included the withdrawal of sperm and rectal 
samples, as well as the removal of skin cells. 

After their exams, the Hills were led to their car where they watched the 
alien ship depart. Memories of the abduction began to fade as they drove back 
to the main highway. Near Ashland the couple said they heard the second set of 
“beeps,” and conscious memory returned. 

Reality or Fantasy 

It was Dr. Simon’s belief that the initial encounter probably involved an 
unidentified military aircraft, while the abduction scenario happened only in 
Betty’s dreams—a fantasy she shared with her husband. Simon, however, had 
no interest at all in the UFO subject, refusing even to read my own case 
material submitted to him. While 1 do agree that contaminated testimony 
between Barney and Betty probably played some role in the retelling, 1 remain 
convinced to this day of the reality of both stages of the UFO encounter. 

Betty’s Star Map and the Fish Model 

In 1972 Marjorie Fish, an Ohio schoolteacher, finished a six-year search to 
find matching stars for the ones in Betty Hill’s star map. After constructing 
more than 20 three-dimensional models of the Sun’s neighborhood out to 65 
light years, and spending hundreds of hours photographing and inspecting 
models from all angles, Fish found what she believed were of the 12 linked 
stars in Betty’s drawing, including the home base of the Hill aliens (Zeta 
Reticuli) and our sun. 

Oblique view of the Fish model, drawn from a photo by Marjorie Fish 

At the outset, Marjorie Fish herself had expected to discover many random 
patterns among the stars that would resemble the Hill map. Much to her surprise, 
only one unique set of stars emerged that combined: (1) a reasonable match with 
Betty’s star map; (2) all lines in the map connecting solely to stars that were 
good candidates for life-bearing planets; (3) all of the life-supporting candidate 
stars found in the volume of space encompassing the Hill network stars were 
included in Betty Hill’s map; and (4) all stars in the Hill pattern were connected 
to each other in a logical travel sequence from star-to-star—the base star being 
linked only with the nearest stars having spectral classes that favor life. 

1 spent six hours with Marjorie in 1974, discussing her work and reviewing 
her data. From my own personal inspection of the model, 1 can attest that the 
star pattern she selected in her model did indeed match amazingly well the one 
in Betty Hill’s map. 

Alien star map, as drawn by Betty Hill under post-hypnotic suggestion 

Returning home with copies of her voluminous notes and photographs, 1 checked 
her data in six star catalogs and found no errors. The significance of Fish’s 
prodigious research has so far gone unrecognized by the scientific community. 
Though but an amateur astronomer, Marjorie’s work certainly deserves to be 
acknowledged by professionals, because someday the Fish model could be a 
vital key in unlocking the UFO mystery. 

Despite the recent discovery that several of the Fish/Hill stars are double 
(damaging Fish’s single-star criterion), Fish’s selected stellar candidates still 
hold up rather well. Double stars do not necessarily prohibit planetary life. 
Marjorie’s model should now be reexamined in light of the Hipparcos satellite 
and its more accurate distance measurements to thousands of stars—including 
those in the Fish/Hill network. 

—Walter N. Webb 

Hollow Earth, The (University Press, 1969). Raymond Bernard thinks a 
worldwide conspiracy exists to suppress knowledge that the Earth is hollow 
and the place where UFOs, driven by survivors of Atlantis, originate. Bernard 
heads a European branch of the Rosicmcians and claims he was told by 
extraterrestrial visitors to write this book to prepare humans for their coming. 

—Randall Fitzgerald 

Home of the Gods, The (Editions Robert Laffont, 1972). Andrew Tomas 
opines that the residents of Atlantis were descendants of extraterrestrials and 
their civilization was destroyed by the Biblical flood. Some Atlanteans escaped 
the flood in spacecraft, others fled to a network of underground tunnels, 

chambers and hidden valleys, from where they occasionally still emerge in 
UFOs to share “their wisdom with those who are ready for it.” 

—Randall Fitzgerald 

Hopkins, Budd (b. 1931). Budd Hopkins is probably the world’s best known 
UFO-abduction researcher and an important pioneer in the field. Originally 
from Wheeling, West Virginia, he attended Oberlin College, where he studied 
Art and Art History, graduating in 1953. That year he moved to New York City, 
where he has lived ever since, with summers spent at his home on Cape Cod. 

As a painter and sculptor, Hopkins has had over fifty one-person shows in 
the United States and Europe. His work is in the permanent collections of many 
prestigious museums and art galleries in New York, Washington, San 
Francisco, and elsewhere. These include the Solomon R. Guggenheim, the 
Whitney Museum of American Art, the Museum of Modern Art, the 
Metropolitan Museum; the Hirshhorn Museum, the Corcoran Gallery, the San 
Francisco Museum of Modern Art, the British Museum, and many other 
distinguished institutions. 

Hopkins has received a fellowship grant from the National Endowment for 
the Arts, a Guggenheim Fellowship, and other distinguished awards, and his 
work has been widely and favorably reviewed. As a writer on the subject of 
modern art, Hopkins has contributed articles on art to magazines such as Art 
Forum, Arts, and Art in America. 

Budd Hopkins 

Hopkins had his first UFO experience in 1964. On a sunny afternoon on 
Cape Cod, he and two others had a daylight UFO sighting, which sparked his 
interest in this subject. 

In 1975, a neighborhood friend described a UFO landing and sample¬ 
gathering occupants he had witnessed in a New Jersey Park, across the Hudson 
River from Manhattan. This was Hopkins’ first extensive investigation, and in 
1976 he published an account of this case in a New York newspaper, The 
Village Voice. The case was widely publicized, and among the many ensuing 
reports Hopkins received were several that included tantalizing accounts of 
“missing time.” 

With the help of veteran UFO researcher Ted Bloecher and several mental 
health professionals, Hopkins began to investigate these accounts in which 
previously hidden UFO abduction experiences came to light. This research led 
to his first book, Missing Time published in 1981. In it, Hopkins presented 
several patterns heretofore unreported in the abduction literature. Among them 

1. The potentially widespread nature of the (covert) abduction phenomenon, in 
which the abductees may have virtually no conscious recollection of 
sighting a UFO, observing occupants, and so on. 

2. Physical sequelae, such as wounds, bruises and other lesions often resulting 
from these abductions. 

3. Repeated abductions, whereby an individual may be abducted again and 
again, as if he/she were the object of an ongoing systematic study. 

4. Screen memories, apparently imposed by the aliens, in which a more 
palatable image (such as an owl or a deer) was substituted for images of the 
aliens themselves. 

5. Evidence that abductions were carried out in families, seemingly across the 
same genetic stock. 

Hopkins second book, Intruders was published in 1987, and presented the 
then radical notion that the central goal of the UFO occupants was to create a 
hybrid mix of alien and human DNA. The accounts in Intruders detailed 
processes of artificial insemination, ova and sperm sampling, and the 
systematic removal of hybrid fetuses. Intruders was widely read, translated into 
many languages, and was the subject of a CBS miniseries. It remains one of the 
most influential books on the subject of UFO abductions ever written. 

In 1996, Hopkins published his third book, Witnessed , about an abduction 
that took place in New York City in 1989, and was witnessed by a number of 
people including government officials and an important international leader. 
The incident was apparently a deliberate demonstration by the aliens of their 
power, and it remains the clearest account of their involvement in human 
political affairs. 

Hopkins has also detailed several other previously unnoticed abduction 
patterns, such as: 

1. Alien co-option, the “taking over” of a human to function in an abduction 
as if he/she was an ally of the aliens, not the other abducted humans. 

2. The “Mickey-Baby Ann” phenomenon, in which aliens occasionally abduct 
children who do not know one another, putting them together from time to 
time to “bond,” as if the aliens are studying the formation of human 
romantic relationships. Many such cases have since been reported. 

Hopkins lectures widely around the world on his research findings, and—as 
founder and director of The Intruders Foundation—continues to lead the way in 
the field of UFO-abduction research. 

P.O. Box 30233 


New York, N.Y. 10011 



Web site: 

Hudson Valley (New York) UFO sightings Spectacular sightings of a 
triangular or boomerang-shaped UFO that has seemingly haunted the Hudson 
River Valley (along the border of New York and Connecticut) from 1983 to the 
present day. 

The Hudson Valley of New York is located about thirty miles north of New 
York City and is one of the most densely populated areas in the country. This 
area of New York is rich in legend, and tales of unusual happenings date back 
to colonial times. The home of the infamous headless horseman from 
Washington Irving’s The Legend of Sleepy Hollow is located in the heart of 
Hudson Valley. Now, many residents of southern New York report encounters 
of a different kind—sightings of a giant UFO that they say is not of this Earth. 

Artist’s conception of the Hudson Valley UFO 

During the evening of March 23, 1983, thousands of people from all walks 
of life reported that they had seen an object larger than a football field pass over 
the highways and their homes. Bewildered witnesses said they saw an object 
that was solid in structure and made up of very dark gray materials. The UFO 
was described as having rows of multi-colored lights attached to a triangular 
shape, as it moved slowly across the night sky. The sightings continued on a 
regular basis, and in 1984, at 10:20 p.m., the object was videotaped in Brewster, 
New York. At this time also the UFO was witnessed by thousands, as it silently 
drifted over five counties of New York and Connecticut. 

Shortly after the object was videotaped, the giant UFO was reported 
hovering over the Indian Point Nuclear Reactor located on the shore of the 
Hudson River near Peekskill, New York, at 10:30 p.m. The object was witnessed 
by State Police and twelve New York State Power Authority Police officers. 
They reported that the UFO hovered three-hundred feet over reactor Number 
Three for fifteen minutes. They said it was triangular in shape with a network 
of grids underneath and was the size of three football fields. The object then 
slowly moved across the Hudson River to Rockland County, where hundreds of 
residents and police officers saw it. Later, a spokesman from the Indian Point 
Reactor Complex confirmed the sightings, but insisted that the object in no way 
affected plant operations. This was the first time a UFO was officially 
confirmed as being over or near a nuclear reactor. 

One of the official explanations for the sightings made by the FAA and the 
Air Force was that the UFO was nothing more than a group of prankster pilots 
flying in close formation. The video tape of the UFO was analyzed twice by 
imaging scientists at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. 
Their conclusions were that the lights on the video tape were not individual 
objects, but rather one large object. The scientists were unable to identify the 

UFO, however, as a conventional aircraft; and so it remains a genuine 
“unknown” to this day. 

Although much of the UFO activity has died down during the late nineties, 
many people in the area claim to have close encounters with an alien 
intelligence that they feel is the intelligence from the UFO. Where the UFO 
comes from remains a mystery, and without a doubt generations from now it 
will become part of the area’s local folklore. 

As one witness (an IBM executive) said in an interview: “This thing was a 
city in the sky, it was not from this world and airplanes it was not!” 

—Philip J. Imbrogno 

NOTE: For more information, see the author’s books: Contact of the Fifth Kind 

(Llewellyn, 1997) and Night Siege: The Hudson Valley UFO Sightings 

(Llewellyn, 1998, second edition, expanded and revised). 

Humanoids, The (Henry Regnery, 1969). Edited by Charles Bowen. Eleven 
essayists survey more than 300 reports of spacecraft landing and disgorging 
alien occupants. These occupants are of every imaginable shape, size, and color 
—from giants over eight feet tall to tiny dwarfs—leading Bowen, the former 
editor of Britain’s Flying Saucer Review magazine, to conclude that “UFOs and 
their occupants are in the eyes of the beholder.” 

—Randall Fitzgerald 

Hynek, J. Allen (1910-1986). Dubbed “The Galileo of UFOlogy” by 
Newsweek magazine (November 1977), Dr. J. Allen Hynek was considered by 
his colleagues to be the pre-eminent authority on UFO phenomena. Hynek 
became involved with UFOs as Scientific Consultant to the U.S. Air Force 
from 1948 to 1968. He was the first speaker to present testimony at the 1968 
hearing on UFOs held by the House Committee on Science and Astronautics 
and later appeared before the United Nations to support the proposed 
establishment of an agency to conduct and coordinate research into UFOs and 
related phenomena. 

In the early 1970s, Hynek coined the phrase “close encounters of the third 
kind,” and acted as technical advisor to director Steven Spielberg on the movie 
of the same name. Hynek founded CUFOS (the Center for UFO Studies) in 
1973 and served as its director until his death in 1986. 

For more than twenty years Dr. Hynek served as astronomical consultant to 

the U. S. Air Force Projects Sign and Blue Book, which processed and studied 
UFO sightings reported to Air Force bases. He came to Northwestern 
University in 1960 from his position as associate director of the Smithsonian 
Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, Massachusetts, where he was in 
charge of the U. S. Optical Satellite Tracking Program. He was responsible for 
the precise tracking of man’s first artificial satellite, as well as for some 270 
volunteer “Moonwatch” stations in various countries. 

A native of Chicago, Hynek has had many illustrious posts in his scientific 
career. After receiving his doctorate in astronomy from the University of 
Chicago, he was, in turn: professor of astronomy and director of the McMillin 
Observatory at Ohio State University; supervisor of technical reports at the 
Applied Physics Laboratory of the Johns Hopkins University during World War 
11; assistant dean of the Graduate School at Ohio State and professor of 
astronomy after the war; and lecturer in astronomy at Harvard during the four 
years he was associate director of the Smithsonian’s Observatory in Cambridge; 
after which he joined Northwestern University as chairman of the Department 
of Astronomy and director of the Dearborn Observatory, posts he held for 
fifteen years. During his tenure he was instrumental in the founding of the 
Lindheimer Astronomical Research Center and served as its first director. 

Photo Courtesy of John Timmerman and CUFOS 

J. Allen Hynek 

Dr. Hynek has published numerous technical papers in astrophysics and is 

the author of several textbooks. He is also the author of The UFO Experience: 
A Scientific Inquiry (1972), The Hynek Report of UFOs (1977), and coauthor 
(with Jacques Vallee) of The Edge of Reality (1975). 

POSITION STATEMENT: In an interview for Fate magazine (June 1976 issue), 
Hynek stated his position on the UFO problem as follows: 

The conclusion Eve come to after all these years is that first of all, the 
subject is much more complex than any of us imagined. It has paranormal 
aspects but certainly it has very real physical aspects, too. The attitude 
we’re taking in the Center for UFO Studies is that since we’re going to have 
scientists involved, we will push the physical approach as hard and far as 
we can—instrumentation, physical evidence, photographs, radar records. If 
we are finally forced by the evidence itself to go into the paranormal, then 
we will. 

And in another interview, he expressed these views (from Lumieres dans la Nuit, 
issue No. 168 of October 1977): 

[The extraterrestrial] theory runs up against a very big difficulty, namely, 
that we are seeing too many UFOs. The Earth is only a spot of dust in the 
Universe. Why should it be honored with so many visits? 
interviewer: Then what is your hypothesis? 

Hynek: I am more inclined to think in terms of something metaterrestrial, a 
sort of parallel reality. 

interviewer: And what then is your personal conviction? 

Hynek: I have the impression that the UFOs are announcing a change that 
is coming soon in our scientific paradigms. I am very much afraid that 
UFOs are related to certain psychic phenomena. And if I say “I am very 
much afraid,” this is because in our Center at Evanston we are trying to 
study this problem from the angle of the physical sciences. 

...But it would be absurd to follow up only one path to the exclusion of all 

This theory was repeated again, when Hynek was interviewed by Newsweek: 
“UFO’s, he says, may be psychic phenomena and the ‘aliens’ may not come 
from outer space but from a ‘parallel reality’.” (November 21, 1977) 

In yet another interview (for the April 3, 1978 issue of Today’s Student), Hynek 
added that: 

Certainly the phenomenon has psychic aspects. I don’t talk about them very 
much because to a general audience the words “psychic” and “occult” have 
bad overtones. They say, “Aw, it’s all crazy.” But the fact is that there are 
psychic things; for instance, UFOs seem to materialize and dematerialize. 
There are people who’ve had UFO experiences who’ve claimed to have 
developed psychic ability. There have been reported cases of hearings in 
close encounters and there have been reported cases of precognition, where 
people had foreknowledge or forewarning that they were going to see 
something. There has been a change of outlook, a change of philosophy of 
persons’ lives. Now, you see, those are rather tricky things to talk about 
openly, but it’s there. 

Many people, like Jacques Vallee and I, to some extent, feel that it might 
be a conditioning process. 

Hynek UFO Report, The book (Dell, 1977). Dr. J. Allen Hynek concludes in 
this book that whatever UFOs are, they want to play games with us and lead us 
on a confusing chase. He also demonstrates from his own experiences as a 
consultant to the Air Force’s Project Blue Book that the U.S. Air Force 
intentionally deceived and lied to the American public about its UFO 

—Randall Fitzgerald 

hypnosis, use of, in UFO investigations Hypnosis has often been discussed 
and used as one tool available to the UFO investigator, as well as to the 
criminal investigator and, of course, the psychological therapist. The history of 
hypnosis is characterized by trends from physical to physiological to 
psychological explanations of hypnotic phenomena. Although many theories 
about the nature of hypnosis have been advanced, no one theory has been 
accepted by all theorists. Despite many differences in theoretical positions, 
most researchers describe hypnosis in terms of psychological processes which 
are related to interpersonal situations and to personal abilities of participants. 

Good hypnotic subjects are described as persons who (1) can respond to 
suggestions for deep relaxation, (2) have vivid imaginations, (3) are able to 
minimize temporarily their awareness of “external” reality and, (4) can 
maximize temporarily an alternate or “internal” reality. These persons can learn 

to alter their perceptions of “pain,” “time,” “memory,” etc. Autohypnosis, or 
self-hypnosis, seems to be the primary experience, with assistance from a guide 
or teacher as a possible facilitator in the process. There seems to be no danger 
inherent in the use of hypnotic processes, but there may be a risk in accepting 
and following suggestions from an inexperienced or poorly trained hypnotist. 

Experimental studies have yielded results which cast doubt on the view that 
hypnotic time-regression (age regression) procedures can cause a participant to 
“relive” the experiences of earlier events. On the other hand, these studies have 
shown that many individuals have the potential to use hypnotic suggestions to 
increase their recall of “forgotten” memories. 

Along with other controversies about the UFO problem, there are 
disagreements among UFO investigators about the value of hypnotic time- 
regression procedures in the investigation of UFO experiences. Despite the 
difficulties in evaluating information which is obtained during hypnotic 
sessions, most investigators agree that hypnotic procedures may be useful in 
exploring the available testimony of UFO witnesses. 

A list of possible uses of hypnotic procedures in UFO investigations could 
include the following activities: 

1. Assisting UFO witnesses to relax deeply and to reduce any anxiety which 
may be associated with their UFO experiences. 

2. Instructing UFO witnesses to elicit ideomotor responses (by use of the 
pendulum technique or through fmger-and-thumb responses) for 
communication with the “subconscious mind,” or subconscious processes. 

3. Encouraging UFO witnesses to release any repressed memory about an 
amnesic period, or “loss of time” experience during a UFO sighting, 
including possible memories of apparent abduction, examination, and/ or 
experimentation by UFO occupants. 

4. Checking the consistency of conscious and subconscious information from 
the UFO witnesses, and comparing these claims with information about the 
backgrounds of witnesses and other information about their UFO 

5. Training interested persons to obtain possible “psychic impressions,” e.g., 
clairvoyant impressions of UFO occupants, telepathic communications with 
UFO occupants, and precognitive impressions or impressions of future 

The information that has been obtained from hypnotic sessions with 
participants who claim UFO experiences, including abduction and 
communication with UFO occupants, is tentative and inconclusive. At present, 
there seem to be five general hypotheses to account for these reports: 

1. UFO witnesses are lying. Evidence to support this hypothesis might be 
obtained by conducting background investigations and polygraph 

2. UFO witnesses are experiencing neurotic or psychotic reactions. Evidence 
for this hypothesis might be obtained by conducting psychiatric evaluations. 

3. UFO witnesses are submitting information which stems from fantasies or 
daydreams. Evidence for this hypothesis might be obtained from 
psychological evaluation of the witnesses, and from comparisons of their 
experiences with other information about UFO reports. 

4. UFO witnesses are submitting information which is desired by the UFO 
investigator. Evidence for this hypothesis can be obtained by employing 
consultants in hypnosis who do not share the same biases about the 
significance and meaning of UFO experiences. 

5. UFO witnesses are submitting reliable and/or valid information Evidence 
for this hypothesis can be obtained by comparing the testimony of UFO 
witnesses with the pattern of evidence obtained from other UFO 

In conclusion, hypnotic procedures offer a method for exploring some of the 
puzzling areas of UFO phenomena. Hypnotic techniques can be used for a 
variety of tasks, depending upon the needs and the interests of UFO witnesses, 
UFO investigators, and consultants in hypnosis. Despite the difficulties of 
evaluating information obtained from hypnotic procedures, the experienced 
UFO investigator should encourage the UFO witness to consider possible 
participation in hypnotic sessions for further investigation of his or her UFO 

—R.Leo Sprinkle 

ANOTHER VIEW: In France in the 1770s, when Mesmerism was in its heyday, 
the king appointed two commissions to investigate Mesmer’s activities. The 
commissions included such eminent men as Benjamin Franklin, Lavoisier, and 
Jean-Sylvain Badly, the French astronomer. After months of study the report of 

the commissioners concluded that it was imagination, not magnetism, that 
accounted for the swooning, trancelike rigidity of Mesmer’s subjects. 
Surprisingly enough, this conclusion is still closer to the truth about hypnosis 
than most of the modern definitions found in today’s textbooks. 

So-called authorities still disagree about “hypnosis.” But whether it is or is 
not a “state,” there is common and widespread agreement among all the major 
disputants that “hypnosis” is a situation in which people set aside critical 
judgment (without abandoning it entirely) and engage in make-believe and 
fantasy; that is, they use their imagination (Sarbin and Andersen, 1967; Barber, 
1969; Gill and Brenman, 1959; Hilgard, 1977). 

Josephine Hilgard (1979) refers to hypnosis as “imaginative involvement,” 
Sarbin and Coe (1972) term it “believed-in imaginings,” Spanos and Barber 
(1974) call it “involvement in suggestion-related imaginings,” and Sutcliffe 
(1961) has gone so far as to characterize the hypnotizable individual as 
someone who is “deluded in a descriptive, nonpejorative sense” and he sees the 
hypnotic situation as an arena in which people who are skilled at make-believe 
and fantasy are provided with the opportunity and the means to do what they 
enjoy doing and what they are able to do especially well. Even more recently 
Perry, Laurence, Nadon, and Labelle (1986) concluded that “abilities such as 
imagery/imagination, absorption, disassociation, and selective attention 
underlie high hypnotic responsivity in yet undetermined combinations.” The 
same authors, in another context dealing with past-lives regression, also 
concluded that “it should be expected that any material provided in age 
regression (which is at the basis of reports of reincarnation) may be fact or 
fantasy, and it is most likely an admixture of both.” The authors further report 
that such regression material is colored by issues of confabulation, memory 
creation, inadvertent cueing, and the regressee’s current psychological needs. 


Because of its universality, it is quite surprising that the phenomenon of 
confabulation is not better known. Confabulation, or the tendency of ordinary, 
sane individuals to confuse fact with fiction and to report fantasized events as 
actual occurrences, has surfaced in just about every situation in which a person 
has attempted to remember very specific details from the past. A classical and 
amusing example occurs in the movie Gigi, in the scene where Maurice 
Chevalier and Hermione Gingold compare memories of their courtship in the 

song “I Remember It Well.” We remember things not the way they really were 
but the way we would have liked them to have been. 

The work of Elizabeth Loftus and others over the past decade has 
demonstrated that the human memory works not like a tape recorder but more 
like the village storyteller—i.e., it is both creative and recreative. We can and 
we do easily forget. We blur, shape, erase, and change details of the events in 
our past. Many people walk around daily with heads full of “fake memories.” 
The unreliability of “eyewitness testimony” is not only legendary but well 

All of this is further complicated and compounded by the impact of 
suggestions provided by the hypnotist—supposedly “regressing” the subject— 
plus the social demand characteristics of the typical hypnotic situation. Under 
such conditions, there is little wonder that the resulting “recall” on the part of 
the regressee bears no resemblance to the truth. In fact, the regressee often does 
not know what the truth is. 

Confabulation shows up without fail in nearly every context in which 
hypnosis is employed, including the forensic area. Thus it is not surprising that 
most states have no legal precedents on the use of hypnotic testimony. 
Furthermore, many state courts have begun to limit testimony from hypnotized 
witnesses or to follow the guidelines laid down by the American Medical 
Association in 1985 to assure that witnesses’ memories are not contaminated by 
the hypnosis itself. For not only do we translate beliefs into memories when we 
are wide awake, but in the case of hypnotized witnesses with few specific 
memories, the hypnotist may unwittingly suggest memories and create a 
witness with a number of crucial and vivid recollections of events that never 
happened, i.e., pseudo-memories. It may turn out that the recent Supreme Court 
decision allowing the individual states limited use of hypnotically aided 
testimony may not be in the best interests of those who seek the truth. Even in 
their decision the judges recognized that hypnosis may often produce incorrect 
recollections and unreliable testimony. 

There have also been a number of clinical and experimental demonstrations 
of the creation of pseudo-memories that have subsequently come to be believed 
as veridical. Hilgard (1981) implanted a false memory of an experience 
connected with a bank robbery that never occurred. His subject found the 
experience so vivid that he was able to select from a series of photographs a 
picture of the man he thought had committed the robbery. At another time, 
Hilgard deliberately assigned two concurrent—though spatially different—life 

experiences to the same person and regressed him at separate times to that date. 
The individual subsequently gave very accurate accounts of both experiences, 
so that anyone believing in reincarnation who reviewed the two accounts would 
conclude the man really had lived the two assigned lives. 

In a number of other experiments designed to measure eyewitness reliability, 
Loftus (1979) found that details supplied by others invariably contaminated the 
memory of the eyewitness. People’s hair changed color, “stop” signs became 
“yield” signs, yellow convertibles turned to red sedans, the left side of the street 
became the right side, and so on. The results of these studies led her to 
conclude, “It may well be that the legal notion of an independent recollection is 
a psychological impossibility.” As for hypnosis, she says: “There’s no way 
even the most sophisticated hypnotist can tell the difference between a memory 
that is real and one that’s created. If a person is hypnotized and highly 
suggestible and false information is implanted in his mind, it may get 
embedded even more strongly. One psychologist tried to use a polygraph to 
distinguish between real and phony memory, but it didn’t work. Once someone 
has constructed a memory, he comes to believe it himself.” 


Without a doubt, inadvertent cueing also plays a major role in UFO- 
abduction fantasies. The hypnotist unintentionally gives away to the person 
being regressed exactly what response is wanted. This was most clearly shown 
in an experimental study of hypnotic age regression by R. M. True in 1949. He 
found that 92 percent of his subjects regressed to the day of their tenth birthday, 
and could accurately recall the day of the week on which it fell. He also found 
the same thing for 84 percent of his subjects for their fourth birthday. Other 
investigators, however, were unable to duplicate True’s findings. When True 
was questioned by Martin Orne about his experiment, he discovered that the 
editors of Science, where his report had appeared, altered his procedure section 
without his prior consent. True, Orne discovered, had inadvertently cued his 
subjects by following the unusual technique of asking them, “Is it Monday? Is 
it Tuesday? Is it Wednesday?” etc., and he monitored their responses by using a 
perpetual desk calendar in full view of all his subjects. Further evidence of the 
prevalence and importance of such cueing came from a study by O’ Connell, 
Shor, and Orne (1970). They found that in an existing group of four-year-olds, 
not a single one knew what day of the week it was. The reincarnation literature 

is also replete with examples of such inadvertent cueing. Ian Wilson (1981), for 
example, has shown that hypnotically elicited reports of being reincarnated 
vary as a direct function of the hypnotist’s belief about reincarnation. Finally, 
Laurence, Nadon, Nogrady, and Perry (1986) have shown that pseudo¬ 
memories were elicited also by inadvertent cueing in the use of hypnosis by the 

As for advertent, or deliberate, cueing, one of my own studies offers a clear 
example. Sixty undergraduates divided into three groups of twenty each were 
hypnotized and age-regressed to previous lifetimes. Before each hypnosis 
session, however, suggestions very favorable to and supportive of past-life and 
reincarnation beliefs were given to one group; neutral and noncommittal 
statements about past lives were given to the second group; and skeptical and 
derogatory statements about past lives were given to the third group. The 
results clearly showed the effects of these cues and suggestions. Subjects in the 
first group showed the most pastlife regressions and the most past-life 
productions; subjects in the third group showed the least. (Baker 1982) 

Regression subjects take cues as to how they are to respond from the person 
doing the regressions and asking the questions. If the hypnotist is a believer in 
UFO abductions, the odds are heavily in favor of him eliciting UFO-abductee 
stories from his volunteers. 

Personalities and 
Psychological Needs 

“Assuming that all you have said thus far is true,” the skeptical observer 
might ask, “why would hundreds of ordinary, mild-mannered, unassuming 
citizens suddenly go off the deep end and turn up with cases of amnesia and 
then, when under hypnosis, all report nearly identical experiences?” First, the 
abductees are not as numerous as we are led to believe; and, second, even 
though bestselling UFO-abduction authors Whitley Strieber and Budd Hopkins 
go to great lengths to emphasize the diversity of the people who report these 
events, they are much more alike than these taxonomists declare. In an 
afterword to Hopkins’s Missing Time, a psychologist named Aphrodite Clamar 
raises exactly this question and then adds, “All of these people seem quite 
ordinary in the psychological sense— although they have not been subjected to 
the kind of psychological testing that might provide a deeper understanding oj 

their personalities. ” (emphasis added). And herein lies the problem. If these 
abductees were given this sort of intensive diagnostic testing, it is highly likely 
that many similarities would emerge—particularly an unusual personality 
pattern that Wilson and Barber (1983) have categorized as “fantasy-prone.” In 
an important but much neglected article, they report in some detail their 
discovery of a group of excellent hypnotic subjects with unusual fantasy 
abilities. In their words: 

Although this study provided a broader understanding of the kind of life 
experiences that may underlie the ability to be an excellent hypnotic 
subject, it has also led to a serendipitous finding that has wide implication 
for all of psychology—it has shown that there exists a small group of 
individuals (possibly 4% of the population) who fantasize a large part of the 
time, who typically “see,” “hear,” “smell,” and “touch” and fully experience 
what they fantasize; and who can be labeled fantasy-prone personalities. 
(Wilson and Barber, 1983) 

Wilson and Barber also stress that such individuals experience a reduction in 
orientation to time, place, and person that is characteristic of hypnosis or trance 
during their daily lives whenever they are deeply involved in a fantasy. They 
also have experiences during their daily ongoing lives that resemble the 
classical hypnotic phenomena. In other words, the behavior we would normally 
call “hypnotic” is exhibited by these fantasy-prone types (FPs) all the time. In 
Wilson and Barber’s words: “When we give them ‘hypnotic suggestions,’ such 
as suggestions for visual and auditory hallucinations, negative hallucinations, 
age regression, limb rigidity, anesthesia, and sensory hallucinations, we are 
asking them to do for us the kind of thing they can do independently of us in 
their daily lives.” 

The reason we do not run into these types more often is that they have 
learned long ago to be highly secretive and private about their fantasy lives. 
Whenever the FPs do encounter a hypnosis situation it provides them with a 
social situation in which they are encouraged to do, and are rewarded for doing, 
what they usually do only in secrecy and in private. Wilson and Barber also 
emphasize that regression and the reliving of previous experiences is something 
that virtually all the FPs do naturally in their daily lives. When they recall the 
past, they relive it to a surprisingly vivid extent, and they all have vivid 
memories of their experiences extending back to their early years. 

Fantasy-prone individuals also show up as mediums, psychics, and religious 

visionaries. They are also the ones who have many realistic “out-of-body” 
experiences and prototypic “near-death” experiences. 

In spite of the fact that many such extreme types show FP characteristics, the 
overwhelming majority of FPs fall within the broad range of “normal 
functioning.” It is totally inappropriate to apply a psychiatric diagnosis to them. 
In Wilson and Barber’s words: “It needs to be strongly emphasized that our 
subjects with a propensity for hallucinations are as well adjusted as our 
comparison group or the average person. It appears that the life experiences and 
skill developments that underlie the ability of hallucinatory fantasy are more or 
less independent of the kinds of life experience that leads to pathology.” In 
general, FPs are “normal” people who function as well as others and who are as 
well adjusted, competent, and satisfied or dissatisfied as everyone else. 

Anyone familiar with the the fantasy-prone personality who reads Whitley 
Strieber’s book Communion will experience an immediate shock of 
recognition. Strieber is a classic example of the genre: he is easily hypnotized; 
he is amnesiac; he has vivid memories of his early life, body immobility and 
rigidity, a very religious background, a very active fantasy life (he is a writer of 
occult and highly imaginative novels); he has unusually strong sensory 
experiences—particularly smells and sounds—and vivid dreams. But even 
more remarkable are the correspondences between Strieber’s alien encounters 
and the typical hypnopompic hallucinations to be discussed shortly. 

It is perfectly clear, therefore, why most of the UFO abductees, when given 
cursory examinations by psychiatrists and psychologists, would turn out to be 
ordinary, normal citizens as sane as themselves. It is also evident why the 
elaborate fantasies woven in fine cloth from the now universally familiar UFO- 
abduction fable—a fable known to every man, woman, and child newspaper 
reader or movie-goer in the nation—would have so much in common, so much 
consistency in the telling. Any one of us, if asked to pretend that he had been 
kidnapped by aliens from outer space or another dimension, would make up a 
story that would vary little, either in its details or in the supposed motives of the 
abductors, from the stories told by any and all of the kidnap victims reported by 
Hopkins. As for the close encounters of the third kind and conversations with 
the little gray aliens described in Communion and Intruders, again, our 
imaginative tales would be remarkably similar in plot, dialogue, description, 
and characterization. The means of transportation would be saucer-shaped; the 
aliens would be small, humanoid, two-eyed, and gray, white, or tan. The 
purpose of their visits would be: (1) to save our planet; (2) to find a better home 

for themselves; (3) to end nuclear war and the threat we pose to the peaceful 
life in the rest of galaxy; (4) to bring us knowledge and enlightenment; and (5) 
to increase their knowledge and under- standing of other forms of intelligent 
life. In fact, the fantasy-prone abductees’ stories would be much more credible 
if some of them, at least, reported the aliens as eight-foot-tall, red-striped 
octapeds riding bicycles and intent upon eating us for dessert. 

Finally, what would or could motivate even the FPs to concoct such 
outlandish and absurd tales that without fail draw much unwelcome attention 
and notoriety? What sort of psychological motives and needs would underlie 
such fabrications? Perhaps the best answer to this question is the one provided 
by the author-photographer Douglas Curran. Traveling from British Columbia 
down the West Coast and circumscribing the United States along a 
counterclockwise route, Curran spent more than two years questioning ordinary 
people about outer space. Curran writes: 

On my travels across the continent 1 never had to wait too long for 
someone to tell me about his or her UFO experience, whether 1 was chatting 
with a farmer in Kansas, Ruth Norman at the Unarius Foundation, or a cafe 
owner in Florida. What continually struck me in talking with these people 
was how positive and ultimately life-giving a force was their belief in outer 
space. Their belief reaffirmed the essential fact of human existence: the 
need for order and hope. It is this that establishes them—and me—in the 
continuity of human experience. It brought to me a greater understanding of 
Oscar Wilde’s observation. “We are all lying in the gutter—but some of us 
are looking at the stars.” 

Jung (1969), in his study of flying saucers, first published in 1957, argues 
that the saucer represents an archetype of order, wholeness, deliverance, and 
salvation—a symbol manifested in other cultures as a sun wheel or magic 
circle. Further in his essay, Jung compares the spacemen aboard the flying 
saucers to the angelic messengers of earlier times who brought messages of 
hope and salvation—the theme emphasized in Strieber’s Communion. Curran 
also observes that the spiritual message conveyed by the aliens is, recognizably, 
our own. None of the aliens Curran’s contactees talked about advocated any 
moral or metaphysical belief that was not firmly rooted in the Judeo-Christian 
tradition. As Curran says, “Every single flying saucer group 1 encountered in 
my travels incorporated Jesus Christ into the hierarchy of its belief system.” 

Many theorists have long recognized that whenever world events prove to be 
psychologically destabilizing, men turn to religion as their only hope. Jung, 
again, in his 1957 essay, wrote: “In the threatening situation of the world today, 
when people are beginning to see that everything is at stake, the projection- 
creating fantasy soars beyond the realm of earthly organization and powers into 
the heavens, into interstellar space, where the rulers of human fate, the gods, 
once had their abode in the planets.” 

The beauty and power of Curran’s portraits of hundreds of true UFO 
believers lies in his sympathetic understanding of their fears and frailties. As 
psychologists are well aware, our religions are not so much systems of 
objective truths about the universe as they are collections of subjective 
statements about humanity’s hopes and fears. The true believers interviewed by 
Curran are all around us. Over the years I have encountered several. One 
particularly memorable and poignant case was that of a federal prisoner who 
said he could leave his body at will and sincerely believed it. Every weekend he 
would go home to visit his family, while his physical body stayed behind in his 
cell. Then there was the female psychic from the planet Xenon who could turn 
electric lights on and off at will, especially traffic signals. Proof of her powers? 
If she drove up to a red light she would concentrate on it intently for thirty to 
forty seconds and then, invariably, it would turn green! 

Hypnagogic and Hypnopompic Hallucinations 

Another common yet little publicized and rarely discussed phenomenon is 
that of hypnagogic (when falling asleep) and hypnopompic (when waking up) 
hallucinations. These phenomena, often referred to as “waking dreams,” find 
the individual suddenly awake, but paralyzed, unable to move, and most often 
encountering a “ghost.” The typical report goes somewhat as follows: “I went 
to bed and then sometime near morning something woke me up. I opened my 
eyes and found myself wide awake but unable to move. There, standing at the 
foot of my bed was my mother, wearing her favorite dress—the one we buried 
her in. She stood there looking at me and smiling and then she said: ‘Don’t 
worry about me, Doris, I’m at peace at last. I just want you and the children to 
be happy.’” Well, what happened next? “Nothing, she slowly faded away.” 
What did you do then? “Nothing, I just closed my eyes and went back to 

There are always a number of characteristic clues that indicate a hypnagogic 

or hypnopompic hallucination. First, it always occurs before or after falling 
asleep. Second, one is paralyzed or has difficulty in moving; or, contrarily, one 
may float out of one’s body and have an out-of-body experience. Third, the 
hallucination is unusually bizarre; i.e., one sees ghosts, aliens, monsters, and 
such. Fourth, after the hallucination is over, the hallucinator typically goes back 
to sleep. And, fifth, the hallucinator is unalterably convinced of the “reality” of 
the entire experience. 

Strieber’s Communion provides a classic textbook description of a 
hypnopompic hallucination, complete with the awakening from a sound sleep, 
the strong sense of reality and of being awake, the paralysis (due to the fact that 
the body’s neural circuits keep our muscles relaxed and help preserve our 
sleep), and the encounter with strange beings. Following the encounter, instead 
of jumping out of bed and going in search of the strangers he has seen, Strieber 
typically goes back to sleep. He even reports that the burglar alarm was still 
working—proof again that the intruders were mental rather than physical. 
Strieber also reports an occasion when he awakens and believes that the roof of 
his house is on fire and that the aliens are threatening his family. Yet his only 
response to this was to go peacefully back to sleep. Again, clear evidence of a 
hypnopompic dream. Strieber, of course, is convinced of the reality of these 
experiences. This too is to be expected. If he was not convinced of their reality, 
then the experience would not be hypnopompic or hallucinatory. 

The point cannot be more strongly made that ordinary, perfectly sane and 
rational people have these hallucinatory experiences and that such individuals 
are in no way mentally disturbed or psychotic. But neither are such experiences 
to be taken as incontrovertible proof of some sort of objective or consensual 
reality. They may be subjectively real, but objectively they are nothing more 
than dreams or delusions. They are called “hallucinatory” because of their 
heightened subjective reality. Leaving no rational explanation unspurned, 
Strieber is nevertheless forthright enough to suggest at one point the possibility 
that his experiences indeed could be hypnopompic. Moreover, in a summary 
chapter he speculates, correctly, that the alien visitors could be “from within 
us” and/or “a side effect of a natural phenomenon ... a certain hallucinatory 
wire in the mind causing many different people to have experiences so similar 
as to seem to be the result of encounters with the same physical phenomena” 
(Strieber, 1987). 

Interestingly enough, these hypnopompic and hypnagogic hallucinations do 
show individual differences in content and character as well as a lot of 

similarity: ghosts, monsters, fairies, friends, lovers, neighbors, and even little 
gray men and golden-haired ladies from the Pleiades are frequently 
encountered. Do such hallucinations appear more frequently to highly 
imaginative and fantasy-prone people than to other personality types? There is 
some evidence that they do (McKellar, 1957; Tart, 1969; Reed, 1972; Wilson 
and Barber, 1983), and there can certainly be no doubt that Strieber is a highly 
imaginative personality type. (See also Imaginary Abductee Study) 

—Robert A. Baker 


Alcock, James. Parapsychology: Science or Magic? (Pergamon, 1981). 

AMA Council on Scientific Affairs. “Scientific Status of Refreshing Recollection by Use of Hypnosis,” 
Journal AMA (April 5, 1985). 

Baker, Robert A. “The Effect of Suggestion on Past-Lives Regression.” American Journal of Clinical 
Hypnosis (1982). 

Baker, Robert A., Haynes, B., and Patrick, B. “Hypnosis, Memory, and Incidental Memory,” American 
Journal of Clinical Hypnosis (1983). 

Barber, Theodore X. Hypnosis: A Scientific Approach (Van Nostrand, 1969). 

Corliss, William R. The Unfathomed Mind: A Handbook of Unusual Mental Phenomena (Sourcebook, 

Curran, Douglas. In Advance of the Landing: Folk Concepts of Outer Space (Abbeville Press,1985). 

Frazier, Kendrick, ed. Paranormal Borderlands of Science (Prometheus Books. 1981). 

Gill, M. M., and Brenman, M. Hypnosis and Related Slates (International Universities Press, 1959). 

Hilgard, Ernest R. Divided Consciousness: Multiple Controls in Human Thought and Action (John Wiley 
& Sons, 1977). 

_. “Hypnosis Gives Rise to Fantasy and Is Not a Truth Serum,” Skeptical Inquirer (Spring, 1981). 

Hilgard, Josephine R. Personalitv and Hypnosis: A Study of Imaginative Involvement, 2nd ed. (University 
of Chicago Press, 1979). 

Loftus, Elizabeth. Eyewitness Testimony. (Harvard University Press, 1979). 

McKellar, Peter. Imagination and Thinking (Cohen and West, 1957). 

O’Connell, D. N., Shor, R. E., and Ome, M. T. “Hypnotic Age Regression: An Empirical and 
Methodological Analysis,” Journal of Abnormal Psychology Monograph 76 (1970). 

Perry, Campbell, Laurence, Jean-Roch, Nadon, Robert, and Labelle, Louise. “Past-Lives Regression” in 
Hypnosis: Questions and Answers. Zilbergeld, Bemie; and Edelstein, M. G.; and Araoz, D. L., eds. 
(Norton, 1986). 

Reed, Graham. The Psychology of Anomalous Experience (Houghton Mifflin, 1972). 

Sarbin, T. R. and Andersen, M. L. “Role-theoretical Analysis of Hypnotic Behavior” in Handbook of 
Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, Gordon, Jesse E., ed. (Macmillan, 1967). 

Sarbin, T. R. and Coe, W. C. Hypnosis: A Social Psychological Analysis of Influence Communication 
(Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1972). 

Spanos, N. R, and Barber, T. X. “Toward a Convergence in Hypnotic Research,” American Psychologist 


Strieber, Whitley. Communion (William Morrow/Beech Tree Books, 1987). 

Sutcliffe, J. P. “ ‘Credulous’ and ‘Skeptical’ Views of Hypnotic Phenomena: Experiments on Esthesia, 
Hallucinations, and Delusion” Journal of Abnormnal and Social Psychology (1961). 

Tart, Charles, ed.. Altered States of Consciousness: A Book of Readings (Wiley, 1969). 

True, R. M. “Experimental Control in Hypnotic Age Regression States,” Science (1949). 

Wilson, Ian. Mind Out of Time (Gollancz, 1981). 

Wilson, Sheryl C. and Barber, Theodore. X. “The Fantasy-Prone Personality: Implications for 

Understanding Imagery, Hypnosis, and Parapsychological Phenomena” in Imagery: Current Theory, 
Research and Application. Sheikh, Agnees A., ed. (John Wiley & Sons, 1983). 


iatrogenesis One of the real tragedies of modern medical practice is the 
unintentional creation of a new, or, in many cases, a more serious and disabling 
disorder by the therapist’s misguided efforts to heal. Such disorders created by 
the physician or therapist are called iatrogenic from the Greek iatros meaning 

Sadly enough, the prevalence and extent of such disorders is much greater 
than is generally thought, especially in the area of psychiatric and 
psychological disorders. During the late 1980s and 1990s a number of 
misguided psychotherapists and pseudothearpists have been persuading people 
they are victims of “alien abductions.” The engineering processes and 
procedures used to accomplish this iatrogenic feat of construction are fairly 

The needed materials are: a person with a problem of some sort seeking an 
answer; a therapist, counselor, or guru; social compliance on the part of the 
person with the problem; a number of suggestions from the therapist; and 
finally, a total relaxation of the reins of the client’s imagination. This 
combination results in what is usually referred to as “hypnosis” or “trance”— 
terms which are both inaccurate and misleading, since creating or using “the 
hypnotic ritual” is unnecessary. In most instances, most people can be 
persuaded to relax, close their eyes, take slow deep breaths, and follow the 
therapist’s suggestions. Nearly everyone possesses some degree of intelligence, 
imagination, and memory; and although some individuals are more suggestive 
than others, all of us, without exception, are prone to being influenced by 
suggestion. When these factors are combined with a therapist’s stimulation of 
memory (which is virtually indistinguishable from imagination), what emerges 
ninety nine times out of a hundred is a mixture of both fact and fiction. Our 
memories are never 100 percent accurate, and the further away in time we are 
from the event we are trying to recall, the less accurate our account will be. 

When a dominant and persuasive therapist suggests to his patients who are 

in a relaxed and susceptible state that they were “abducted by aliens,” the ideas 
become “memory” and a an iatrogenic disorder is born. 

—Robert A. Baker 

Imaginary Abductee Study The Imaginary Abductee Study is one of the few 
scientific experiments ever conducted in the history of UFO-abduction 
research. We developed the 1977 imaginary series for several reasons. We 
needed more information about abductions, and the study promised us narrative 
data from fantasized CE-3s (close encounters of the third kind) in a convenient 
synthetic form. We also wanted to learn more about using hypnosis effectively 
in such cases. Above all, we were dissatisfied with several inconclusive 
previous real CE-3s, and we sought ways to determine whether or not 
abductees were fabricating. 

My colleague Dr. W.C. McCall and I were increasingly doubtful about 
abduction claims, which had proliferated during and after the 1973 UFO flap. 
We still remembered the 1975 Garden Grove abduction hoax, which had 
changed us abruptly from believers to skeptics. Neither of us cared whether 
abductees’ claims were caused by aliens or not, yet we continued our 
investigations with new enthusiasm. 

Over the spring and summer of 1977, we found sixteen volunteers who 
knew relatively nothing about UFOs or CE-3 literature, hypnotized them, and 
gave each an imaginary abduction. We asked them eight simple questions 
(derived from events in a few dozen published and manuscript CE-3 cases then 
available) and directed them to respond fluently: 

1) Imagine you are in a favorite place, and suddenly you see a UFO. Describe 
that UFO. 

2) Imagine you are aboard the UFO. How do you get there? 

3) Imagine you are inside the UFO. What do you see? 

4) Imagine you see some beings in the UFO. What do they look like? 

5) Imagine the beings give you a physical examination. What is happening? 

6) Imagine they give you a message. What does the message say, and how do 
you get it? 

7) Imagine you return to where you sighted the UFO. How do you get there? 

8) Imagine an aftermath. How were you affected by your abduction? (Subject 
is awakened.) 

We assumed the imaginary subjects would need much prompting but they 
had been selected for creativity and high verbal skills and were good hypnotic 
subjects, going readily into deep trance and responding well to questions. 
McCall never deliberately cued them beyond introducing each situation, and 
then let them talk freely with no more guidance than an occasional “What’s 
happening now?” Almost all sixteen imaginary subjects gave us detailed and 
often intriguing narratives that were fully comparable to those in CE-3 case 

Word-by-word comparisons with real abduction transcripts showed many 
similarities and few major differences. All of the imaginary subjects described 
typical CE-3 images and incidents, ranging from the obvious (disk-shaped 
craft) to the unusual (two alien types on a single UFO), to rare details of high 
strangeness (projecting/retracting light beams with cut-off ends). The hundreds 
of similarities are too numerous and characteristic to be dismissed. One 
Imaginary subject described a (non-existent) “scoop mark” on her arm put there 
by an alien—years before such abductee body scars became fashionable. 
Further, all six types of aliens commonly described by pre-1980s CE-3 
witnesses appeared in just the first eight imaginary sessions: human, humanoid, 
animal, robot, exotic, and apparitional. There were no bug-eyed Grays among 
these entities. 

Responses to the Imaginary study generally followed predictable paths — 
abduction skeptics welcomed it, while those abduction proponents who did not 
ignore it attacked us variously for cueing our subjects, for finding trivial 
imaginary/real parallels, or for flawed methodology, among other things. The 
objections seemed to us then as now to be mostly nit picking by true believers. 
The study’s core assertion, that CE-3 claims are mental events, remains 
unsullied—particularly in the absence of any serious attempts at replication, 
even after a near quarter-century. 

One of our critics agreed with us in part. In 1989 longtime proponent 
Thomas Bullard called for a replication of the Imaginary Study, then 
concluded: “Imaginary cases thus pose a vexing question—how can non- 
abductees tell stories even broadly like those of real abductees?... More to the 
point, how can the hypothesis of an objective abduction survive if anyone can 
tell the abduction story, no experience required?” 

How indeed? Some maintain that the general outlines of a CE-3 are “in the 
air”—in TV, film, and print versions of abduction cases. But in 1977 such 
sources were far fewer, and can not account for the capacity of nearly any 

imaginary subject even today to fantasize a fully detailed CE-3 yarn, including 
specifics that few abductees describe, about any given segment of the abduction 
sequence. The imaginaries seemed to possess intuitive knowledge of an 
abduction sequence they had never consciously experienced. The origin of such 
knowledge must be innate, and 1 think it almost certainly has to relate to 
perinatal memories. 

The Imaginary Study’s significance is that it provided the first persuasive 
demonstration that claims of abduction are non-physical experiences, i.e., 
hoaxes or fantasy/hallucinations rather than physical events. The study 
continues to perturb abduction proponents, but even independent replications if 
they occur are unlikely to modify its skeptical conclusions. 

—Alvin H. Lawson 

All six types of aliens commonly described by pre-1980s CE-3 witnesses appeared in the early 
imaginary sessions: human, humanoid, animal, robot, exotic, and apparitional. Missing were the 
big-eyed Grays that became so prominent in the late 1980s. 

implants, alien For many years the subject of alien implants in humans has not 
only intrigued abduction researchers, but attempts to isolate and study these 

objects have been fraught with disappointment and failure. The situation 
changed in 1995 when 1 became acquainted with Derrel Sims, a long-time 
researcher in the alien abduction field. 

On August 19, 1995, the first set of surgeries was performed for the removal 
of objects from the bodies of two individuals who were subjects of the alien- 
abduction phenomenon. The recovered objects were subjected to scientific 
analysis of both the biological and nonbiological material, and the findings 
were baffling. There was a second set of surgeries performed on May 18, 1996. 
The total number to date is now eight surgeries which has netted nine objects. 

The first surgeries were performed on a male patient whose x-rays 
demonstrated an object in his hand and one female with two obvious metallic 
objects in a toe that were also demonstrative in x-rays. There was an additional 
surgery following the first set that yielded a small grayish white ball. This was 
followed by a set of three surgeries. Two were female and one was male. Both 
females showed radiographic signs of objects beneath the skin on the front of 
the left leg, whereas the male patient had a metallic radiographic object in the 
left jaw area. Following this set of surgeries another independent procedure was 
performed on a female who had an object in her left heel. The last surgery to 
date was performed on August 17, 1998, and was filmed by NBC to be 
included in their two-hour prime-time special, which aired on February 17, 

Because of the expense incurred from the scientific analysis in world class 
laboratories, a method had to be devised to raise money. All the surgical 
procedures performed were without charge to the patient, and the scientific data 
found eventually becomes the property of all the Earth’s inhabitants. Derrel 
Sims and 1 have formed an organization, which serves both functions. It is a 
nonprofit organization called: The Fund For Interactive Research in Space 
Technology, (F.I.R.S.T.). The Website address is 

Another nonprofit organization deals with the matter of scientific analysis. 
This is The National Institute for Discovery Science (N.I.D.S.), headed by 
Robert Bigelow who is solely responsible for looking at our scientific data and 
finding it worthy of inclusion in their studies. The board of directors of N.I.D.S. 
is composed of some of the finest scientific authorities in the United States. Our 
findings to date have been as follows: 

Of the eight surgeries performed, we have four that were metallic rods 
covered with an unusual biological membrane not found in the medical 
literature. This membrane tightly wraps the metallic rods and is dark gray and 

shiny. Mysteriously, it cannot be cut through with a surgical blade. The analysis 
of this tissue shows that it is composed of three substances most probably 
belonging to the recipient of the implant. These substances are a protein 
coagulum, hemosiderin, and keratin. 

In addition, we have found two other biological mysteries. The soft tissue 
surrounding the objects demonstrates microscopically that the area has a high 
quantity of small nerve receptors called proprioceptors. Secondly, there is a 
stark and surprising absence of any inflammatory response to these objects, 
although we all know it is virtually impossible to have something enter the 
body without it responding by inflammation. We believe that the reason for this 
has to do with the formation of the membrane. The metallurgical findings are 
also earth-shaking. 

Scientists who have examined the “implants” compare them to meteorite 
fragments because they contain isotopic ratios consistent with nonearthly 
isotopic ratio numbers. 

Three of the objects appeared to be small grayish-white ovoid balls. These 
were in turn attached to an abnormality of the skin, which is commonly 
associated with the abduction phenomenon called a “scoop mark”. When the 
surgical procedures were performed, the entire segment was removed and sent 
in for pathological analysis. The ovoid balls are still being examined, but 
preliminary results on one of the objects, shows that it is composed of eleven 
complex elements. 

Photograph of an alleged alien implant 

Some of the biological findings associated with these skin abnormalities 
include such things as Solar Elastosis, a rare exposure of the dermal layer of the 
skin to ultraviolet radiation. Last but not least is the object removed from the 
heel area, which appeared to be glass or crystal. After careful and continued 
analysis, we found that the object was brown bottle glass made by Dow 

However, the other objects seem to be structured as if designed for a 
purpose. This purpose has not been determined yet. We hope that further study 
will provide answers regarding function. One possibility is that the objects are 
tracking devices. This would enable someone or something to find individuals 
anywhere on the globe. Another possibility is that they are behavior-controlling 
devices. I believe a more plausible purpose might be a device for monitoring 
certain pollution levels or even genetic changes in the body. This may be 
similar to the way we monitor our astronauts in space. Only more time, effort, 
and study will answer these questions. 

Many believe that we are on the verge of a great scientific discovery: that 
mankind is actually being tampered with by extraterrestrial intelligences. Also, 
based on the work of Zecharia Sitchen, Allen Alford and others, I personally 
believe that alien intervention in the development of mankind has been going 
on for thousands of years and that man’s consciousness has undergone a 
systematic process of expansion and greater awareness. This in turn gives rise 
to our conscious awareness of the abduction phenomenon. 

—Roger K. Leir 

Incident at Exeter (G.R Putnam’s Sons, 1966). Saturday Review writer John 
G. Fuller wrote a column for that magazine and an article for Look magazine 
about a wave of UFO sightings in New Hampshire. He expanded those articles 
into this book, which is the first to draw a connection between UFOs and 
powerlines, over which the bright balls of red lights were seen hovering, and 
which may have caused a blackout affecting the Northeastern United States. 

—Randall Fitzgerald 

insectoids “Big Bugs” thought to be of alien origin. Generally the form 
resembles a praying mantis that is larger than a man, but variants include 
grasshopper, fly, ant, and caterpillar. Their history is quite unusual and bears 
special interest to those with an interest in the cultural dimension of alien 

Throughout most of history, believers in other worlds have buttressed their 
position with theology. The feeling was other worlds must be populated. God 
would not waste worlds by having them barren of life and people. God 
designed the world for men. Other worlds meant other men. The first important 
challenge to this reasoning appeared in 1742 when David Hume, famous for his 
criticism of the Argument from Design which supported belief in the existence 
of God, warned that life on other worlds would not be copies of ourselves. In a 
fictional dialogue, a character of his named Philo points out that nature is 
diverse for such expectations. 

Pierre Louis Moreau in his Essaie de Cosmologie (1750) soon after 
affirmed, “If such great varieties are observed already among those who 
populated the different climes of the earth, how can one conceive of those who 
live on planets so distant from our own? Their varieties probably exceed the 
scope of our imagination.” The atheistic Baron d’Holbach in La systeme de la 
nature (1770) similarly argued that the different temperatures of other worlds 
meant their inhabitants may not be like us. 

This sensibility did not immediately overturn more stolidly anthropomorphic 
views. Pride of place on the eve of the Darwinian revolution goes to Thomas 
Cullin Simon’s Scientific Certainties of Planetary Life (1855) which asserted 
all planets would share the same vegetable, animal, and intellectual life. 
Charles Darwin’s demolition of the Design argument with his theory of 
evolution by natural selection gave the speculation of non-human life elsewhere 
added force. In 1870, Richard A. Proctor indicated stellar nebulae might be 
inhabited by “their own peculiar forms of life.” In his 1873 work, The 
Borderland of Science, he affirms that if life exists on Mars, “it must differ so 
remarkably from what is known on earth because of its atmosphere.” R. S. Ball 
in Story of the Heavens (1885) indicated life elsewhere should be specially 
adapted to their particular environments: “Life in forms strange and 
weird...stranger than ever Dante described or Dore drew.” 

Camille Flammarion was especially influential with the 1885 edition of The 
Plurality of Inhabited Worlds (1885) when he routed prior thinkers on the 
question for their anthropomorphism. The “planetarians” imagined by 
Huygens, Wolff, Swedenborg, Kant, Locke, and Fourier were only remodeled 
men. Soon after, the idea of silicon-based lifeforms turns up in Astronomie with 
a Dr. Julius Scheiner urging that extraterrestrials may not resemble us. 
Imagination was clearly being set free by the new world-view of the 

It was a cousin of Darwin, Francis Galton, who first introduced the idea of 
alien insects into scientific discourse. While on a dreamy vacation in 1896, he 
was pondering the question of Earth-Mars communication using dot-dash-line 
signals. A fantasy came to him of a mad millionaire on Mars signaling us. A 
clever girl deduces a base-8 code because “the Mars folk are nothing more than 
highly-developed ants, who counted up to 8 by their 6 limbs and two antennae 
as our forefathers counted up to 10 on their fingers.” A couple years later, 
Edward Mason offers a paper proposing life on the planets of other systems 
might be similar to ants and dragonflies. (Crowe, 1999) 

Perhaps the first work of fiction to put Big Bugs on distant planets was John 
Jacob Astor’s A Journey in Other Worlds (1894). It involves a trip to Jupiter 
that is still in the carboniferous stage of evolution. Among the creatures they 
find are dinosaurs, mastodons, giant serpents and flesh-eating ants the size of 
locomotives. Paleontological finds of giant dragonflies and other fossil 
discoveries indicative of giant life earlier in Earth’s history combined with the 
growing popularity of evolutionary thought 

Fred T. Jane’s To Venus in Five Seconds (1897) takes up Francis Gabon’s 
communicative ants and populates Venus with big, brainy bugs. Soon after, the 
Darwinian, H.G. Wells famously imagined a society of insectile Selenites in 
First Men in the Moon (1901). Diverse writers in the pulp era, including leaders 
like E.E. “Doc” Smith, Edgar Rice Burroughs and H.P. Lovecraft, kept the idea 
going during the pulp era among the flood of the Big bug stories up to the start 
of sci-fi’s Golden Age around 1940. John W. Campbell exiled them from 
science fiction because of their scientific implausibility. 

They soon returned in the fifties, as filmmakers grew comfortable with sci-fi 
themes and trick photography. Killers from Space (1954) had aliens hoping to 
destroy humanity with Big Bugs and other giant vermin. The success of the 
giant-ant film Them! (1954) quickly turned Big Bugs into an easy horror cliche. 
There has been a relatively constant stream of insectoid-related films, TV 
shows, comic books, and cultural media ever since. Much of it is considered 
campy by culture vultures and even specialists in horror and science fiction 
rarely discuss it. 

Fictional insectoids in 1937 

While the current philosophy that Nature does indeed waste worlds—an idea 
now amply reinforced by space probes proving the existence of dead worlds— 
is partly responsible for alien insects being a feature of modern Western 
imagination, non-rational aspects also must partly underlie their use. The 
creatures are a way of exploiting people’s fears about bugs, evoking the 
emotions of horror. Obvious enough, it seems, yet this leads us into a deep 

Fear of insects is one of the more common phobias in human psychology, 
though the argument continues about whether this fear is learned or innate. The 
nervous system seems to have a bias in developing fears about spiders; 
arachnophobia is easier to acquire and harder to extinguish than other animal 
phobias. It may be in part be learned in youth when one sees the fear in the 
mother or others; but traits like blackness, similarity to pubic hair, or sheer 
strangeness may act on a more innate level to imprint fear. Whatever the 
ultimate explanation, the fear exists viscerally in many humans and we may 
reasonably expect storytellers to have exploited it for its cringing value 
throughout history. Exaggerating the size of bugs should be a common 

gimmick much as giants and large beasts are a common feature of world 

It should, but in fact the image appears only in modern Western civilization. 
One can spend days looking through texts on mythology and world artwork and 
find only a tiny few ambiguous and isolated specimens analogous to current 
Big Bug fantasies. One hopeful precursor would be the giant spider drawing 
among the Nazca lines etched into the landscape of Peru. Though the image is 
big, what is not known is if the culture actually envisioned the spider as large in 
its myths. Spiders appear on Nazca ceramics, and one seems to represent a 
demon transformed into a large insect that captures a bird. Tarantulas however 
actually have shown the ability to kill birds. The Nazca lines also have giant 
drawings of a spider monkey and bird with no indication of them being thought 
mythically gigantic. 

A compilation of superstitions about animals can be found in Hastings’ 
Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics where it is blatantly obvious that insect 
lore is a small genre compared to that of bears, goats, dogs, cats, and even 
cuckoo birds. We are told the Bushmen worshipped a mantis named Cagn or 
Ikaggen. Caucasians termed the mantis the “Hottentot god.” The Hottentots 
also feared the scarab beetle, and the author notes the existence of a cult of the 
scarab among Egyptians. But if there is any relevance to modern big bug 
fantasies, it has to be faint. May Berenbaum’s discussion of insect art and myth 
is especially recommended as illustrative of the fact that bugs had various 
symbolic properties through the ages, but gigantism never featured in their 
portrayal until recent times. 

Should the scorpion men of the Epic of Gilgamesh be called Big Bugs or 
monstrous men? An 1149 painting of Satan, the Vision of Tundal, makes him 
look almost like a giant centipede, yet the intent was to portray him as a man 
with a thousand hands and fingernails like knights’ lances. A giant Earth spider 
drawn by Hokusai in Japan around 1814 comes as close as anything to being a 
true Big Bug yet I found nothing about the myth it illustrates. An 1846 story by 
Edgar Allan Poe seems possibly relevant, yet it involves an illusion that makes 
a small bug seem large, not a fantasy about a truly monster-sized bug. Even if 
one was in a generous mood to consider these things as somehow relevant, the 
frequency of this imagery before 1890 is orders of magnitude below the rate 
since then. 

Cross-cultural studies do not exist to confirm or deny if arachnophobia is a 
specifically modern phenomenon, but animal phobias demonstrably are 

panhuman and this is probably grounds enough to suspect bug fears pre-date 
the modern era. In the 19 th century, substantial strides were made in sanitation 
that might have enhanced anxieties over the germ-carrying activities of bugs, 
yet pre-moderns surely associated bugs with sickness and death. It would be 
nice if one could blame Big Bugs imagery on the invention of the microscope, 
but that happened three centuries too soon. 

Some Big Bug stories pre-date their use as alien insects. They involve 
tropical origins and origins in biological experiments, areas made familiar by 
the Darwinian revolution. Even after they start populating fictional other 
worlds, these themes of bugs grown large in mad experiments and primitive 
tropical regions —lost jungles, evolutionarily isolated caverns, the inner Earth 
—recur repeatedly. 

The main deduction following these observations is that Big Bug imagery 
did not arise out of pure archetypal psychological processes, but arose as a 
tradition contingent upon historical events. When storytellers create new 
examples they cannot be re inventing the idea wholly by accessing an 
unconscious realm of universal fears. They are building upon prior work. 

The idea of UFOs being populated by bugs is one of the earliest speculations 
of the UFO literature, but evidence for it was indirect and arguably nonexistent. 
For the first couple of decades of the flying saucer era, no accounts exist of 
anyone seeing bugs inside an alien craft. There are a couple of ambiguous 
creatures—a humanoid with compound eyes like a bug and a dream reported to 
Carl Jung—but the first fully realized space bug appears in the mid-1960s. 

The first claimant was Ted Owens and his story of the alien grasshoppers 
Twitter and Tweeter emerged under circumstances that would today be called 
channeling. That would be enough to render it dubious to serious UFOlogists 
and we should add they did not embrace it. The saucer press gave him some 
public exposure and he managed to get an autobiographical account of his 
contact published by Gray Barker’s Saucerian Press. (Owens, 1969) The 
doubtful character of the Owens contact is enhanced by the presence of 
elements that look inspired by the movie First Men in the Moon (1964), a 
gorgeous extravaganza made possible by Ray Harryhausen’s effects artistry. 
Aliens with grasshopper traits appear in abductions with better pedigrees 
sporadically thereafter. (Kottmeyer, 1996) 

The first insectoid said explicitly to resemble a large praying mantis appears 
in a hypnotic regression dated March 14, 1986, in which horror writer Whitley 
Strieber explores a 1967 incident at this grandmother’s house. A praying mantis 

appears in the middle of the living room, scaring the beejeesus out of his son. 
“How can it be so big?” he asks. A few months after Communion was 
published, John Lear issued a statement revealing the “horrible truth” that a 
saucer crash many years ago proved that UFOnauts were ugly little creatures, 
shaped like praying mantises and who were more advanced than us by perhaps 
a billion years. Like a Lovecraft creation, those who learned this firsthand have 
tended to commit suicide, one of those being Defense Secretary James V. 
Forrestal whose records are still sealed. Lear’s statement was one of the more 
widely disseminated pieces of EBE-lore and probably was a major influence in 
people coming forward with their insectoid encounters in the past decade. 
Cases now number in the dozens, a small yet impressive fraction of abduction 
entities reported. The nature of these entities is a matter of interesting debate 
with some thinking them almost godlike in their oversight of humanity. Others 
think they are servants to more imperial minded reptoids. (Kottmeyer, 1999) 

That UFOlogists have dared to allow such campy material to be presented as 
evidence for the reality of aliens is a strange testament to open-mindedness. 
Insectoid accounts will be rejected outright by people with an exposure to 
science-writing. Bugs are small in real life for certain reasons. As they become 
larger, hair-like limbs cannot support the weight of the body. The physical 
material has to be thicker and stronger and placed more directly under the torso. 
Bugs oxygenate their tissues via diffusion of air through small holes in the 
exoskeleton. Beyond a couple of inches, oxygenation of the deeper tissues 
becomes impossible. Bigger bugs need lungs. A more extensive musculature is 
needed with increasing mass, and with it an interior skeleton. The proboscis of 
some bugs is an adaptation to deal with the surface tension of water and would 
be useless for man-sized bugs, yet it has been reported in at least one encounter 

Some will doubtless argue that insectoids must be real and that earlier 
cultural material reflects evidence of veiled encounters now known only 
because UFOlogists use hypnosis to unlock the secret of their presence on 
Earth. The obvious problem is the arrival time. Most UFOlogists assume either 
the aliens arrived in 1947 to check on atomic activity or have been with us 
throughout history. If one picks 1947, why is there is so much Big Bug imagery 
in science fiction before then? If one chooses to believe they have always been 
with us, why is there virtually no Big Bug imagery before 1890? Did insectoids 
have a special fear about the development of Darwinian philosophy that they 
chose then to furtively invade us? 

By failing to reject such reports, UFOlogists grant themselves the same 
dramatic license as creators of horror films and tacitly flaunt abductions as a 
tool to evoke fear, revulsion, and confusion. The claim that abduction 
experiences are immune to psychological insight is only acceptable in the same 
way one might casually lament why so many people go to horror films or how 
anybody could produce such monstrosities. 

The presence of insectoids proves with high probability the fictional 
character of a significant subset of abduction reports. The imagery of the UFO 
phenomenon is distinctly reflective of modern Western culture in this matter. To 
accept their material reality is to play blind to a substantial cultural genealogy 
and their birth on Earth in modern times. 

—Martin S. Kottmeyer 


Berenbaum, May R. Bugs in the System: Insects and Their Impact on Human Affairs (Helix, 1995). 

Bleiler, Everett. Science Fiction—The Early Years (Kent State, 1990). 

Crowe, Michael. The Extraterrestrial Life Debate, 1750-1900 (Dover, 1999). 

Kottmeyer, Martin. “Space Bug a Boo Boo,” Talking Pictures #15 (Summer, 1996). 

Kottmeyer, Martin. “Graying Mantis,” The RE ALL News (May, 1999). 

Owens, Ted. How to Contact Space People (Saucerian, 1969). 

Sullivan, Jack, ed. Penguin Encyclopedia of Horror and the Supernatural (Viking, 1986). 

Intelligent Life in the Universe (Holden-Day, 1966) by LS. Shklovskii and 
Carl Sagan. A Russian and an American astronomer team up in this book to 
voice their suspicion that an advanced civilization may have visited or briefly 
colonized our solar system in ancient times. Shklovskii theorizes that Phobos 
and Deimos, the two moons of Mars, might be artificial satellites, which are 
“mute testaments to an ancient Martian civilization.” Sagan calculates, based 
on Frank Drake’s estimate of technical civilizations existing in our galaxy, that 
each “should be visited by another such civilization about once every thousand 

—Randall Fitzgerald 

Interrupted Journey, The (The Dial Press, 1966). Saturday Review magazine 
columnist John G. Fuller relates the story of a New Hampshire couple who 
underwent regressive hypnosis to uncover memories of their apparent 
abduction by aliens. This case involving Betty and Barney Hill became the first 
alien abduction story to receive widespread publicity, resulting in a 1975 made- 

for-television movie called The UFO Incident , starring James Earl Jones. Their 
experience became the standard by which all later abduction accounts would be 

—Randall Fitzgerald 

interstellar travel A major argument against any UFOs being intelligently 
controlled extraterrestrial spacecraft is that travel between star systems is 
impossible. Other stars are too far away from us; it would take too long to get 
here; it would take too much energy; it always takes less energy to 
communicate than to travel, etc. These arguments are almost never made by 
aeronautical or astronautical engineers, but rather by astronomers and often by 
SET1 specialists trying to justify the use of radiotelescopes to listen for radio 
signals from alien civilizations. 

Some assume that visitors would have to come from another galaxy. Our 
own Milky Way galaxy is about 80,000 light years across, perhaps 15,000 light 
years thick, and contains upwards of 100 billion stars. Why worry about 
another galaxy? There are none closer than about 1 million light years, yet 
within 55 light years of our solar system there are about 1000 stars of which 46 
are very similar to the sun and might well have planets and life. That is to say 
they are not too hot or too cold; too new or too old; don’t have a companion 
star which would make planetary orbits too variable; don’t vary in their energy 
output very much over time, so life would have a chance to develop in fairly 
stable conditions. There are even some planets orbiting nearby sun like stars— 
more than a billion years older than our sun—within possibly habitable zones. 
Civilizations on planets around such stars might have begun their technological 
development a billion years before ours. 

Most arguments against interstellar travel neglect the simple fact that 
technological progress almost always comes from doing things differently in an 
unpredictable way. Fasers aren’t just better light bulbs. Micro-integrated 
circuits are not just better transistors; nuclear fission rockets—many of which 
were successfully operated in the 1960s, at power levels as high as 4.4 billion 
watts—are not just better chemical rockets. In each case different physics are 
involved in the more advanced system. 

Therefore, one might expect better means of long distance communication 
than radio (which might not be observed with radio telescopes) and certainly 
more advanced means of propulsion than the use of modern chemical rockets. 
Detailed studies done almost 40 years ago in industry show that trips to nearby 

stars are feasible with round trip times shorter than the average human life 
span, using staged nuclear fusion rockets. Fusion reactions provide the energy 
of the stars and of hydrogen bombs. Many different fusion reactions are 
available. The most interesting appears to be the use of the Deuterium (heavy 
hydrogen with one neutron and one proton) Helium-3 (light helium with two 
protons and one neutron) reaction. This produces charged particles which 
(unlike neutrons produced in other fusion reactions) can be directed out the 
back end of the rocket with electric and magnetic fields and which have 10 
million times as much energy per particle as can be obtained in a chemical 

Many other schemes have been proposed including space-time warping, 
white holes, the energy of the vacuum, laser propulsion, etc. Of course 
advantage would be taken of the fact that time slows down for things moving at 
close to the speed of light. For example, at 99.99 percent of the speed of light it 
only takes 6 months pilot time to travel a distance of 37 light years. 
Considering that man’s first powered flight took place less than a century ago, 
it would not be surprising if visitors had technology about which we know 

—Stanton T. Friedman 

Into The Fringe: A True Story of Alien Abduction (Berkley Books, 
1992). Texas English professor Karla Turner describes in this book how she 
and relatives and friends experienced a contagion of alien abductions and body 
wounds. Over a 13-month period, at least ten people in Karla’s life reportedly 
experienced the same disturbing pattern of alien intrusions and disturbances. 

—Randall Fitzgerald 

Intruders (Random House, 1987). According to Budd Hopkins, humans are the 
subject of an alien breeding experiment which tracks specific family 
bloodlines. This book chronicles the UFO-related experiences of “Kathie 
Davis” (real name Debra Jordan-Kauble), who has since gained considerable 
notoriety as an abductee thanks to Hopkins. This book along with Whitley 
Strieber’s Communion heralded, or helped initiate, a major wave of abduction 
stories continuing through the remainder of the 20th century. 

—Randall Fitzgerald 

Invaders from Mars (National Pictures/20 th Century-Fox, 1953). A classic 
science fiction film of the Cold War era, starring Helena Carter, Arthur Franz, 

Jimmy Hunt, and Leif Erickson. 

This was one of the first films to portray humans under medical assault by 
aliens and to show the insertion of implants. It could also have influenced the 
famous Barney and Betty Hill case. 

The story involves the takeover of a small town by aliens from a landed 
flying saucer. The events are seen through the eyes of a boy whose parents are 
also victimized by the aliens and put under a form of mind control— 
accomplished through the use of small devices implanted surgically into the 
victims’ bodies. 

Clute and Nicholls comment (in their Encyclopedia of Science Fiction) that 
the film produces: “...a powerful metaphor for the loneliness and alienation of a 
child whose world seems subtly wrong. The image of human bodies concealing 
incomprehensible and menacing alien motives was, in its paranoia, an 
important one in US sci-fi cinema, especially during the 1950s Communist-spy 

—Martin S. Kottmeyer 
& Ronald D. Story 


Clute, John, and Nicholls, Peter. The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction (St. Martin’s Griffin, 1993; 1995). 
Warren, Bill. Keep Watching the Skies, Vol. 1 (McFarland, 1982). 

Invasion of the Body Snatchers (Republic Pictures, 1956; directed by Don 
Siegel.) A classic alien invasion film of the Cold War era, starring Kevin 
McCarthy, Dana Wynter, and Carolyn Jones; based on a story by Jack Finney. 

The film portrays the aliens as interstellar parasites who create replicas of 
human individuals, thus assuming their identities and taking over their minds as 
well as their bodies. The aliens themselves are spawned as giant seed pods that 
float through space until encountering a host planet. Each pod serves as a 
“blank” to be filled in by the human form. The conversion process takes place 
while the victim sleeps—a parallel feature of modern UFO-abduction lore. 
Upon awakening, the new “pod person” is without human feeling or 
individuality. He or she becomes an emotionless “clone” only appearing like a 
human being on the surface. 

The film exploits the venerable mythic theme of the doppelganger—more 
commonly termed the “evil twin”—in the service of exploring the horror of 
dehumanization. Pods come down from space and replace people with 

duplicates that take the body and memories, but are subtly different. The “pod 
people” are vegetable in their essence and cannot take in the animal vitality of 
humanity: their emotions, desires, and love. As they quickly spread and 
threaten to overtake all the friends and neighbors of the central character, there 
is a confrontation in which the pod people make their case that life is so much 
simpler as a vegetable. Love does not last and there is no pain. 

In interviews, Siegel explains his attraction to the story as due to his 
knowing people who gave into the seduction of settling for contentment and 
turning off their passions, unaware that the trade-off is a living death. The 
allegory of the pod people is thus a timeless morality story sure to be retold 
over the years, as partly illustrated by the 1978 remake by Philip Kaufman. 

—Martin S. Kottmeyer 
& Ronald D. Story 


Finney, Jack. Invasion of the Body Snatchers (Dell Books, 1954, 1955, 1978). 

Clute, John, and Nicholls, Peter. The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction (St. Martin’s/Griffin, 1993; 1995). 
Siegel on “Invasion of the Body Snatcher,s” Cinefantastique (Winter, 1973). 

Invisible College, The (E.P. Dutton, 1975). Jacques Vallee proposes that a 
control system for human consciousness connected to the UFO phenomenon is 
being explored in secret by a group of scientists. This control system, which the 
author believes has influenced humankind since the dawn of history, originates 
either within the collective human consciousness or as a direct consequence of 
extraterrestrial intervention. 

—Randall Fitzgerald 

Invisible Residents (Thomas Y. Crowell, 1970). Ivan T. Sanderson tries to 
draw connections between UFO sightings and the disappearance of ships and 
planes. He claims to have plotted these sightings and disappearances on maps 
and found ten vortices around the planet which are used by UFOs to distort 
space and time and cause ships, planes, and people to disappear without a trace. 

—Randall Fitzgerald 

Is Another World Watching? (Carroll & Nicholson/Harper and Brothers, 
1950; Bantam Books, 1951). Subtitled: The Riddle of the Flying Saucers, this 
was the first book on the topic of flying saucers to be published in the U.K. and 

the second (following Key-hoe’s The Flying Saucers are Real) in the U.S. 

Variety columnist Gerald Heard tries to make a case that 2-inch long bees 
from Mars are buzzing Earth in saucers to show their displeasure about our 
atomic weapons. He urges Earth scientists to establish diplomatic relations with 
our own planet’s bees and to use them as intermediaries when and if the more 
advanced Martian bees decide to “swarm upon us.” 

—Randall Fitzgerald 

Is Anyone Out There? (Delacorte Press, 1992). Astronomer Frank Drake and 
science writer Dava Sobel believe humankind will receive radio signals but 
never actual physical visits from other intelligent life in the universe. Perhaps 
the most unexpected benefit of deciphering these signals, “bequeathing to us 
vast libraries of useful information,” will be the secret of immortality, 
delivering unto us “the grand instruction book telling creatures how to live 
forever.” (Does this not sound a little like the legend of the Holy Grail?) 

—Randall Fitzgerald 


J. Allen Hynek Center for UFO Studies Known as CUFOS, the J. Allen 
Hynek Center for UFO Studies was founded in 1973 by Dr. J. Allen Hynek, 
former chief scientific advisor to the U.S. Air Force Project Blue Book. 
CUFOS is not a membership organization, but instead is composed of 
volunteers, including scientists, academics, investigators, and members of the 
public, all dedicated to the continuing serious examination and analysis of the 
UFO phenomenon. It is supported entirely through public donations and 

The organization has several goals. The first is to be an archive for UFO 
reports and literature. CUFOS maintains the largest collection of case files in 
the world, including the files of NICAP, Blue Book, and its own report files. 
CUFOS also investigates the most scientifically-promising cases it receives. 
Second, it promotes the general public understanding of the UFO phenomenon 
through its publishing program. This includes the quarterly International UFO 
Reporter, special monographs and other documents, and the Journal of UFO 
Studies, the only peer-reviewed journal devoted solely to the study of UFOs. 
Third, CUFOS conducts various research projects and assists the research of 
others. For example, CUFOS researchers have been involved in investigating 
the Roswell incident, the psychological characteristics of abductees, physical 
traces left by UFOs, and the history of government involvement in UFO 

2457 W. Peterson Ave. Chicago, IL 60659 
U.S. A. 

David M. (b. 1942). David M. Jacobs is Associate Professor of 
History at Temple University, specializing in twentieth century American 
history and culture. Dr. Jacobs began researching the controversy over 
unidentified flying objects in America in the mid-1960s, and has amassed over 




35 years of primary research data and analytical hypotheses on the subject. 

David Jacobs 

In 1973 Jacobs completed his doctoral dissertation in the field of intellectual 
history at the University of Wisconsin-Madison on the controversy over 
unidentified flying objects in America. This was only the second Ph.D. degree 
granted involving a UFO-related theme. A revised version of his dissertation 
was published by Indiana University Press as The UFO Controversy in America 

Since 1973 Dr. Jacobs has continued to devote most of his professional and 
personal energies to researching the UFO phenomenon in general, and the 
abduction phenomenon in particular. Having conducted over 750 hypnotic 
regressions with over 125 abductees, Dr. Jacobs is one of the foremost UFO 
abduction researchers in the world. 

The results of his studies are reported in two books: Secret Life (1992) and 
The Threat (1998). Jacobs is also the founder and director of a research 
organization known as ICAR: The International Center for Abduction 


Department of Histoiy 
Temple University 
Philadelphia, PA 19122 



Web site: 

POSITION STATEMENT: Having studied the UFO and abduction phenomenon 
since the mid-1960s, I have gone through different phases of enthusiasm for it. 
At first I was thrilled with the idea that it might mean extraterrestrial contact. 
Eventually I was challenged by the difficulty of proving not only that contention 
but also of demonstrating the subject’s importance to the scientific community. 
By the early 1970s, the difficulty of understanding the origins and motivations of 
the UFOs provided me with almost insurmountable intellectual demands. 

My interest in the abduction phenomenon came in 1982 with my 
introduction to Budd Hopkins and his work. In 1986 I began my own hypnosis 
of abductees. After investigating hundreds of abduction events, I have come to 
understand, at least partially, the nature of this phenomenon. What I have found 
has been unsettling. As a result of my own studies and of the research of other 
abduction researchers, I have begun to grasp alien motivations, purposes, and 
goals. The consequences have been that I have come to fear this clandestine 
program of physiological exploitation by one species of another for an alien 
agenda. I dislike what the phenomenon does to the lives of individual 
abductees, and I like even less the changes that the abductors intend for the 
society in which the abductees live. 

I fully understand the fringe position that I occupy within UFO research 
community, but I have, unfortunately, not found an alternative theory to 
account for the data. 

The intellectual challenges that faced me in the past have now changed 
drastically. I confront the subject with dread. Studying its motivations results in 
my anxiety. I find myself in the position of having spent my entire adult life 
studying a phenomenon that I have come to abhor. I desperately wish I could 
say otherwise. 

—David M. Jacobs 

JAL Flight #1628 Alaska sighting November 17, 1986: Japanese Airlines pilot 
Kenju Terauchi was on a routine cargo flight from Iceland to Anchorage, 
Alaska, when he and his two crewmen saw the lights of three mysterious 
“craft” following his jet. One of the walnut-shaped objects appeared 
enourmous, dwarfing his Boeing 747, while the other two were smaller. 

The objects, each of which appeared to have two panels of lights, darted 
quickly and occasionally stopped suddenly—once appearing in front of the 
cockpit. They instantly disappeared and reappeared, according to the 47-year- 
old pilot. 

Terauchi said he briefly glimpsed the largest object in silhouette eight miles 
away. “It was a very big one—two times bigger than an aircraft carrier,” he 
said. He tried to shake the objects with evasive maneuvers, but said they 
followed his plane for 400 miles. 

The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration and U.S. Air Force said a large 
object appeared on air traffic controllers’ radar screens. FAA flight control 
reports indicated that the object stayed with Flight 1628 for at least 32 minutes. 
The flight controller directing the Japanese plane reported the object on his 
radar as close as five miles to the jet. 

When the recorded radar transmission was replayed later, however, there 
was no image except for the JAL cargo plane. Anchorage FAA spokesman Paul 
Steuche said it was possible the signal from the UFO was strong enough to be 
picked up at the time, but not strong enough to register on the radar recording 

Subsequent FAA examination of the tapes showed what appeared to be a 
second object near JAL Flight 1628, but investigators now think it may have 
been a double image from the 747. FAA investigators who questioned the crew 
in Anchorage concluded they were “normal, professional, rational and had no 
drug or alcohol involvement.” 

Captain Terauchi reported sighting unusual lights again on the morning of 
January 11, 1987, while on a flight from London to a refueling stop in 
Anchorage. “After landing at Anchorage I checked the map,” he said, “and 
concluded it was a light of a town or village” reflected off ice crystals. The first 
one “was a real UFO,” Terauchi added, noting that crew members (copilot 
Takanori Tamefuji and flight engineer Yoshio Tsukuba) also saw it. 

—Coral E. Lorenzen 


APRO Bulletin, The. “Giant UFO Shadows 747” (April, 1987). 

Maccabee, Bruce. “The Fantastic Flight of JAL 1628,” International UFO Reporter (March-April, 1987). 

Jessup, Morris K. (1900-1959). An American astronomer who championed 
the unorthodox, Jessup was the author of several pioneering books on the UFO 

phenomenon, the first of which (The Case for the UFO , 1955) became famous 
in connection with the Allende Letters episode. At the age of fifty-nine (on 
April 20, 1959), he committed suicide in Dade County, Florida, under 
circumstances thought by some UFO specialists to be “suspicious.” 

Jessup was born on a farm near Rockville, Indiana, on March 2, 1900. He 
grew up with an intense interest in astronomy, which he pursued at the 
University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, where, after receiving a B.S. degree, he 
served as assistant in astronomy (in 1925), instructor in astronomy (1925-26) 
and member of the University of Michigan’s expedition to Mexico (in 1926). 

Morris K. Jessup 

While working as an observer at the Lamont-Hussey Observatory associated 
with the university (1926-30), Jessup received a Master of Science degree (in 
1926) and began a doctoral dissertation. University records show that he 
stopped his Ph.D. work in the spring of 1931 without receiving the degree. 
Reportedly, he worked later at Drake University but no records of his 
employment can be found there. 

Until he became interested in UFOs, in the mid-1950s, little is known of 
Jessup’s life after leaving the University of Michigan. He was a photographer 
on a U. S. Department of Argiculture expedition up the Amazon investigating 
rubber cultivation, and he was reportedly in South Africa in charge of an 
observatory mapping southern stars. Some tales place him in the Andes, 
investigating Inca ruins, and in Mexico in the early 1950s, charting alien 

He is the author of four books: The Case for the UFO (1955), UFO and the 

Bible (1956), The UFO Annual (1956), and The Expanding Case for the UFO 

In April 1959 he committed suicide by placing a hose from the exhaust pipe 
of his station wagon into the car, while parked in a public park. Some UFO 
buffs suggest he was murdered to silence some secret knowledge connected 
with the Bermuda Triangle or the “Philadelphia Experiment,” but evidently he 
was a deeply troubled man who had been discussing suicide for several months. 

—James E. Oberg 

POSITION STATEMENT: The subject of UFOs in its present stage is like 
astronomy in that it is a purely observational “science,” not an experimental one; 
necessarily, therefore, it must be based on observation and not on experiment. 
Observation, in this case, consists of everything which can be found to have 
bearing on the subject. There are thousands of references to it in ancient 
literature, but the authors did not know that their references had any bearing, for 
the subject did not then exist. The writers were recording such things as met 
their senses solely through an honest effort to report inexplicable observational 

Some of my contemporaries have attempted to prove that all of these 
phenomena are, in some way or other, illusory, and that in any case they do not 
involve flight, wingless or otherwise, mechanical propulsion or intelligent 

I consider their negative case unproven because there is an overwhelming 
mass of authentic evidence which can be cited as: (1) direct observation, (2) 
indirect observation, and (3) supporting evidence or indication. 

There is one sphere of indirect evidence in the form of events of a 
mysterious nature which have never been explained. These things would be 
easy to explain were we to admit the limitations of our own knowledge, and the 
possibility of “intelligence” elsewhere in the universe operating spaceships-and 
quite possibly more than one kind of “intelligence” and more than one kind of 

This world is full of unexplained oddities. The legends of Atlantis and Mu 
have been favorite targets of the scoffers. They say there are no ghosts, no 
spirits, nothing falls from the sky but iron and stone meteorites. But for 
centuries the Earth was believed to be flat, there was no America, no 
heliocentric system of Earth and planets, no fossil dinosaurs; yet we now know 
these beliefs to have been wrong. 

Reliable people have been seeing the phenomena known as flying saucers 
for a thousand years and more. There are good reports as far back as 1500 b.c. 
and before. Thousands of people have seen some kind of navigable 
contraptions in the sky, and some have sworn it under oath. 

1 cannot agree with any astronomer who insists that all of these things are 
mirages, planets, clouds, or illusions. The majority of the people are articulate 
enough to tell their stories and sincere enough to make depositions before 
notaries public. Even scientists concede that these folk saw something. 

—Morris K. Jessup 

(Position statement was adapted from the Preface of Jessup’s book, The Case for 
the UFO , 1955.) 

Jesus as an extraterrestrial Although the concept of Jesus as an 
extraterrestrial will be shocking and iconoclastic to some, such an interpretation 
is inescapable. 

Copyright © 2001 by Monarca Lynn Me rifle Id 

Painting by Monarca Lynn Merrifield 

The idea has received serious attention from Morris K. Jessup, Brinsley LePoer 
Trench, W. Raymond Drake, Paul Thomas, Barry H. Downing, R.L. Dione, 
Gerhard R. Steinhauser, and others. Steinhauser devoted an entire book to the 
subject entitled Jesus Christ—Heir to the Astronauts (1974). More recently, 
Rael, founder and leader of the 50,000-member Raelian religion, claimed special 
knowledge—direct from the Elohim—that this is true. (Rael, 1998). And in this 
writer’s view, Jesus of Nazareth is indeed the extraterrestrial par excellence. 

That Jesus was an extraterrestrial is first of all true by definition. Doesn’t 
extraterrestrial mean “not of this Earth”? That Jesus came from another world, 

performed miracles—which today would be associated with advanced 
technology—and then returned to “heaven” is all part of the Holy Gospel. 

Therefore, Jesus is de facto an extraterrestrial. Celestial wonders 
accompanied his birth, many aspects of his life, his death, and resurrection are 
not dissimilar to events associated today with UFO-related phenomena. In 
addition to his own words (attributed to Jesus in the New Testament), the 
evidence includes: 

• His miraculous virgin birth, which some UFOlogists attribute to genetic 

• The star of Bethlehem, which hovered over his birthplace like a modern- 
day flying saucer 

• Voices from the sky affirming his otherworldly and superior nature 

• His association with angels, who could also be considered de facto 

• The transfiguration, during which he appeared as a being composed of 
brilliant white light 

• The resurrection, during which he walked through the walls of his tomb 

• The ascension, in which he rose into the sky inside a “bright cloud” 

• Sacred religious paintings (or icons) seemingly depicting Jesus in flight 

Let us consider each item in more detail. 

The Virgin Birth 

The circumstances surrounding the birth of Jesus are full of hints that 
something miraculous occurred. A “star” miraculously appears in the sky to 
herald the birth of the God-Man. 

Was the Star of Bethlehem a UFO? Illustration by Gustave Dore 

Brinsley LePoer Trench, the late Earl of Clancarty, was one of the first to 
suggest that Jesus was an alien hybrid: “Etheric Galactic reproduction proceeds 
through juggling the chromosomes and genes already there to produce the 
desired effect. Gabriel could have fathered Jesus only without actual 
intercourse with Mary, because he was a Galactic.” (Trench, 1960) 

Again we have a de facto case of something that is true by definition. If we 
accept the tenets of Christianity, then we accept that Jesus was both the Son of 
Man and the Son of God—not a mortal human, but a God-Man—a hybrid, in 
other words. From the perspective of modern science, we can now postulate 
that some form of genetic engineering may have taken place. 

The Star OF Bethlehem 

It is more than curious that a bright light or “star” hovered over the 
birthplace of Jesus at just the right time and place. 

Here are the relevant passages from Matthew 2:1-10: 

Now when the birth of Jesus took place in Bethlehem of Judaea, in the 
days of Herod the king, there came wise men from the east to Jerusalem, 
Saying, Where is the King of the Jews whose birth has now taken place? 
We have seen his star in the east and have come to give him worship. 

And when it came to the ears of Herod the king, he was troubled, and all 
Jerusalem with him. 

And he got together all the chief priests and scribes of the people, 
questioning them as to where the birthplace of the Christ would be. 

And they said to him, In Bethlehem of Judaea; for so it is said in the 
writings of the prophet, 

You Bethlehem, in the land of Judah, are not the least among the chiefs 
of Judah: out of you will come a ruler, who will be the keeper of my people 

Then Herod sent for the wise men privately, and put questions to them 
about what time the star had been seen. 

And he sent them to Bethlehem and said, Go and make certain where the 
young child is; and when you have seen him, let me have news of it, so that 
I may come and give him worship. 

And after hearing the king, they went on their way; and the star which 
they saw in the east went before them, till it came to rest over the place 
where the young child was. 

And when they saw the star they were full of joy. 

It is universally agreed—by astronomers and space-god proponents alike— 
that the so-called “Star of Bethlehem” was not a star. As pointed out by R.L. 
Dione, if “ appeared only over Bethlehem...” it “...would have had to be 
very close to the earth.” (Dione, 1974) Furthermore, the “star” was apparently 
leading the Magi until it stopped over the birthplace of Jesus. Celestial objects 
that are millions of miles or light years away do not behave in that manner. 

It is also a fact that the “Star of Bethlehem” has never been definitively 
identified by astronomers even with the assistance of powerful computers that 
have calculated every instance of known objects such as comets, planets, and 
supernovae. Some guesses have been made, but no one has ever truly 
established just exactly what the Star of Bethlehem really was. Again, we have 
a case in which it is true by definition that the Star of Bethlehem was an 
unidentified flying object. 

The Baptism 

Throughout the New Testament, Jesus is affirmed by voices from the sky 
which some UFOlogists associate with some kind of loud-speaker system 
emanating from hovering space craft. 

A case in point occurs at the baptism of Jesus: 

Then Jesus came from Galilee to John at the Jordan, to be given baptism 
by him. 

But John would have kept him back, saying, It is I who have need of 
baptism from you, and do you come to me? 

But Jesus made answer, saying to him, Let it be so now: because so it is 
right for us to make righteousness complete. Then he gave him baptism. 

And Jesus, having been given baptism, straight away went up from the 
water; and, the heavens opening, he saw the Spirit of God coming down on 
him as a dove; 

And a voice came out of heaven, saying, This is my dearly loved Son, 
with whom I am well pleased. (Matthew 3:13-17) 

Angels as Aliens 

Consider this passage from Luke 2:9: “And an angel of the Lord came to 
them, and the glory of the Lord was shining round about them: and fear came 
on them.” 

This eleventh-century French cloisoose angel is not entirely unlike some aliens that are reported 
today. Even a possible “space helmet” seems to be in evidence. 

The Bible is full of references to Jesus in the company of angels who are in 
turn associated with bright lights. References to angels constitute the full range 
of anomalies that we have come to associate with UFOs and their occupants. 

As Jessup reminds us: “The theme of bright lights as connected with UFO 
activity and the appearance of paranormal entities runs profusely through the 
Bible and Apocryphal books. God, Angels, Messengers, Voices, appeared as, 
in, or with brilliant lights.” (UFO and the Bible, p. 32) 

In his book, The Sky People (1960), Trench quotes a statement of Jesus from 
Mark 26-7: 

And then shall they see the Son of Man coming in the clouds with a 
great power and glory. 

And then shall he send his angels, and shall gather together his elect 
from the four winds, from the uttermost parts of the earth to the uttermost 
part of heaven. 

Could the “bright cloud” have been a UFO and “Heaven” the planet from 
which Jesus came? 

The Transfiguration 

The transfiguration of Jesus—in which his appearance became glorified in a 
display of radiant luminosity—took place probably on either Mt. Tabor or Mt. 

According to the Bible: 

And after six days Jesus takes with him Peter, and James, and John, his 
brother, and makes them go up with him into a high mountain by 

And he was changed in form before them; and his face was shining like 
the sun, and his clothing became white as light. 

And Moses and Elijah came before their eyes, talking with him. 

And Peter made answer and said to Jesus, Lord, it is good for us to be 
here: if you will let me, I will make here three tents, one for you, and one 
for Moses, and one for Elijah. 

While he was still talking, a bright cloud came over them: and a voice 
out of the cloud, saying, This is my dearly loved Son, with whom I am well 
pleased; give ear to him. 

And at these words the disciples went down on their faces in great fear. 

And Jesus came and put his hand on them and said, Get up and have no